A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BALBY, with Hexthorp, a township and ecclesiastical parish, in the parish, union, and soke of Doncaster, W. riding of York, 1½ mile (S. S. W.) from Doncaster; containing 486 inhabitants. It lies on the east side of the river Don, on the roads from Doncaster to Rotherham and Worksop; and comprises 1420 acres, whereof 640 are the property of the corporation of Doncaster, who are lords of the manor. There are a brewery and some tanneries. The parish was formed in August, 1846, under the act 6 and 7 Victoria, cap. 37. The church, the site for which, and for some schools, was given by the corporation, was built by subscription, in 1847; and the living has been endowed with £150 per annum by Miss Elizabeth Goodman Banks, of St. Catherine's, in whom the patronage is vested. The first meetings of the Society of Friends, under their founder George Fox, were held at Balby and the neighbouring village of Warmsworth.
Balcomb (St. Mary)
BALCOMB (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Cuckfield, partly in the hundred of Street, but chiefly in the hundred of Buttinghill, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 4 miles (N.) from Cuckfield; containing 1542 inhabitants. It comprises about 4170 acres; and is intersected by the London and Brighton railway, which here passes through its principal tunnel, the construction of which was attended with much difficulty on account of the extraordinary swelling of the earth when exposed to the air. Midway between Balcomb and Cuckfield, the line is carried over the river Ouse by a viaduct 462 yards in length and 60 yards high, which rests on 37 arches. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 18. 6½., and in the gift of the family of Bethune: the tithes have been commuted for £450, and the glebe comprises 70 acres. About a quarter of a mile from the church is a spring, the water of which is similar in its properties to the Tonbridge waters.
BALDERSBY, a township, in the parish of Topcliffe, wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York, 5¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Ripon; containing 296 inhabitants. This place is on the road from Thirsk to Ripon, and comprises by computation 1600 acres; the river Swale passes on the east, and on the west is the great Roman road now called Leeming-Lane.
BALDERSTON, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Blackburn, on the road between Whalley and Preston; containing 585 inhabitants. The manor was possessed by the Balderstons, by two coheiresses of whom it was brought, in moieties, to the Harringtons and Talbots. A portion subsequently passed to the Dudley family; and after the execution of the celebrated Sir Edmund Dudley for high treason, an inquisition was taken, 1st Henry VIII., when it was found that the manor was an escheat to the crown. The property was afterwards possessed by Mr. Cross, who, some years since, sold it to Joseph Feilden, Esq. The township comprises 1704a. 1r. 3p., of which 141 acres are woodland and plantation, and the remainder arable and pasture; the soil is a stiff clay, and the scenery beautiful, with extensive views. The river Ribble forms the northern boundary for more than a mile and a half. Part of the ecclesiastical district of Mellor-Brook is within the chapelry. The living of Balderston is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Vicar of Blackburn, with an income of £118: the chapel is dedicated to St. Leonard. There is a national school for the poor.
Balderton (St. Giles)
BALDERTON (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Newark, S. division of the wapentake of Newark and of the county of Nottingham, 2 miles (S. E.) from Newark; containing 899 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3600 acres of land, with a clayey and sandy soil, and of which the Duke of Newcastle is one of the chief proprietors: the village consists of several well-built and substantial houses, and the surrounding scenery is agreeably diversified. The living is a vicarage, annexed to that of Farndon: the glebe comprises about 33 acres. The church is a very handsome edifice, principally in the later English style, with a lofty spire, and has a richly-ornamented Norman porch of exceeding beauty and in good preservation. A school has been endowed by William Alvey, with a rent-charge of £18.
BALDHU, an ecclesiastical parish, in the parishes of Kenwyn and Kea, union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 3½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Truro. This place derives its name from Bal-mine-dhu, or rather diu, black; it is about three miles in length and two and a half in breadth, and of hilly and barren surface. The Carnon river forms its boundary on the south, and the Truro and Redruth road on the north; the Cornwall railway passes nearly along its boundary on the east. Several mines are wrought, the chief produce of which is black-jack and black tin. The "Old Men's Workings" consist of gigantic excavations in the Elvan rock, open to the sun, in some places more than 150 feet deep, and extending a distance of a mile and upwards: they are probably among the original mines of the county, and are not now wrought. There are also several smelting-houses. The parish was formed in 1847, under the act 6 and 7 Victoria, cap. 37; the living is in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Exeter alternately, and has an income of £150. The church was erected in 1847-8, at a cost of £1800, of which sum the Earl of Falmouth, who had the first presentation, contributed £1000; the Incorporated Society, £200; the Diocesan Society, £250; and the Church Commissioners, £260.
