A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Battersea (St. Mary)
BATTERSEA (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wandsworth and Clapham, partly in the E., but chiefly in the W., division of the hundred of Brixton, E. division of Surrey, 3 miles (S.) from London; containing, with the hamlet of Penge (which see), 6887 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book called Patricesey or Peters-ey, was so named from having anciently belonged to the abbey of St. Peter at Westminster: it was formerly of much greater extent than it is at present. The family of St. John had a venerable mansion here, which was the favourite resort of Pope, who, when visiting his friend Lord Bolingbroke, usually selected as his study, in which he is said to have composed some of his celebrated works, a parlour wainscoted with cedar, overlooking the Thames. The parish comprises 2108a. 2r. 39p., whereof 390 acres are common or waste; and the village is pleasantly situated on the southern bank of the river, over which is a wooden bridge, connecting it with Chelsea. The neighbourhood has long been celebrated for the production of vegetables for the London market, especially asparagus, which was first cultivated here. There are several manufactories, including chymicalworks, large cement-works, a brewery, malt-house, lime and whitening manufactories, a silk factory, a pottery for crucibles, and Brunel's machinery for sawing veneers; and along the banks of the Thames are some coalwharfs: the manufacture of kid gloves is also carried on very extensively. The London and Southampton railway, for the present, has its commencement at Nine-Elms, in the parish, the offices at which station, fronting the road, exhibit a neat elevation and arcade, and contain all the necessary apartments. Immediately behind is the passengers' shed, extending nearly 300 feet, with four lines of way, and resting on two lines of iron columns twelve feet high; other lines of way lead to the carriage, horse, and locomotive departments, which were unfortunately injured by an accidental fire recently, to the extent of £40,000. The county magistrates hold a meeting at Wandsworth, an adjoining parish, where also the lord of the manor holds a court leet, at which a headborough and constables for Battersea are appointed.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 15. 2½.; net income, £982; patron and impropriator, Earl Spencer. The church, which was handsomely rebuilt of brick, in 1777, has a tower surmounted by a small spire, and, standing on the margin of the river, forms an interesting object viewed from the water. The window over the altar is decorated with portraits of Henry VII., his grandmother Margaret Beauchamp, and Queen Elizabeth, in stained glass; and there are some interesting sepulchral monuments, among which are, one by Roubilliac to the memory of Viscount Bolingbroke and his lady, and one to the memory of Edward Winter, an officer in the service of the East India Company, on which is recorded an account of his having, singly and unarmed, killed a tiger, and on foot defeated sixty Moors on horseback. Collins, author of the Peerage and Baronetage of England; his grandson, David Collins, Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales, and author of a History of the English Settlement there; and William Curtis, a distinguished botanical writer, were buried here. St. George's chapel, in Battersea Fields, a neat building in the later style of English architecture, was erected in 1829, partly by a subscription of £2277 among the parishioners, partly by a rate amounting to £1327, and partly by a grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners; the minister is appointed by the vicar, and derives his stipend from a subscription fund of £1450, and from the pew-rents. In the hamlet of Penge is a small chapel capable of accommodating about 200 persons, built by subscription, in 1838. Christ Church, Battersea Fields, was commenced in May, 1847, the foundation-stone being laid by the Hon. Mr. Eden, late incumbent of the parish, recently appointed to the bishopric of Sodor and Man: the cost of the church is estimated at £7000. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. A school for the instruction of twenty boys, to which a national school has been united, was founded and endowed by Sir Walter St. John, in 1700, and has an endowment of £85 per annum. Sir Walter and Lady St. John left £300, directing the interest to be applied in apprenticing boys or girls; and there are several other charitable bequests, the principal of which is one by John Parvin, who left £2000 four per cent. bank annuities. Here is a very important training college for masters of national schools. The workhouse for the union, pleasantly situated on St. John's Hill, in the parish, was built in 1838, at an expense of about £16,000.
Battisford (St. Mary)
BATTISFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Needham-Market; containing 520 inhabitants, and comprising 1544a. 3r. 2p. The framework of the late Royal Exchange, London, erected by Sir Thomas Gresham, was made here; Sir Thomas residing in the adjoining parish of Kingshall, and having considerable property in this. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £8. 0. 7½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Edward Paske, whose tithes have been commuted for £400. The church is chiefly in the decorated English style, and consists of a nave and chancel; the interior was thoroughly repaired in 1841. Here was a commandery of the Knights Hospitallers, the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £53. 10.
