A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Bayham, a hamlet.—See Frant.
Baylham (St. Peter)
BAYLHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Needham-Market; containing 275 inhabitants. The river Orwell and the Stow-Market and Ipswich canal bound this parish, which comprises 1332a. 3r. 19p., and is intersected by the road from Colchester to Stow-Market. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 4. 9½., and in the gift of the Rev. J. C. Aldrich: the tithes have been commuted for £300, and the glebe consists of 39 acres.
BAYSWATER, a hamlet, in the parish of Paddington, Holborn division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 1 mile from Cumberland-gate, London, on the Uxbridge road. Bayswater, which may now be considered as a suburb to the metropolis, consists of several ranges of neat houses, and of some handsome detached residences; it has been much increased by ranges of new buildings branching off from the main street towards the north, and is desirable as a place of residence from its vicinity to Kensington gardens, which are situated on the south. The district is lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are supplied with water from a reservoir originally constructed for the use of Kensington Palace, and subsequently granted to the proprietors of Chelsea water-works, on the condition that the supply of the palace should be regularly continued. Sir John Hill, M.D., a voluminous writer, resided here many years, and cultivated the plants from which he prepared his medicines, on the spot now occupied by the proprietor of the Bayswater tea-gardens. An episcopal chapel was built by Mr. Edward Orme, in 1818.
Bayton (St. Bartholomew)
BAYTON (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Cleobury-Mortimer, Lower division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Hundred-House and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 1¾ mile (S. E. by S.) from Cleobury-Mortimer; containing 468 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the north and west by a portion of Shropshire, from which it is partly divided by the river Rea; it comprises 1748a. 1r. 11p., and is intersected by the road from Worcester to Cleobury-Mortimer. The surface is hilly, but the land is well cultivated; and coal is obtained to some extent. Shakenhurst is a handsome seat on the margin of the county. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to that of Mamble, and valued in the king's books at £5. 0. 2½.: the tithes were some years since commuted for 180 acres of land. The church, a plain edifice, has been recently enlarged, and the old spire replaced by a square tower. A free school is supported by subscription.
BAYWORTH, a hamlet, in the parish of Sunningwell, hundred of Hormer, county of Berks; containing 75 inhabitants. Here was formerly a chapel of ease to the rectory of Sunningwell, but it has gone to decay.
Beachampton, or Beauchampton (St. Mary)
BEACHAMPTON, or Beauchampton (St. Mary), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 2½ miles (S. by W.) from Stony-Stratford, and 4½ (S. W.) from Wolverton station; containing 248 inhabitants. It comprises about 1500 acres of land, in general clayey and stoney; and is intersected by the river Ouse, and situated near the Grand Junction canal, from which there is a branch canal to Buckingham. Lace-making is carried on. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 16. 5½., and in the gift of Caius College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £345, and the glebe comprises 31 acres. The church has some remains of the decorated style. William Elmer founded a free grammar school in 1652, and endowed it with freehold lands now producing £70 per annum; he also bequeathed £5 per annum for apprenticing a poor boy, and there are other charities amounting to about £110. The remains of the fine old mansion of Lord Latimer, whose widow was married to Henry VIII., are still to be seen, with the royal arms in different parts.
BEACHLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of Tidenham, hundred of Westbury, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Chepstow; containing 224 inhabitants. This place is situated on a small peninsula at the mouth of the Wye, formed by the junction of that river with the Severn, over which latter is the Old Passage ferry, lately improved by the erection of stone piers and an establishment of steam-packets; it is remarkable for its early vegetation, the salubrity of its air, and the beauty of its surrounding scenery. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £16; patron, the Vicar of Tidenham; impropriator, C. S. Stokes, Esq. The chapel, which is in the early English style, was consecrated on Sept. 10th, 1833, and is dedicated to St. John; it was made a district church in 1842.
Beaconsfield (All Saints)
BEACONSFIELD (All Saints), a market-town and parish, in the union of Amersham, hundred of Burnham, county of Buckingham, 36 miles (S. E. by S.) from Buckingham, and 23¼ (W. by N.) from London; containing 1732 inhabitants. This parish comprises 4548a. 11p., of which 3568 acres are arable and meadow land, 778 woodland, and 172 road and waste. The town, which occupies 29 acres, is situated on a hill, and is supposed to have derived its name from a beacon formerly erected there; it consists of four streets, which meet in a convenient market-place in the centre, and the houses are in general well built, of handsome appearance, and amply supplied with water. The environs, in which there are some handsome seats, abound with beautiful scenery, and the air is remarkably salubrious. The market is on Thursday; the fairs, chiefly for horses, horned-cattle, and sheep, are held on Feb. 13th and Holy-Thursday. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 2. 8½.; net income, £545; patrons, the President and Fellows of Magdalene College, Oxford. The church is an ancient building of stone and flint, with a tower, and contains a mural tablet to the memory of Edmund Burke, who died at his seat called Gregories, in the parish, and was interred here: in the churchyard is a monument of white marble, to the memory of Edmund Waller, the poet, who died Oct. 21st, 1687. There is a meeting-house for Independents.
