A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Eccleston (St. Mary)
ECCLESTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Great Boughton, Lower division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester; containing, with Eton township, 321 inhabitants, of whom 257 are in the township of Eccleston, 2¾ miles (S.) from Chester. This parish is situated on the river Dee, and comprises 2330 acres, of which 1280 are in Eccleston township. A third part is arable, a third pasture, and a third park and plantations; the surface is generally flat, and the soil clayey: red stone is quarried for building purposes. The village was occupied by Sir William Brereton's army, during the siege of Chester, in 1645. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 13. 11½., with a net income of £460, and in the gift of the family of Grosvenor, at whose expense the church, and the burial-place of the family, were rebuilt in 1809. The church is an elegant structure of red stone, with an embattled tower crowned by pinnacles; over the altar was a painting of the Nativity by Caravaggio, which has been replaced by a painting of the Taking down from the Cross by Westall. The tithes of Eccleston township have been commuted for £280, and the glebe consists of 46 acres. National schools are supported. The old Watling-street passes through the parish; and near the church is a tumulus. The hamlet of Belgrave gives the inferior title of Viscount to the Marquess of Westminster.
Eccleston (St. Mary)
ECCLESTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chorley, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster; comprising the townships of Eccleston, Heskin, Parbold, and Wrightington; and containing 3319 inhabitants, of whom 771 are in the township of Eccleston, 5 miles (W.) from Chorley. This place gave name to a family as early as the reign of Richard I. Of the many families connected with the manor, have been the Dacres and the Molyneuxs, and more recently those of Dicconson and Longworth. The parish consists, by computation, of nearly 8000 acres, whereof 1988 are in the township of Eccleston; the soil is a strong loam, inclining to clay, resting on a bed of marl, and well adapted both for corn and pasture: the dairies produce excellent cheese. The surface of the townships of Eccleston and Heskin is tolerably even, but in Parbold and some parts of Wrightington very hilly: Parbold Hill commands an extensive view, embracing the Isle of Man and the mountains of Cumberland and Wales. The rivers Yarrow and Douglas intersect the parish; the former, flowing on the north from east to west, is crossed, a little below the church, by a handsome bridge of one arch, erected in 1826, when, also, the course of the road was improved. There are several coal-mines, and quarries of stone for building and other purposes; and facilities of conveyance are afforded by the Leeds and Liverpool canal. A weekly market and annual fairs were formerly held. A savings' bank was established in 1818, of which the deposits in 1845 were £22,796. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28. 16. 0½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. William Yates, whose tithes have been commuted for £1300, and who has 61 acres of glebe, with a house. The church is an ancient structure, with a tower; it underwent a thorough repair in 1828, and the interior was beautified in 1846: it contains numerous monuments, and a finely-executed window of stained glass by Ballantine, of Edinburgh, presented by the Rev. Mr. Yates. There is a second incumbency at Douglas, in the gift of the Rector. Two sums of £10 each, produced from rents, are distributed in coats and bread among the poor.
ECCLESTON, a township, in the parish and union of Prescot, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster; containing 6247 inhabitants. In the reign of Edward III. William le Norreys performed suit and service to the county and wapentake, for this, with other manors, by the hands of Alan de Eccleston, his tenant, the pedigree of which latter family ascends to the time of Henry III. The estates descended to Thomas Eccleston, Esq. (afterwards Scarisbrick, of Scarisbrick), who sold them about 1812 to Colonel Taylor, of Moston. The township includes the small hamlet of Portico and the wild common of Thatto Heath, and portions of the towns of Prescot and St. Helen's; it lies west of St. Helen's, and is intersected by the road from that place to Prescot: the area is 3311 acres. The manufacture of crown-glass and earthenware is considerable; and there are several stone-quarries, and mines of coal. Millbrook is the residence of William Pilkington, Esq., and Springfield that of John Barnes Barrow, Esq. Christ-Church, here, was built in 1838, at a cost of £2500, and is a cruciform structure in the early English style, with a square tower surmounted by a spire; it has some fine oak carving, and the eastern window is of painted glass, with figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patron, Samuel Taylor, Esq., of Eccleston Hall, who gave the site, and chiefly defrayed the cost of the erection of the church, parsonage-house, and schools. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £370, payable to King's College, Cambridge, and the vicarial for £200. There is an endowment of £20 per annum for teaching children. The learned Dr. Adam Clarke wrote the principal part of his Commentary on the Bible at Millbrook, in the township.—See Helen's, St.