Battle, or Battel (St. Mary)
BATTLE, or Battel (St. Mary), a market-town, parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Battle, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 7 miles (N. W.) from Hastings, 63 (E. by N.) from Chichester, and 56 (S. E.) from London; containing 2999 inhabitants. This place, previously called Epiton, derives its present name from the memorable battle fought here, October 14th, 1066, between Harold, King of England, and William, Duke of Normandy. Though generally called the battle of Hastings, it took place at this town, where, in fulfilment of a vow, the Conqueror founded a magnificent abbey for monks of the Benedictine order, in which were preserved, until its suppression, the sword and royal robe worn by him on the day of his coronation, and the celebrated roll on which the names of the warriors who accompanied him to England were inscribed. He conferred on it the privilege of sanctuary, raised it to the dignity of a mitred abbey, and invested its abbots with the power of saving a criminal from execution, if accidentally passing at the time: at the Dissolution, its revenue was £987. 0. 10½.
The parish is situated in a beautiful valley, bounded on the west, south, and south-east by wood-crowned eminences. The town, which is built on rising ground, consists chiefly of one irregular line of houses forming three several streets, well lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water. The manufacture of fine gunpowder, established at a very early period, and for which the town has attained the highest celebrity, is carried on to a very great extent; and there is a large tannery. The market, granted by Henry I. on Thursday, has fallen into disuse, but a corn market is held on the second Tuesday in every month. The fairs are on Whit-Monday, and Nov. 22nd and two following days; and a large sheep-fair is held on the 6th of September: a great number of horned-cattle are sent from this part of the country to the London market. The town is within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, who hold pettysessions here for the district on the second Tuesday in the month; but this being a franchise, the inhabitants are exempt from serving on juries at the assizes and sessions for the county. A coroner and other officers are appointed at the court leet of the lord of the manor. Here is a house of correction, appropriated for the reception of persons apprehended in the Battle district of the county, and of others summarily convicted by the magistrates, whose terms of imprisonment do not exceed one month.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £24. 13. 4.; net income, £396; patron and impropriator, Sir Godfrey V. Webster, Bart. The church is a spacious structure, partly Norman, and partly in the early and later English styles, with a square embattled tower; and contains some ancient brasses, and a fine altar-tomb to Sir Henry Browne. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. In 1791, Mrs. Elizabeth Langton bequeathed £1500 for the instruction of fifteen boys and fifteen girls, and £200 for purchasing books, from the interest on which sums a master and mistress are allowed £60 per annum. The poor law union of Battle comprises fourteen parishes and places, under the care of eighteen guardians, and contains a population of 12,034 inhabitants. Of the ancient abbey there are still considerable remains; the gateway, a beautiful specimen of the decorated English style, is in entire preservation, and many parts of the conventual buildings have been retained in the present magnificent mansion of Battle Abbey. Southward of the grounds is a place called Tellman Hill, where William is reported to have mustered his army the evening before the battle; and to the north is another, named Callback Hill, from which it is said he recalled his troops from pursuing the vanquished enemy. The Rev. Edmond Cartwright, D.D., a celebrated writer, but better known as the inventor of the power-loom, was buried here.
BATTLEBURN, a hamlet, in the parish of Kirkburn, union of Driffield, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 3½ miles (W. S. W.) from Great Driffield; containing 14 inhabitants. It comprises, with Eastburn, one farm.
Battlefield (St. Mary Magdalene)
BATTLEFIELD (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Atcham, liberties of Shrewsbury, N. division of Salop, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Shrewsbury; containing 64 inhabitants. This place derives its name from a sanguinary battle fought here on the 22nd of July, 1403, between Henry IV. and the rebels under Percy, Earl of Northumberland; in which nearly 2300 gentlemen (among whom was Lord Henry Percy, the valiant Hotspur), and about 600 private soldiers, were slain. The king, in grateful commemoration of the victory, immediately founded on the spot a college for Secular clerks, the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £54. 10. 4. The parish comprises by computation 700 acres, and is situated on the road from Shrewsbury to Whitchurch and Drayton. A fair for horned-cattle and sheep is held on the 2nd of August. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £240, derived from land; it is in the patronage of Mrs. Corbet, to whom also the impropriation belongs. The church, built upon the spot on which the battle of Shrewsbury was fought, suffered much in the time of the commonwealth, but would, if restored, be a beautiful specimen of the perpendicular style.