BEADLAM, a township, in the parish and union of Helmsley, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 3 miles (E.) from Helmsley; containing 158 inhabitants. This place, which adjoins the village of Nawton, in Kirkdale parish, is situated on the road between Helmsley and Kirkby-Moorside; a portion of the land is moor and woodland.
BEADNELL, a chapelry, in the parish of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Bambrough ward and of Northumberland, 10½ miles (E. S. E.) from Belford; containing 323 inhabitants. The surface is rather level; and of the soil, which is generally good, two-thirds are arable, and the rest luxuriant pasture: coal is abundant, and there are quarries of excellent limestone. The village is pleasantly situated on the sea-shore, having a small harbour; several vessels are employed in conveying lobsters, cured herrings, and other fish to London, and lime is exported in large quantities to Scotland. Races were annually held until 1826, when they were removed to Belford. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Perpetual Curate of Bambrough, with a net income of £79: the tithes have been commuted for £40. 14. The church, built in 1792, is a neat stone structure with a spire, and contains 250 sittings. Here is a small castle, which formerly belonged to the family of Forster; and close to the sea are remains of a chapel, supposed to have been a cell to Coldingham monastery.
Beaford (All Saints)
BEAFORD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Torrington, hundred of Shebbear, Black Torrington and Shebbear, and N. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Great Torrington; containing 713 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2506 acres, of which 210 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 15. 7½., and in the gift of Thomas May, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £244, and there are 64 acres of glebe. The church was damaged by lightning in 1799, but has been repaired and newly pewed. At Wooley Park are some remains of a Danish encampment.
Beaghall, or Beal
BEAGHALL, or Beal, a township, in the parish of Kellington, Lower division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 4 miles (E.) from Ferry-Bridge; containing 568 inhabitants. This place is situated on the south side of the river Aire, and on the road from Ferry-Bridge to Snaith; and comprises by computation 1570 acres, including the farm of Kellingley. A bridge crosses the river at the village, and leads to Birkin. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £393, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge, and the vicarial for £101. 11. 3.; there is a glebe of 2¾ acres. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. A curious Roman swivel, which was four feet under ground, has been dug up here.
Beaksbourne (St. Peter)
BEAKSBOURNE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Bridge, and within the cinque-port liberty of Hastings (of which it is a member), though locally in the hundred of Bridge and Petham, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 3½ miles (E. S. E.) from Canterbury; containing 332 inhabitants. This parish, on account of its distance from Hastings, had formerly a local jurisdiction, a mayor, and a prison; but it is now united with Canterbury, the archbishops of which once had a palace here, long since converted into a private dwelling-house. The parish comprises by measurement 1139 acres, of which 64 are in wood. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6; net income, arising from tithes, £170, with a permanent addition of £50 annually from the Archbishop, who is patron and appropriator.
Beal, with Lowlin
Bealings, Great (St. Mary)
BEALINGS, GREAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Carlford, E. division of Suffolk, 2 miles (W.) from Woodbridge; containing 377 inhabitants. It comprises 965 acres of land; the surface is hilly, and the soil light, and subject to inundation from a confluence of small streams, which run into the river Deben at Woodbridge, and thence into the sea. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 4. 7., and in the gift of Edward Moor, Esq.: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £8. 10., and the rectorial for £297. 5.; there are 11 acres of glebe.
Bealings, Little (All Saints)
BEALINGS, LITTLE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Carlford, E. division of Suffolk, 2¾ miles (W. by S.) from Woodbridge; comprising by admeasurement 712 acres, and containing 322 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 7. 3½.; net income, £140; patron, F. Smythies, Esq.