ECCLESTON, GREAT, a township, in the parish of St. Michael upon Wyre, union of Garstang, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 7 miles (S. W.) from Garstang; containing 661 inhabitants. This township is probably the Eglestun of Domesday book. It descended from William de Lancaster to the De Courcys, and was afterwards in the possession of Baldwin de Gynes and Sir John de Coupeland. The Hall is said to have been the residence of a family who bore the local name. The township comprises 1412 acres, and is elevated land, of which the subsoil is chiefly clay, gravel, and marl; the river Wyre flows on the north, and the scenery, embracing its course, is pleasing and picturesque. Fairs are held on April 14th, Trinity-Monday, and Nov. 4th. The ecclesiastical district of Eccleston includes also Little Eccleston, Larbrick, and Elswick. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of St. Michael's, with a net income of £130, and a house. The impropriate tithes of the township have been commuted for £192; and the tithes payable to the vicar are £69, under an act of George III. The church, dedicated to St. Ann, stands on Copp Hill; it was built in 1723, and has a square tower, added in 1823. There are a place of worship for Wesleyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel. A school, called "Copp school," is endowed with about £35 per annum, and another at Low Heads with £5 per annum. Goldfinches are snared here in great numbers, by persons sent from great towns.
ECCLESTON, LITTLE, with Larbrick, a township, in the parish of Kirkham, union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 6¼ miles (N. by E.) from Kirkham; containing 199 inhabitants. According to the Testa de Nevill, Adam de Eccliston, with other persons, held the sixth part of a knight's fee in Eccleston, Leyrebreck, and Katerhale, of the fee of William de Lancaster. Thomas Stanley, an illegitimate son of Henry, fourth earl of Derby, was seated at Eccleston; but this part of the township now chiefly belongs to the Ffrance family, of Rawcliffe Hall. The manor of Larbrick was held in the 36th of Edward III. by the Molyneuxs, of Sefton, and was in the possession of Sir Richard Molyneux in the 11th of Elizabeth: Larbrick Hall was the ancient residence of the family. The township lies westward of Great Eccleston, and comprises 1064 acres of land, about equally divided between arable and pasture; the river Wyre bounds it on the north, and is crossed by a bridge, the private property of Thomas Wilson Ffrance, Esq. Thistleton and Poole brooks separate Larbrick from Little Eccleston. The tithes have been commuted for £155 payable to the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford, and £25. 8. to the vicar. "The most remarkable cold spring in these parts," says Dr. Leigh, "is that at Larbrick. Upon immersing your hand into it, the part immediately grows extremely red, and you will then perceive a most violent pain; fishes of several sorts I have seen put into it, which make but one effort, and instantly expire. This spring is an acidula or chalybeate water."
Eccup, with Addle, Yorkshire.—See Addle.
Eckington (St. Peter and St. Paul)
ECKINGTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Chesterfield, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 7 miles (N. E. by N.) from Chesterfield; comprising the townships of Eckington, Mosborough, Renishaw, and Ridgeway with Troway; and containing 4401 inhabitants, of whom 1471 are in the township of Eckington. This parish comprises by computation 7000 acres, of which 2089 are in Eckington: the substratum contains ironstone, and coal of good quality, of which there are some mines in operation; and the numerous streams flowing through the dells afford abundance of water-power for the several factories established on their banks. A very extensive manufacture of scythes and sickles is carried on, and large quantities of those articles are exported; there are also a considerable manufactory for nails, and a large iron-foundry. The Chesterfield canal, and the Midland railway, pass through the parish, and the latter has one of its principal stations here. A fair for hiring servants is held on the 5th of November. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £40. 13. 4.; net income, £800; patron, the Crown. The tithes were commuted for land and a corn-rent in 1795. The church, which is on an eminence 208 feet above the level of the sea, is an ancient structure, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a spire; it was repewed in 1834, when two galleries were erected, and contains 800 sittings, of which 204 are free. At Ridgeway is a separate incumbency. There are several places of worship for Wesleyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel. The free school was endowed with land, in 1704, by Thomas Cam, Esq.; a school-house was given by George Sitwell, Esq., in 1717, and in 1719 Lady Trecheville bequeathed £100: the income is £70 per annum, and the school is conducted on the national plan.