Battlesden (St. Peter)
BATTLESDEN (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Woburn, hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Woburn, on the road from Dunstable to Fenny-Stratford; containing 179 inhabitants. The manor was in 1706 purchased by Allen Bathurst, Esq., a distinguished political character during the reigns of Anne and George I., the former of whom created him a baron, of Battlesden, which was for some years his country seat, and the resort of the most celebrated wits of the time, until it passed to another family. The living is a rectory, with that of Potsgrove annexed, valued in the king's books at £12. 9. 7.; net income, £306; patron, Sir G. P. Turner, Bart.
BATTYEFORD, a hamlet, in the parish of Mirfield, union of Dewsbury, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York. This place is situated on the river Calder, near the western extremity of the parish, and on the road between Dewsbury and Elland; the surface is undulated, the soil good, producing earlier crops than the neighbouring districts, and the scenery rich and beautiful. There are several coal-mines, which afford employment to a portion of the population, but the inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the woollen manufacture, and in making cards for the machinery in the cotton and woollen mills, which latter branch of industry is carried on to a considerable extent. The Calder and Hebble navigation, and the Manchester and Leeds railway, pass in the vicinity. A district church was erected in 1840, on a site given by Benjamin Wilson, Esq., at an expense of £1778, of which £700 were granted by the Incorporated Society, and the remainder subscribed by the landowners and parishioners: it is dedicated to Christ. The living, a perpetual curacy in the patronage of the Vicar, was augmented in 1841 to £150 a year by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.
BAUGHURST, a parish, in the union of Kingsclere, forming a detached portion of the hundred of Evingar, Kingsclere and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from Basingstoke; containing 528 inhabitants. It comprises 1675a. 15p.; and is intersected by a turnpike-road from Basingstoke to Aldermaston, Newbury, &c. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 12. 1., and in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester: the tithes have been commuted for £339. 8., and there are 2 acres of glebe.
BAULKING, a chapelry, in the parish of Uffington, union of Farringdon, hundred of Shrivenham, county of Berks, 3½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Great Farringdon; containing 193 inhabitants, and comprising 1442a. 1r. 13p. The chapel is dedicated to St. Nicholas; the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £165, and the impropriate for £150.
Baumber, or Bamburgh (St. Swithin)
BAUMBER, or Bamburgh (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, N. division of the wapentake of Gartree, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. W.) from Horncastle; containing 371 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book called Badeburgh, is supposed to have taken its name from the river Bane, on which it is situated; it stands on the road between Horncastle and Lincoln, and contains by computation nearly 4000 acres. The manor and parish formerly belonged to the earls of Lincoln, who became dukes of Newcastle, and the remains of whose ancient mansion may still be seen. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £37; patron, the Duke of Newcastle.
Baunton (St. Christopher)
BAUNTON (St. Christopher), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 1¾ mile (N. by E) from Cirencester; containing 187 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Miss Masters, to whom also the impropriation belongs; net income, £67. The Roman Fosse-way passes along the eastern border of the parish.
Bavant, Norton.—See Norton-Bavant.
Baverstock (St. Edith)
BAVERSTOCK (St. Edith), a parish, in the union of Wilton, hundred of Cawden and Cadworth, Hindon and S. divisions of Wilts, 8 miles (W.) from Salisbury; containing, with the hamlet of Hurdcott, 194 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated near the road from Salisbury to Hindon, and on the river Nadder, comprises 1168 acres by measurement; the soil is fertile, and chalk, clay, and green sandstone are found in abundance, the last containing numerous fossils. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 10. 2½., and in the gift of Exeter College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £295, and the glebe consists of 52 acres. The church was repewed a few years since, and otherwise underwent considerable repair; and on the occasion of re-opening it, in July 1834, the foundation-stone of a parochial school, adjoining it, was laid by the Bishop of Bath and Wells. There is a spring called Merrywell, the water of which is efficacious in curing diseases of the eye.