Baldock (St. Mary)
BALDOCK (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the union of Hitchin, hundred of Broadwater, county of Hertford, 18 miles (N. by W.) from Hertford, and 37 (N. by W.) from London; containing 1807 inhabitants. This place, in the reign of Stephen, belonged to the Knights Templars, to whom Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke, had given the site. In a charter of confirmation granted by his descendant William, the place is termed Baudoc, of which the present name is a variation; though some antiquaries derive it from Balbec, supposing the town to have been so called by the Templars, in memory of the city of that name in Syria, from which their order had been expelled by the Saracens. The town is situated near the intersection of the great north road and the Roman Ikeneld-street, between two hills which command an extensive view of a fine open country; and consists principally of one street: the houses are mostly ancient, but interspersed with several of modern erection, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. A horticultural society, patronised by the nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood, was established in 1825.
The trade is principally in malt, the land in the vicinity being highly favourable to the growth of barley: the fens and marsh land near the town form an extensive grazing district, and cheese of a peculiar quality is made here; there is also a very large brewery. The general market, which was on Saturday, has been discontinued; and a market exclusively for the sale of straw-plat is now held on Friday. The fairs are on the festivals of St. James, St. Andrew, and St. Matthew, each continuing two days; at the last a great quantity of cheese is sold. The county magistrates hold a pettysession here on the first Monday in every month. The parish comprises about 150 acres of land, the soil of which is in general chalky. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 8. 9., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £126. The church, erected by the Knights Templars, and nearly all rebuilt in the early part of the fifteenth century, is a spacious structure, partly Norman, and partly in the later English style, with an octagonal steeple built a few years ago; and contains a finely carved oak screen, part of the ancient rood-loft, and a very curious font. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans; and almshouses for twelve aged widows, founded and endowed in 1621, by Mr. John Winne. In cutting through Baldock hill, to form a new turnpike-road, a great number of fossils, consisting of cornua ammonis, sharks' teeth, &c. was discovered.
Baldon, Marsh (St. Peter)
BALDON, MARSH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Abingdon, hundred of Bullington, county of Oxford, 6 miles (S. E. by S.) from Oxford; containing 360 inhabitants, and comprising 804 acres. This parish, originally called Meres or Mars and ultimately MarshBaldon, derives its distinguishing name from one De la Mare, a descendant of whom was patron of the living in 1381. In 1836, an act was obtained for dividing and allotting lands in the parishes of Marsh-Baldon and TootBaldon. The benefice is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £93; patron, Sir H. P. Willoughby, Bart. The church has a highly picturesque tower, mantled with ivy: over the communion table is a painting of the Salutation, presented by the late Sir Christopher Willoughby. Dr. John Bridges, Bishop of Oxford, who died in 1618, was buried here.
Baldon, Toot (St. Lawrence)
BALDON, TOOT (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Abingdon, hundred of Bullington, county of Oxford, 5¼ miles (S. E.) from Oxford; containing 269 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book, is called Baudindon; and was afterwards named Toot Balden or Baldon, probably from one Le Tote, a landed proprietor, to distinguish it from the adjoining parish of Marsh-Baldon. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the gift of Sir H. P. Willoughby: the vicar receives £5. 5. per annum in lieu of tithes, and the interest of £502 raised by private subscription about forty years since.
Bale, or Baithley (All Saints)
BALE, or BAITHLEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of Holt, W. division of Norfolk, 16 miles (N.) from East Dereham; containing 229 inhabitants. It comprises 1041a. 2r. 38p., of which 824 acres are arable, 100 pasture, and 73 woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Gunthorpe, and valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 4.: the tithes have been commuted for £305, and there are 21 acres of glebe. The church is in the decorated and later English styles. Here was anciently a chapel dedicated to St. Botolph.
Balham-Hill.—See Tooting, Upper.