Eckington (Holy Trinity)
ECKINGTON (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union, and Upper division of the hundred, of Pershore, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Pershore; containing 785 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected by the road from Pershore to Tewkesbury, comprises by measurement 2095 acres of very fertile and well-wooded land, half encircled by the river Avon; about one-third is pasture, and the produce of the remainder wheat, barley, beans, &c. The Birmingham and Gloucester railway, which is carried over the Avon by a cast-iron bridge of three segmental arches, each of 73 feet span, constructed at an expense of £10,000, passes through the parish, and has a station in the centre of the village. Woolers Hall, erected in 1611, on the remains of a religious house belonging to the abbey of Pershore, is a handsome structure, commanding a view of great richness and variety. Limestone is quarried, chiefly for building. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 1. 8.; net income, £140; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. The tithes were commuted for land in 1810. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a tower, and a highly-enriched Norman doorway. There is a place of worship for Baptists. A school was built near the church in the year 1838.
Eckington, county of Sussex.—See Ripe.
Ecton (St. Mary Magdalene)
ECTON (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Wellingborough, hundred of Hamfordshoe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) from Northampton; containing 602 inhabitants. It comprises 2229a. 1r. 33p., of which the portion of arable is rather greater than that of pasture land. The road from Northampton to Wellingborough intersects the parish, and on the south it is bounded by the river Nene. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 8. 1½.; net income, £570; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. C. Whalley: the tithes were commuted for land in 1759. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. There is a small endowment for a school; and a fund of £21 is applied to the apprenticing of children.
EDALE, a chapelry, in the parish of Castleton, union of Chapel-en-le-Frith, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 5¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Chapel; containing 559 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £126; patrons, certain Trustees; appropriator, the Bishop of Chester, whose tithes have been commuted for £50, and the vicar's for £28. 10. The chapel is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a free school, rebuilt in the year 1819, is endowed with £14. 10. per annum.
Edburton (St. Andrew)
EDBURTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Steyning, partly in the hundred of Poynings, rape of Lewes, E. division, and partly in the hundred of Burbeach, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 4 miles (E.) from Steyning; containing, with the hamlet of Fulking, 318 inhabitants. It comprises 2243 acres, of which 792 are waste land or common. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16; net income, £379; patron, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The church is in the early English style, with later insertions, and consists of a nave, chancel, and north transept, with a low tower at the west end; the chancel was some years ago repaired by the Rev. A. W. Schomberg, who also restored the ancient oak panelling round the communion-table: the font, which is of lead, is of early Norman character. At the commencement of the present century, several Roman coins were dug up in the southern part of the parish.
EDDINGTON, with Hidden and Newtown, a tything, in the parish and union of Hungerford, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks, 1 mile (N. E. by E.) from Hungerford; containing 512 inhabitants, and comprising 1330a. 22p. It is probable that this place was the Ethandune of the Saxon Chronicle, where Alfred is recorded to have obtained a decisive victory over the Danes, in 878, though Camden and others have fixed the scene of that contest at Eddington, near Westbury, in Wiltshire. Roman moulds for coining, some of them inclosing the metal itself, have been found here, and deposited in the Ashmolean Museum; they have the impressions of Severus and Caracalla, and their empresses, Julia and Plantilla. Near the spot has also been discovered a tessellated pavement.