BEAMINSTER, a market-town and parish, in the union and hundred of Beaminster, Bridport division of Dorset, 17½ miles (W. N. W.) from Dorchester, and 137¼ (W. S. W.) from London; containing, with the tything of Langdon, 3270 inhabitants. During the civil war in the reign of Charles I., Prince Maurice, commanding a party of royalists engaged in besieging Lyme, took up his quarters in this town, which, a few days after, was nearly reduced to ashes by fire, stated by some historians to have been occasioned by accident, and by others to have been the result of a quarrel between the French and the Cornish men in the service of the king, who set fire to it in five different places. It was rebuilt by means of a parliamentary grant of £2000, but was again nearly destroyed by a fire which occurred in 1684: in 1781, it experienced a similar calamity, but the greater part of the buildings having been insured, it soon recovered its former prosperity. The town is pleasantly situated on the river Birt, which is formed by the union of several small springs that rise in the immediate vicinity; the houses are in general modern and well built, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. The manufacture of woollen-cloth, which formerly flourished here, is at present on the decline, and that of sail-cloth is now the principal source of employment; there is also a pottery for the coarser kinds of earthenware. The market, granted to William Ewel, prebendary of Sarum, in the 12th of Edward I., is on Thursday; and a fair is held on Sept. 19th, for cattle. Constables and other officers are appointed at the court leet of the lord of the hundred. The quarter-sessions for the county, now held at Dorchester, were formerly held here; and in 1638, an order of session was issued for building a house of correction at the expense of the division. The town-hall is a neat and commodious edifice, in which the public business is transacted.
The parish contains the manors of Beaminster Prima and Secunda, both till lately forming prebends in the Cathedral of Salisbury; the former valued in the king's books at £20. 2. 6., and the latter at £22. 5. 7½. The Living is a vicarage, annexed to that of Netherbury: the great tithes have been commuted for £220, and those of the incumbent for £300. The church, founded in honour of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, is a stately edifice in the later style of English architecture, with a fine tower 100 feet high, richly ornamented with sculptured designs of the Crucifixion, the Resurrection, the Ascension, and other subjects of scriptural history. There is a place of worship for Independents. The free school was founded in 1684, by Mrs. Frances Tucker, who endowed it with £20 per annum for the master, leaving also £30 per annum for apprenticing boys: the endowment now produces about £140, and the number of scholars is 100. The Rev. Samuel Hood, father of Lords Hood and Bridport, was master of the school early in the eighteenth century. An almshouse for eight aged persons was founded in 1630, by Sir John Strode, of Parnham, Knt., the income of which amounts to £20. Gilbert Adams, Esq., in 1626, gave £200 to the poor; and the Rev. William Hillary, in 1712, bequeathed the reversion, after ninety-nine years, of land in the parish of Carscombe, worth £35 per annum, for the benefit of twelve distressed families. The Knowle estate, in the parish, has been in the possession of the Daniels since the reign of Henry VIII., and there is a burial-ground for the family upon it. Dr. Thomas Sprat, Bishop of Rochester; and the Rev. Thomas Russel, Fellow of New College, Oxford, who distinguished himself by his defence of Warton's History of English Poetry, were natives of the town.
BEAMISH, a township, in the chapelry of Tanfield, parish of Chester-Le-Street, union of Lanchester, Middle division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 7½ miles (S. S. W.) from Gateshead; containing, with the township of Lintz-Green, 2671 inhabitants. It stands in the wooded vale of Team, which expands itself near the house of Beamish into a fine strath, bordered on all sides by rising grounds of irregular form, richly clothed with luxuriant forest-trees. The mansion, which contains some curious old portraits, is one of the best family residences in the county, having been much improved, and is remarkable for the handsome evergreens that ornament its pleasuregrounds: the old park of Beamish occupies an upland site to the south of the Team. There is a great quantity of coal in the township, worked from what is called the Tanfield colliery, and it also contains some iron-ore.
BEAMSLEY, a township, in the union of Skipton, Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 6½ miles (E. by N.) from Skipton; containing 235 inhabitants. This township, which includes Great Beamsley in the parish of Skipton, and Little Beamsley in that of Addingham, is on the eastern side of the river Wharfe, and comprises by computation 1820 acres of fertile land; Beamsley Hall is a handsome mansion pleasantly situated. A tithe rent-charge of £20 is payable to the rector of Addingham. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. An hospital was founded and endowed in 1593 by Margaret, Countess of Cumberland, for 13 poor women, 7 of them from Skipton, 5 from Silsden, and one from Stirton with Thorlby; and an estate at Harewood was left to the charity by her daughter, Anne, Countess of Pembroke. In 1809, timber was felled on the lands to the amount of £1176, of which part was invested in the Navy 5 per cents. The inmates have each separate apartments, and the buildings contain a chapel, in which prayers are read daily by a chaplain, who has £20 per annum; the Earl of Thanet, as representative of the founder, is trustee, and the annual income is £332.