BAVINGTON, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Whelpington, union of Bellingham, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 14 miles (N. N. E.) from Hexham; containing 69 inhabitants. This place has been possessed by various families, including the Umfravilles, Strothers, Swinburnes, Shaftos, Ogles, and Harles; and is now the property of several persons. The lofty hills of basalt which form a marked and peculiar feature of this township, are part of a vast bed which may be traced from Cumberland, by Glenwhelt and the Roman wall, to Little Swinburn, where it divides into two branches. The western sides of the hills are very precipitous; and the soil, except of that portion called the Plashetts, is for the principal part dry, rich, and mostly in grass; on the whinstone hills it is thin, and apt to burn in droughty summers. A lead-mine was opened here some years since, but the speculation failed. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £25. 19. 7., and the vicarial for £35. 10. 7. There is a place of worship for Scottish Presbyterians.
BAVINGTON, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Thockrington, union of Bellingham, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 12 miles (N. N. E.) from Hexham; containing 91 inhabitants. This place is on the road from Alnwick to Hexham, and has been the seat of the Shaftos since the reign of Edward I. Bavington Hall, the residence of the present representative of that family, is a handsome mansion surrounded with fine plantations. The Erring burn has its source in the township.
Bawburgh, or Babur (St. Mary and St. Walstan)
BAWBURGH, or Babur (St. Mary and St. Walstan), a parish, in the union and hundred of Forehoe, E. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (N. W.) from Norwich; containing 404 inhabitants. This place is distinguished as the birthplace of St. Walstan; he lived at Taverham, where he died in 1016, and his remains were removed hither, and enshrined in a chapel in the parish church. The resort of pilgrims to visit his shrine greatly enriched the vicar and officiating priests, who, in 1309, rebuilt the church; but the chapel in which the remains of the saint were deposited was demolished in the reign of Henry VIII., though the walls are still a little above the surface of the ground. The road from Norwich to Walton, and the river Yare, run through the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 17. 6.; net income, £100; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Norwich. The great tithes have been commuted for £227, and there are 93 acres of appropriate glebe. The church is in the early English and later styles; the nave is separated from the chancel by the remains of a beautifully carved screen. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Bawdeswell (All Saints)
BAWDESWELL (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Reepham; containing 582 inhabitants. The road from Norwich to Fakenham runs through the village. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £208; patron, E. Lombe, Esq. The church is in the later English style, with a square brick tower built at the west end of the chancel in 1740. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. John Leeds, in 1730, bequeathed a house and 16 acres of land, now let for about £20 per annum, to provide instruction for 12 boys of Bawdeswell, and 8 of Foxley; and at the inclosure in 1808, two acres of land were allotted as gravel, and 35 acres for fuel to the poor.
Bawdrip (St. Michael)
BAWDRIP (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Bridgwater, hundred of North Petherton, W. division of Somerset, 3¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Bridgwater; containing 425 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 19. 7., and in the gift of Edward Page, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £340, and the glebe consists of 38½ acres.
Bawdsey (St. Mary)
BAWDSEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Wilford, E. division of Suffolk, 8½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Woodbridge; containing 468 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the coast of the North Sea; and at the mouth of the river Deben is a haven, which affords convenient anchorage for small vessels. In the 11th of Edward I. permission was obtained for a market to be held on Friday, but it has long been discontinued; there is, however, a fair on September 8th. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £193 payable to the vicar, and £305 payable to the executors of the late John Wilson Shephard, Esq. The old church, which had a large and lofty steeple, useful as a sea-mark, was accidentally burnt to the ground on November 5th, 1841. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Bawsey (St. James)
BAWSEY (St. James), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (E. by N.) from Lynn; containing 28 inhabitants. It comprises 1034a. 1r. 3p., of which 342 acres are arable, 262 pasture and meadow, 417 heath and warren, and 11 woodland. From the heath great quantities of gray sand are obtained, and sent to the glass-houses in various parts of the kingdom. The living is a discharged sinecure rectory, valued in the king's books at £4, and in the gift of A. Hammond, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £90, and there is about an acre of glebe. The church is in ruins.