EDDINSHALL, a township, in the parish of St. Oswald, Chester, union of Great Boughton, First division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester; containing 30 inhabitants. This place, which is detached from any other part of the parish, is about nine miles east-south-east from Chester, and a mile and a half south-west from Tarporley; and contains but a few houses. In the township are 479 acres, of a clayey soil.
EDDISBURY, a township, in the parish of Delamere, union of Northwich, First division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 4½ miles (N.) from Tarporley; containing 204 inhabitants. This place, which gives name to the hundred, comprises 975 acres; the soil is sand, with some clay. The Old Pale, or, as it was formerly called, the Chamber of the Forest, is an inclosure made more than two centuries ago; and the high ground within it is said to have been the site of Ethelfleda's city, called Eddisbury.
Eddlesborough (St. Mary)
EDDLESBOROUGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Leighton-Buzzard, hundred of Cottesloe, county of Buckingham, 3 miles (N. E.) from Ivinghoe; containing, with the chapelry of Dagnall, and the hamlets of Hudnall, Northall, and part of Horton, 1722 inhabitants, of whom 683 are in the township of Eddlesborough. The parish comprises 4592 acres, including 544 of waste land or common. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 17., and in the gift of the Trustees of the Earl of Bridgewater: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £1134, and the vicarial for £480; the glebe comprises 7 acres. The church is a handsome edifice, situated on an isolated hill, and having much the appearance of an ancient fortress.
EDDLESTON, a township, in the parish of Acton, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 2 miles (S. W. by W.) from Nantwich; containing 96 inhabitants. It comprises 560 acres, of which the prevailing soil is clay. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £34. 14., and the vicarial for £13. 16.
EDDLETHORP, a township, in the parish of Westow, union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 3½ miles (S.) from Malton; containing 73 inhabitants. It is situated on the east of the river Derwent, and comprises about 460 acres, set out in farms, chiefly the property of Sir Tatton Sykes, who has training stables here.
Edenbridge (St. Peter And St. Paul)
EDENBRIDGE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Seven-Oaks, hundred of Westerham, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 12 miles (S. W.) from Seven-Oaks; containing 2029 inhabitants. This place takes its name from a bridge over the river Eden, a tributary to the Medway, and in the "Textus Roffensis" is called Eddelnesbrege. It comprises 7020 acres, of which 250 are in wood. The manufacture of shoes for the London market, once carried on here extensively, is materially diminished. Iron-mines were formerly wrought in the hills in the southern portion of the parish, and freestone of good quality is quarried for building; from the quarries was raised the stone for the erection of the present bridge. The South-Eastern railway intersects the parish. Fairs, chiefly for stock, are held on May 6th and October 16th. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Westerham: the church, an ancient structure in the early and later English styles, has a low tower and spire. The Independents have a place of worship; and a national school is chiefly supported by subscription. There are several chalybeate springs strongly impregnated with iron, and one with sulphate of magnesia.
Eden, Castle (St. James)
EDEN, CASTLE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Easington, S. division of Easington ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 5½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Hartlepool, and 10½ (E. by S.) from Durham; containing 558 inhabitants. This place, which appears to have derived its name, originally Yewden, from its baronial castle and its situation near a valley abounding with yew-trees, was during the heptarchy of considerable importance, and formed part of the territories of Tildred, by whom the manor was given to the monastery of Chester-le-Street. After the Conquest, it was granted, with numerous other lordships, to Robert de Brus, who annexed it to the endowments of the priory of Guisborough, which he had founded in 1129, on condition of the prior's erecting and endowing a chapel here within ten years from the date of the grant, which was subsequently confirmed by his descendant, Peter de Brus. The manor remained in the possession of the priory till its dissolution, and about a century afterwards passed to the Bromley family, in the county of Warwick, from whom it was purchased by Rowland Burdon, Esq., whose descendant, of the same name, is the present proprietor.