BALK, a township, in the parish of Kirby-Knole, union of Thirsk, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 3¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Thirsk; containing 89 inhabitants. It comprises about 780 acres, chiefly the property of Viscount Downe.
BALKHOLME, a township, in the parish and union of Howden, wapentake of Howdenshire, E. riding of York, 3 miles (E.) from Howden; comprising by computation 550 acres, and containing 165 inhabitants. It is on the road from Howden to North Cave; and the river Ouse passes not far distant on the south.
BALLAM, a hamlet, in the township of Westby with Plumptons, parish of Kirkham, union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Kirkham; containing 60 inhabitants. It lies on the road from Westby to Lytham, and is divided into Higher and Lower Ballam.
BALLIDON, a chapelry, in the parish of Bradborne, hundred of Wirksworth, S. division of the county of Derby, 5¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Ashbourn; containing 92 inhabitants. At the time of the Domesday survey the manor belonged to Ralph Fitzhubert, and for some generations afterwards was held by the family of Herthill, whose heiress brought it to the Cokaines in the 15th century. In the reign of Elizabeth it was sold to Sir Anthony Ashley, and subsequently came to other families, among whom were the Boothbys, and the Murrays, earls of Mansfield. The chapel is very ancient, and contains a curious font.
BALLINGDON, a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, ½ a mile (S. W. by W.) from Sudbury; containing 843 inhabitants. After the decay of the parochial church, the village of Ballingdon, which had been previously only a chapelry in the parish of Brundon, became the head of the parish. The soil in some parts is a stiffish clay, retaining moisture, and in others a sandy loam, forming some of the best arable land in the district. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the family of Windham. The inhabitants resort to the church of All Saints, Sudbury, and contribute towards the church-rate of that parish.
Ballingham (St. Dubritius)
BALLINGHAM (St. Dubritius), a parish, in the union of Ross, Upper division of the hundred of Wormelow, county of Hereford, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Ross; containing 149 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the right bank of the Wye, that river surrounding it on all sides except the west: it comprises 840 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £165; patron and impropriator, Sir E. F. S. Stanhope, Bart. The tithes have been commuted for £177. 10.
BALLS-POND, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Islington, Finsbury division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 2 miles (N.) from London. This populous suburb of the metropolis is of modern origin, and consists principally of uniform ranges of houses. A very large open area, surrounded by a wall and cattle-shed, with a handsome entrance, was formed for a market-place, intended to supersede the celebrated market in Smithfield; and an act for opening it as a general cattle-market was procured by its enterprising proprietor, Mr. Perkins; but it was soon after closed from want of business, and no cattle have been sold there for some years. A church dedicated to St. Paul was erected in 1827, at an expense of £10,947; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a low square tower embattled and crowned with pinnacles. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £335; patron, the Vicar of Islington. The Independents have a place of worship, and there are almshouses belonging to the London Benefit Societies, the Tilers' and Bricklayers' Company, the Cutlers' Company, and the Dyers' Company. Samuel Rogers, the eminent poet, was born in that part of Newington green which is within the district.
BALNE, a township, in the parish of Snaith, Lower division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 5¼ miles (S. W. by W.) from Snaith; containing 341 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 2750 acres, of which about 115 are woodland; the soil is chiefly of a sandy nature. The village, which is scattered, lies to the south of the Knottingley and Goole canal. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have each a place of worship.
BALSALL, a chapelry, in the parish of Hamptonin-Arden, union of Solihull, Solihull division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 4½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Solihull; containing 1160 inhabitants. It comprises 4824 acres; and is partly bounded on the west by the river Blythe, and skirted on the east by the road between Kenilworth and Coleshill. The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, was originally the church of a preceptory founded here by the Knights Templars, to whom Roger de Mowbray had given the lordship: it was repaired in 1823, at a cost of £979. The living is a perpetual curacy; patrons, the Governors of Balsall Hospital, in whom the impropriation is also vested. Lady Katherine Leveson, in 1670, devised the manor for the erection and endowment of an hospital for twenty women. The hospital was incorporated in the first year of the reign of Queen Anne, and eleven trustees were appointed, with power to enlarge the buildings and increase the number of inmates, which now amounts to thirty; exclusively of whom, the establishment comprises a master, under-master, apothecary, matron, and nurse. The annual receipts are about £1500, of which the master, in addition to his stipend, receives £50 as perpetual curate of Balsall; a sum of £50 is also paid to the vicar of Long Itchington.