BAWTRY, a market-town and chapelry, in the parish of Blyth, union of Doncaster, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 45 miles (S. by E.) from York, and 153½ (N. by W.) from London, on the great north road; containing 1083 inhabitants, of whom 741 are in the east, and 342 in the west, district. This town is situated on the river Idle, which separates the counties of York and Nottingham, and near the Roman road leading from Agelocum, Littleborough, to Danum, Doncaster. It comprises three streets, the principal of which is very spacious, and contains many handsome and wellbuilt houses; it is partly paved, is lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water from springs and from the river, over which a neat substantial stone bridge was erected in 1811, at an expense of £4000. The trade, which has greatly declined since the construction of the Chesterfield canal, and the erection of a bridge over the Trent at Gainsborough, arises chiefly from the inland navigation, and consists in supplying London, Hull, and other places, with corn, oak-timber, and stone, of which last, that called the Roche Abbey stone is much esteemed by statuaries and architects. The river is navigable for craft of from twelve to twenty-four tons' burthen. The great railway from London to York will pass by the town. The market is on Thursday; and fairs for horses, horned-cattle, and sheep, are held on the Thursday in Whitsun-week, and Old Martinmas-day. Constables and other officers are appointed at the court leet of the lord of the manor. Bawtry Hall, formerly the residence of the Dowager Lady Galway, is situated at the southern extremity of the town, in the midst of extensive and beautiful pleasure-grounds.
The chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas, was erected in the reign of Henry II., and repaired in 1686; and the tower, which is strengthened by buttresses, and crowned with pinnacles, was added in 1712: the building was repewed and repaired in 1839, by subscription, at a cost of £700, of which £50 were contributed by Trinity College, Cambridge, and £50 by the Church Building Society. Magdalen chapel at Bawtry hospital has been rebuilt at a cost of £600 by H. M. Greaves, Esq., by whom also the officiating clergyman is paid. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; also a small schoolroom on the waste land adjoining the town, called the "Bawtry free school." At Scrooby, one mile distant, was a palace belonging to the archbishops of York, in which Cardinal Wolsey resided, and afterwards Archbishop Sandys, whose daughter is interred in the chancel of the chapel; the remains have been converted into a farmhouse.
Baxby, York.—See Thornton.
BAXTERLEY, a parish, in the union of Atherstone, Atherstone division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Atherstone; containing 228 inhabitants. This parish lies in a sequestered part of the county; is three miles from the Kingsbury station on the Birmingham and Derby railway; and comprises 804 acres of fertile land, and 70 acres of common and wood. It stands high; the views are beautiful, and include the Barr-Beacon, Bromsgrove-Lickey, &c. The whole parish is the property of W. S. Dugdale, Esq. Limestone is found, but is not wrought. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5, and in the alternate patronage of the Crown and Mr. Dugdale: the tithes have been commuted for £182, and the glebe consists of 46 acres, let for £94 per annum. The church is in the Norman style, having been built in the reign of William the Conqueror: the tower was rebuilt in 1607, by Hugo Glover, brother of Mrs. Lewis who was burnt at Coventry for her adherence to the Protestant faith, during the Popish persecution in the reign of Mary, and whose remains were interred in the church. A day and Sunday school was built by subscription in 1839.
Baydon (St. Nicholas)
BAYDON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Hungerford, hundred of Ramsbury, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 1¾ mile (N. E.) from Aldbourn; containing 335 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road from Cirencester to Newbury, comprises by measurement 2350 acres of fertile land; the village stands on an eminence, on the high road, commanding extensive and finely varied prospects over the surrounding country. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £110; patrons and impropriators, the family of Meyrick: at the inclosure, in 1779, land was apportioned in lieu of tithes. The church is an ancient and very handsome edifice, containing some Norman details. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Baptists. The celebrated Sir Isaac Newton had a residence, with a small estate, in the parish.
Bayfield (St. Margaret)
BAYFIELD (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of Holt, W. division of Norfolk, 2¾ miles (N. W.) from Holt; containing 21 inhabitants. It is pleasantly situated in the deep and well-wooded vale of the Glaven, and comprises 780a. 1r. 26p., of which 682 acres are arable, 76 pasture and meadow, and 41 woodland; the surface is undulated, and the views from the higher grounds are very fine. The living is a discharged sinecure rectory, valued in the king's books at £4, and in the patronage of Mrs. J. E. Best: the tithes produce £168. The church, which is mantled with ivy, has long been in ruins.
Bayford (St. Mary)
BAYFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Hertford, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Hertford; containing 357 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 1612 acres of land; the soil is clay. The living is annexed to the rectory of Essendon: the tithes have been commuted for £282. The church is a neat brick edifice, built by subscription in 1804, and containing an ancient octangular font ornamented with quatrefoils and roses.