The parish is situated on the road from Stockton to Sunderland, and within a mile of the sea-coast, comprising an area of 1933 acres, of which about 440 are arable, 1085 meadow and pasture, 350 woodland and plantations, and the remainder roads and waste. On the north and south boundaries are denes, extending in nearly a parallel direction from the western confines of the parish for about four miles, and terminating on the coast: Castle-Eden dene, on the north, presents a striking combination of picturesque and romantic scenery. The soil is generally a strong fertile clay well adapted for all kinds of grain, with moderate portions of excellent turnip-land: limestone of inferior quality is procured for burning into lime; and coal is also found, at a great depth beneath the limestone, and of very superior quality. There are an iron-foundry and a large brewery; and great facilities are afforded by railways. Pettysessions are held monthly. Castle-Eden House, the seat of Mr. Burdon, is a handsome and spacious modern mansion, erected on the site of the ancient castle, and finely situated on an eminence commanding a good view. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patron, Mr. Burdon; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham, whose tithes have been commuted for £91. The church, which is near the village, was rebuilt in 1764, by the grandfather of the present patron, and is a neat structure, with a tower surmounted by a spire. A church has been built in the western portion of the parish, which is noticed under the head of Wingate-Grange.
EDENFIELD, a parochial chapelry, in the township of Tottington Higher-End, parish of Bury, union of Haslingden, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (N.) from Bury, on the road to Haslingden and Burnley. The surface is hilly (being part of what is called the Back-bone of England); the soil chiefly clay, except in the valley, where it is alluvial; and the scenery singularly wild. There are two coal-mines, and extensive quarries of flagstone, and of slate-stone. Ten cotton-mills are in operation; also two woollen-mills, two calico-printing works, three fulling-mills, two paper-mills, and a cornmill; in which nearly the whole population is employed. The river Irwell and the East Lancashire railway pass through the chapelry, the latter having a branch to Rawtenstall and Bacup. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of Bury, with a net income of £150. The present chapel was built in 1778, with the exception of the tower, built in 1614; a gallery was erected in 1829. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have places of worship; and an endowment of £17 per annum is applied to the education of children. The lands in the chapelry are under the copyhold tenure of the honour of Clitheroe.
Edenhall (St. Cuthbert)
EDENHALL (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Penrith; containing 266 inhabitants. This place, which takes its name from the river Eden, is the property of the Musgrave family, who have held the manor from the reign of Henry VI. The parish comprises 3106a. 3r. 31p., whereof 1118 acres are arable, 1524 meadow and pasture, and 464 woodland; the soil is light and fertile, and freestone of a reddish colour is found in abundance, and quarried for building. The surface is varied; and from its situation within the limits of Inglewood Forest, the parish possesses much of the character of forest scenery. Eden Hall, the seat of Sir George Musgrave, Bart., rebuilt in 1825, under the superintendence of Sir R. Smirke, is a spacious mansion of freestone, in a noble park. The village is pleasantly situated on the road to Newcastle, viâ Alston-Moor, and on the river Eden; the Eamont bounds the parish on the south. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Langwathby annexed, valued in the king's books at £17. 12. 1.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle; net income, £178. The church, which was thoroughly repaired in 1834, by the Musgrave family, at an expense of £2500, is a handsome but small structure in the early English style, with a low tower. In the steep bank of the river Eamont is a singular cavern, very difficult of access, called the Giant's Cave.
Edenham (St. Michael)
EDENHAM (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 3¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Bourne; containing, with the hamlets of Grimsthorpe, Elsthorpe, and Scottlethorpe, 699 inhabitants. The parish is on the road from Bourne to Grantham, and comprises 6844a. 2r. 5p.: there are quarries of stone of good quality for building. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £52; patron and impropriator, Lord Willoughby D'Eresby. The church is chiefly in the early English style, and has a handsome embattled tower, which, with some portions of the church, is in the later English style, and a south porch with a Norman doorway; it contains several monuments to the Bertie family, and in a vault underneath are the remains of several of the earls of Lindsay and dukes of Ancaster. There are two springs in the parish, one of which has properties resembling those of Tonbridge Wells.