BALSCOT, a chapelry, in the parish of Wroxton, union of Banbury, hundred of Bloxham, county of Oxford, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Banbury; containing 199 inhabitants. The village contains some interesting remains of ancient domestic architecture. The chapel is a small but neat edifice in the decorated English style, with a tower of remarkably graceful proportions on the south side of the building: the font is Norman. Until 1821, the dead were interred at Wroxton; but on the 28th of August in that year the chapelyard here was consecrated.
Balsham (Holy Trinity)
BALSHAM (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Linton, hundred of Radfield, county of Cambridge, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Linton; containing 1271 inhabitants. It comprises about 4500 acres, the soil consisting principally of clay and chalk. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £39. 16. 8.; net income, £1104; patrons, the Governors of the Charter house, London. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1801. A little westward from the village are Gogmagog hills, on the summit of which are remains of a circular camp with a double rampart, supposed to be British. The ancient trench called Fleam-Dyke commences in the vicinity. Hugh de Balsham, founder of Peter-house College, Cambridge, was born and is interred here; and Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charter house, resided at the place.
BALTERLEY, a township, in the parish of Barthomley, union of Newcastle-under-Lyme, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 6½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Newcastle; containing 316 inhabitants. This is the only part of the parish lying in Staffordshire, the remainder being in the county of Chester. The township comprises 800 acres, and the tithes have been commuted for £134.
Baltonsborough (St. Dunstan)
BALTONSBOROUGH (St. Dunstan), a parish, in the union of Wells, hundred of Glaston-TwelveHides, E. division of Somerset, 5 miles (S. E.) from Glastonbury; containing 718 inhabitants. It is annexed to the vicarage of Butleigh.
BAMBER-BRIDGE, an ecclesiastical district, in the chapelry of Walton-le-Dale, parish, and Lower division of the hundred, of Blackburn, union of Preston, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 3½ miles (S. S. E.) from Preston, on the road to Chorley; containing about 3000 inhabitants. The soil of the district is a stiff clay; the surface is undulated, and the scenery picturesque. The village, which is very pleasant, is the spot where the Claytons established print-works as early as 1760. A cotton-mill, belonging to William Eccles, Esq., employs 500 hands; another, the property of Richard Bashall, Esq., employs a like number; and a third, the property of Richard Ashworth, Esq., employs 250. Among the seats in the vicinity are, Lostock Hall, the residence of William Clayton, Esq.; Withy Grove, the residence of Mr. Eccles; and Lostock House, the residence of Mr. Bashall. Bamber-Bridge House, the original seat of the Clayton family, is now divided into several dwellings. The Blackburn and Preston railway has a station at this place. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Blackburn, with a net income of £150, and a residence. The church, dedicated to Our Saviour, is a very neat structure in the Romanesque style, with a graceful spire; it was built in 1837, at a cost of £2200. Robert Townley Parker, Esq., of Cuerden Hall, has erected a vault under the chancel, as the future burial-place of his family. There is a national and Sunday school, in which more than 400 children receive instruction.
Bambrough (St. Aidan)
BAMBROUGH (St. Aidan), a parish, in the union of Belford, N. division of Bambrough ward and of Northumberland; comprising the chapelries of Beadnell, Lucker, and North Sunderland, and the townships of Adderstone, Bambrough, Bambrough-Castle, Bradford, Budle, Burton, Elford, Fleetham, Glororum, Hoppen, Mouson, Newham, Newstead, Outchester, Ratchwood, Shorestone, Spindlestone, Swinhoe, Tughall, Warenford, and Warenton; and containing 4231 inhabitants, of whom 375 are in the township of Bambrough, 4¾ miles (E. by N.) from Belford. Bambrough, originally called Bebbanburg, was prior to the Conquest a royal burgh, and the residence of several of the kings of Northumbria. It sent two members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I., and in the reign of Edward III. furnished one ship for the expedition against Calais; it had also a market, which has long been discontinued. The surrounding district, formerly called Bambroughshire, was a separate franchise, in the possession of various privileges, now become obsolete. The village occupies an airy and pleasant situation near the sea and Budle bay. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £121; patron, the Trustees of Lord Crewe, who, with other proprietors, are the impropriators. The church, with another long since in ruins, was given by Henry I. to the priory of Nostel in Yorkshire, whereupon a small convent of Augustine canons was founded here, in 1137, as a cell to that priory, the revenue of which at the Dissolution was £124. 15. 7. There were also a college, an hospital dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, and a house of Preaching Friars. At Beadnell, Lucker, and North Sunderland are separate incumbencies. The church estate, which is situated at Fowberry, in Bambrough township, consists of a farmhouse, outbuildings, and about 63 acres of land, let for £100 per annum.
