A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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STANGHOE, a township, in the parish of Skelton, union of Guisborough, E. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 4½ miles (E.) from Guisborough; containing 109 inhabitants. This place was anciently the property of the family of de Brus, from whom it passed by marriage to the Fauconberges; the Nevilles next held the estate, and among more recent proprietors have been the families of Conyers, Trotter, and Hall. The township is situated a little to the north of the road between Whitby and Guisborough, and upon a stream which runs northward, and, after a course of a few miles, falls into the sea at Skinninggrove.
Stanhoe (All Saints)
STANHOE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Smithdon, W. division of Norfolk, 12 miles (N.) from Rougham; containing 445 inhabitants. It comprises 1398a. 3r. 23p., of which 1317 acres are arable, and 62 meadow and pasture: the lands are the property of D. Hoste and John Calthrop, Esqrs. Stanhoe Hall, the seat of the latter, is a handsome mansion of brick, finely situated. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16, and in the gift of Mr. Hoste: the tithes have been commuted for £480, and the glebe comprises 18 acres. The church is in the early and decorated English styles, with a square embattled tower, and contains some monuments to the Hoste family; also three stone sedilia and a piscina. There is a school endowed with £7. 10. per annum.
Stanhope (St. Thomas the Apostle)
STANHOPE (St. Thomas the Apostle), a small town, a parish, and the head of the union of Weardale, in the N. W. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham; containing upwards of 9000 inhabitants, of whom about 2000 are in Stanhope-Quarter, 5¾ miles (W.) from Wolsingham. Stanhope Park is remarkable in history as the place where, on the incursion of the Scots in the reign of Edward III., that monarch encamped his forces; and on an eminence to the west of the village might formerly be seen the remains of an ancient fortress demolished by the Scots upon that occasion. The parish is divided into four quarters, including six townships. These quarters are, Newlandside, which contains 3816 acres of inclosed land, and a common, named Bollihope, of 7000 acres; Stanhope quarter, which comprises 3725 acres inclosed, and 7200 common; Park quarter, which has 12,326 acres of land inclosed, and 500 common named Sunderland; and Forest quarter, which consists of 8124 acres inclosed, and 11,876 common. The village is situated on the northern side of the river Wear; and near its western extremity is Stanhope Hall, an ancient mansion regularly defended by a curtain, formerly the residence of the family of Featherstonhaugh, to whom the manor belonged. With the exception of that part of the parish on the banks of the river, the country is rugged and mountainous, exhibiting, however, in parts, much picturesque beauty, diversified with waterfalls, and rocks and caves of limestone fringed with natural wood.
The district is rich in minerals. Lead-ore is wrought upon a very extensive scale, in some works near the Wear, belonging to T. W. Beaumont, Esq., and to the London Lead Company; the vicinity also abounds with ironstone and limestone of excellent quality. Of the produce of Mr. Beaumont's mines, a tenth part belongs to the Bishop of Durham, and a ninth to the rector of the parish. The terminus of the Pontop and South Shields railway for the conveyance of goods and mineral produce is within a mile of the town: extensive limekilns have been erected; and large quantities of lime are forwarded by the railroad to the northern parts of the county, together with a portion of the lead smelted in the district, and some ironstone. Coal is obtained from Medomsley in return, but not to any great extent. A market was granted to the inhabitants by charter of Bishop Langley in 1421, but it has been discontinued; fairs are held on the Wednesday before Easter, the second Friday in September, and December 21st, the last for cattle. Petty-sessions for the division take place every month; and a court baron occurs occasionally at Frosterley.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £67. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Durham, with a net income of £4660: the glebe comprises 220 acres; the predial tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £700. The church, which is situated on a slope to the north of the town, has a tower of great thickness, which was probably used as a keep in former times: the nave has round pillars supporting circular arches; the chancel is large, with oak stalls. At Rookhope is a chapel of ease, built by the late Bishop Barrington. Two oratories, one at Eastgate and the other at Frosterley, where divine service is performed every Sunday, have been built during the incumbency of the present rector; and at Heatherycleugh and Weardale are separate incumbencies. There are meeting-houses for dissenters in various parts of the parish. The union of Weardale, of which the workhouse is at Stanhope, comprises four parishes, and contains a population of 10,174. In the Park quarter is a small camp, evidently of Roman construction; and a Roman altar, said to have been found on Bollihope, is preserved in the rectory. Among the incumbents of the parish have been, Bishop Butler, whose celebrated Analogy of Religion is said to have been composed in this retirement; and Dr. Phillpotts, Bishop of Exeter. Viscount Hardinge, the late governor-general of India, and his gallant brother, Captain Hardinge, who fell in action in the East Indies, were brought up at Stanhope, of which their father, the Rev. George Hardinge, was rector.