Edensor (St. Peter)
EDENSOR (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Bakewell, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 2¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Bakewell; containing, with the township of Pilsley, 748 inhabitants, of whom 379 are in the township of Edensor with Chatsworth. The parish comprises 2637a. 15p., of which more than 2000 are in Chatsworth Park. The surface rises to a considerable height on the east and west of a valley watered by the river Derwent; the soil lies on gritstone, which is quarried in some places, and the lands are chiefly in pasture. The village is beautifully situated within the park of Chatsworth, which see. The living, formerly a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., is now a donative; net income, £40; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Devonshire. The church contains several monuments of the noble family of Cavendish.
Edgbaston (St. Bartholomew)
EDGBASTON (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of King's-Norton, Birmingham division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Birmingham; containing 6609 inhabitants. This parish, which forms an extensive suburb of Birmingham, and is included within the limits of the borough, is situated on the roads to Hales-Owen, and to Bromsgrove; it is bounded on the east by the river Rea, and on the south by the Bourne brook, which separate it from the county of Worcester, and comprises 2424a. 3r. 13p., whereof more than 2000 acres are the property of Lord Calthorpe. The land is of great value, and nearly one-third of it is let upon building leases, in which are inserted clauses prohibiting the erection of manufactories of any kind. Of the few ancient mansions that existed previously to the erection of the modern town, the principal now remaining are, Edgbaston Hall, which was garrisoned for the parliament in the reign of Charles I., and, being burnt down in 1668, was rebuilt by Sir Richard Gough, Knt., in 1717; and a private residence which, from a very lofty octagonal tower of brick attached to it, obtained the appellation of the Monument. This tower is seven stories high; it was built about 1758 by John Parrott, Esq., as an observatory, and is not unfrequently designated Parrott's Folly. The surface is varied; and the scenery, which is generally of pleasing character, is in some parts strikingly picturesque. A considerable portion of the reservoir of the Birmingham canal, an extensive sheet of water covering 80 acres, excavated to the depth of 40 feet, is within the parish, presenting, from the rich foliage on its banks, all the beauty of an inland lake; and the Birmingham and Worcester canal, whose gradually sloping banks rise in some parts to a considerable height above the level of the water, intersects the parish. The town or village, which is very extensive, consists of several spacious streets of handsome houses of brick, coated with Roman cement, and displaying much variety of architectural style; of numerous pleasant villas, tastefully ornamented; and many detached mansions situated in grounds embellished with shrubberies and plantations, the country residences of the merchants and manufacturers of Birmingham. A small part of the parish is lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. The botanical gardens here contain a great number of the choicest plants, and are a favourite resort of the inhabitants.
The Living is a vicarage not in charge, in the gift of Lord Calthorpe, with a net income of £542: the vicarial tithes were commuted for corn-rents in 1821; the great tithes are held on lease from the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, by his lordship. The church, an ancient structure which had been much mutilated in its details, was repaired, and enlarged by the addition of a gallery at the west end, in 1810; and further alterations have just been made with a due regard to the preservation of its original character. The chapel dedicated to St. George was erected in 1838, by Lord Calthorpe, at an expense of £6000, including a bequest of £500 by Mr. Wheely, of Edgbaston, and is a handsome structure in the early English style, without either tower or spire. It consists of a nave and north and south aisles, each having a separate roof, and contains 1000 sittings, of which 200 are free; an organ was erected at a cost of £400, and a good eastern window of stained glass inserted at a cost of £200, both by the congregation. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Lord Calthorpe, who has endowed it with £1000 three per cent. consols.; the remainder of the income is derived from seat-rents. A proprietary school was established in 1837, for Birmingham and Edgbaston, by a body of shareholders, desirous of securing for their sons a sound classical, mathematical, and commercial education, combined with instruction in the modern languages. A spacious building has been erected in the Elizabethan style, at a cost, including the purchase of freehold land, of about £10,000; and attached are two houses, in which the second and commercial masters receive boarders, pupils of the establishment. The instruction is under the direction of the Rev. J. Illingworth, M.A., who is principal, three other masters, and two assistant masters; and the progress of the scholars is tested by an annual examination, conducted by gentlemen from the universities. In connexion with the parish church are, a Sunday school for 50 boys, and a day school for 60 girls, both supported by subscription.—See Birmingham.