BAMBROUGH-CASTLE, a township, in the parish, and N. division of the ward, of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (E. by N.) from Belford; containing 59 inhabitants. This township is principally distinguished for its castle, built about the middle of the sixth century, by Ida, the first Anglo-Saxon king of Northumbria. In 642 it was besieged by Penda, King of Mercia, who, after an unsuccessful attempt to set it on fire, was compelled to retreat. In the beginning of the eighth century, Berthfrid, guardian of Osred, the young Northumbrian king, defended it against the usurper Eadulph, who was taken prisoner and put to death. It was plundered and almost demolished by the Danes in 993, but was soon restored. After the Norman Conquest it was held by Robert de Mowbray, on whose insurrection against William Rufus it was besieged, and, after an obstinate defence, surrendered to that monarch, who threatened, unless it were given up, to put out the eyes of Mowbray, who had been taken prisoner. During the war between Stephen and the Empress Matilda, and the protracted struggle between the houses of York and Lancaster, the castle sustained repeated sieges: it was taken in 1463 by Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry VI., on her route to Hexham, after landing at Berwick, on her return from France, and at length became dilapidated in the reign of Henry VII. The castle and manor were granted in the reign of James II. to John Forster, one of whose descendants having joined the Pretender, they were confiscated to the crown, and were purchased by Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, who, in 1720, devised to trustees his manors of Bambrough and Blanchland, then producing £1312 and now £8126 per annum, for charitable purposes. The income is appropriated to the erection and repair of churches, the support of exhibitions and fellowships, the relief of the poor, the foundation and endowment of schools, the maintenance of the establishment at Bambrough Castle, the improvement of Sunderland harbour (for which £5000 have been paid out of the funds), and various improvements along the coast. Under the direction of Dr. Sharp, Archdeacon of Durham, the castle was repaired in 1757, the keep being set apart for the occasional residence of the trustees; and the whole is maintained in repair, with its furniture, by an estate left by Dr. Sharp for the purpose.
The castle is situated on the summit of a steep rock, which projects into the sea and rises perpendicularly to the height of 150 feet above low-water mark, being accessible only on the south-east side, where is the ancient gateway flanked with a circular tower on each side, and formerly defended by a trench cut through a narrow isthmus communicating with the main land. Within a short distance of this is a more modern gateway, with a portcullis; and a little further on is a round tower. The keep, which is of Norman architecture, and the most ancient part of the building, is a lofty square structure. In 1773, the ruins of a church or chapel, erected in the castle during the Norman period, were discovered; and the font, richly carved, is preserved, among other curiosities, in the keep. In the castle-yard are granaries, in which corn is stored to be sold to the poor at proper times; and a market is opened every Tuesday and Friday, when the industrious poor are supplied with meal and grocery at the cost price. In another part of the castle-yard is a dispensary, at which a surgeon attends twice every week; and from the surplus revenue the trustees have established two national schools, for which schoolrooms have been appropriated in the castle, and which are free to all poor children who may come. Thirty girls, between the ages of nine and sixteen, are admitted to board and lodge, and are likewise provided with clothes and washing. In 1778, the trustees founded a library, to which Dr. Sharp generously bequeathed the whole of his valuable books, including the greater part of the library of Dr. Sharp, Archbishop of York; and this collection, including nearly 6000 volumes, is open to persons residing in the neighbourhood, under certain regulations. A principal object of the establishment is also to afford assistance to shipwrecked mariners.
BAMFORD, a hamlet, in the parish of Hathersage, union of Chapel-en-le-Frith, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 6¼ miles (N. by W.) from Stoney-Middleton; containing 297 inhabitants, and comprising 1456 acres, of which 700 are common or waste. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £33. 9., and the vicarial for £4; there is a glebe of 33 acres.