Stanion (St. Peter)
STANION (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Kettering, hundred of Corby, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4¾ miles (S. E.) from Rockingham; containing 334 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1574 acres; it is intersected by the road from Kettering to Stamford, and watered by a stream which flows into the river Nene. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Brigstock. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Stanley (St. Andrew)
STANLEY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Shardlow, hundred of Appletree, though locally in the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 6 miles (N. E. by E.) from Derby; containing 368 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £64; patron, Sir Henry Wilmot, Bart.; impropriator, R. Bateman, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1792.
Stanley, or Old-Swan
STANLEY, or Old-Swan, an ecclesiastical district, in the district parish of West Derby, parish of Waltonon-the-Hill, union and hundred of West Derby, county of Lancaster, 3 miles (E.) from Liverpool, on the road to Warrington; containing about 3000 inhabitants. The surface of the land is elevated and hilly, the scenery pleasing, and the air salubrious. There are some extensive works. The Old-Swan Rope-walks, established in 1819 by William Jackson, Esq. (of Elm House), and his partners, is one of the largest establishments of the kind in the kingdom; the Crown and Window Glass works of Robert Barton Esq., are also very considerable, and the glass made of the finest quality. The corporation of Liverpool have sunk a well at this place, sixty yards deep, and erected a steamengine on the spot, which pumps up daily an abundant supply of water for a part of the borough. In the district are several good sandstone-quarries. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £150; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Robert Thomas Gardner, A.M. The church, dedicated to St. Ann, was erected in 1831, at an expense of £2000, by the late Thomas Gardner, Esq., aided by a grant of £400 from the Incorporated Society; it is a substantial stone building with a tower, and has a very neat interior: a gallery was added in 1845. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. The Roman Catholic chapel of St. Oswald, lately erected, from designs by Pugin, presents a revival of the old English parochial church, and is a large and handsome structure consisting of a nave and chancel, with aisles, and a tower at the western end of the nave, surmounted by a spire terminating in a gilt cross. The interior is richly ornamented; the altar, cross, and candlesticks are copied from ancient models, and the east and south windows of the chancel are filled with stained glass. The cost of the building has been estimated at £5500. A school in connexion with this edifice was built by Edward Challoner, Esq., at an expense of £1000. Very large national schools were erected in 1841.
Stanley with Studley
Stanley, with Wrenthorpe
STANLEY, with Wrenthorpe, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Wakefield, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 1¾ mile (N. N. E.) from Wakefield; containing 6625 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have been the site of a Roman station, and numerous relics of the Romans have been found here, including crucibles, moulds, and silver and copper coins: about 40 pounds' weight of coins were discovered in 1812, and many of the antiquities are deposited in the British Museum. The district comprises about 4800 acres, of which 2870 are in Stanley, and the remainder in Wrenthorpe; and includes some scattered hamlets and agreeable villas, forming the northern suburbs of Wakefield. The surface is boldly varied; the scenery presents many interesting features, and the soil is fertile and well cultivated: the substratum abounds with coal, and some extensive mines are in operation. Moor House, the seat of John Maude, Esq., author of a Visit to the Falls of Niagara in 1800, is a handsome residence commanding fine views. The village of Stanley is on the west bank of the river Calder; a few of the inhabitants are employed in twinespinning. Every facility of conveyance is afforded by the Aire and Calder canal, which is here conveyed across the river by a noble aqueduct, built at an expense of £40,000, and communicating with a tramroad to Lofthouse gate: the Leeds and Manchester railway is also carried over the river by a beautiful viaduct. The Aire and Calder Navigation Company have an establishment here for the general repair of the banks, bridges, &c, of the canal and river; and at Ouchthorp Lane is the reservoir for the Wakefield water-works, excavated at a cost of £25,000, in 1839. The West riding pauper lunatic asylum, for 500 patients, is also in the district. The church was erected by the Parliamentary Commissioners, in 1824, at an expense of £12,000; it is a handsome structure in the decorated English style, with two turrets, and contains 900 sittings, of which 400 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Vicar of Wakefield; net income, £150, with a good parsonagehouse. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1793. The scene of the battle fought by Robin Hood, Scarlet, and Little John, against the Pindar of Wakefield, is laid here according to the ancient ballad.
Stanley, King's (St. George)
STANLEY, KING'S (St. George), a parish, in the union of Stroud, Lower division of the hundred of Whitstone, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3¼ miles (W. by S.) from Stroud; containing 2200 inhabitants. This place is supposed to derive the adjunct to its name from having been the residence of some of the Mercian kings. The manufacture of woollen-cloth appears to have been introduced here at a very early period, and in the reign of Elizabeth was conducted by Richard Clotterbooke, who was interred in the church, and whose descendants for many generations carried on that business in various parts of the neighbourhood. The Stanley mills now employ from 800 to 1000 persons. The parish comprises 1679a. 2r. 5p., of which 220 acres are woodland, aud the remainder arable and pasture; the substratum contains good freestone for building, and also ragstone for the roads. The Severn and Thames canal passes near the village, and the Gloucester and Bristol railway within a mile, where it has a station from which a line diverges to the Great Western railway. A fair is held on the 23rd of April. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 15. 2½., aud in the gift of Jesus College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £410, and the glebe comprises 81 acres. The church, an ancient and handsome structure, has been enlarged. There is a place of worship for Baptists; and two national schools, one at each extremity of the parish, are supported partly by bequests producing about £26 per annum. Eight Roman altars, a large brass of Alexander Severus, and other relics of antiquity, were found some years since.
Stanley St. Leonard (St. Swithin)
STANLEY ST. LEONARD (St. Swithin), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Stroud, Lower division of the hundred of Whitstone, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Stroud; containing 864 inhabitants. This place was a considerable town before 1686, when a fire destroyed most of its buildings. Fairs are still held on St. Swithin's day and Nov. 6th; the market was held on Saturday, under a grant of Edward II. renewed in 1620. The parish comprises by measurement 1025 acres; the soil is generally a stiff clay, the surface boldly undulated, and the scenery richly embellished with wood. In the village is an extensive manufacture of woollencloth. The Gloucester and Bristol railway passes through the parish, and the Stroud navigation within a mile of it. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £200; patron, the Rev. T. P. Jones. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1830; the glebe comprises 130 acres. The church is an ancient cruciform structure, partly in the early and partly in the later English style, with a low tower in the centre, singularly constructed with double walls having a passage and recesses between them. It belonged to a priory of Benedictine monks, dedicated to St. Leonard, founded here in 1146 as a cell to the abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, and which at the Dissolution possessed a revenue of £126. 9. 8.: there are considerable remains of the buildings, of which the kitchen is now a dairy.
STANLEY-PONTLARGE, a parish, in the union of Winchcomb, Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2¾ miles (N. W.) from Winchcomb; containing 75 inhabitants. It comprises 600 acres; the soil is a deep clay, and the surface generally flat. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Toddington: the tithes were commuted for land in 1807.
STAN LOW-HOUSE, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, 8 miles (N. by E.) from Chester; containing 30 inhabitants. It is situated on the estuary of the Mersey, which forms its northern boundary; and comprises 253 acres, of which the soil is loam. An abbey of Cistercian monks was founded here in 1178, by John Lacy, constable of Chester; but on account of the inundations of the Mersey in 1296, it was removed to Whalley, in Lancashire, when a cell only was left at this place. Some small remains of the conventual buildings are still visible in a farmhouse.
STANMER, a parish, in the union of Newhaven, hundred of Ringmer, rape of Pevensey, though locally in that of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Brighton; containing 120 inhabitants. It comprises about 2840 acres of land, chiefly arable, with a large tract of down and meadow. Here is Stanmer Park, the seat of the Earl of Chichester, lying to the north of the road and railway between Brighton and Lewes; its plantations contribute greatly to improve the scenery. The living is a rectory, united by act of parliament to the vicarage of Falmer, and valued in the king's books at £16: the tithes have been commuted for £177. The church was rebuilt in 1839, at the expense of the Earl of Chichester, and consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury on the 24th of October in that year. It is in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a graceful and well-proportioned spire; the details are elegant, and the whole displays a rich and beautiful specimen of that style.
Stanmore, Great (St. John the Evangelist)
STANMORE, GREAT (St. John the Evangelist), a parish, in the union of Hendon, hundred of Gore, county of Middlesex, 10 miles (N. W.) from London; containing 1177 inhabitants. The first meeting, after the conclusion of the late war, of the Prince Regent and his illustrious guests the Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia, with Louis XVIII., took place here. The parish comprises 1441a. 1r., of which 170 acres are arable, 1217 meadow and pasture, and 54 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of the Marquess of Abercorn: the tithes have been commuted for £444, and the glebe comprises 41 acres. There is a place of worship for Independents. The celebrated Dr. Parr kept a school on the site of a house now belonging to Mr. Barren. Here is a monument in memory of Cassivelaunus; also a mound called Belmont, thrown up at the expense of the Duke of Chandos.
Stanmore, Little (St. Lawrence)
STANMORE, LITTLE (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Hendon, hundred of Gore, county of Middlesex, ½ a mile (N. W.) from Edgware; containing 830 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Armstrong family: the great tithes have been commuted for £36. 10., and the incumbent's for £415. The church, situated half a mile from the village, was rebuilt, with the exception of the tower, about 1715, by the Duke of Chandos, whose splendid mansion of Canons was in the parish. The internal decorations were completed in 1720. The ceiling and walls were painted by Laguerre. On one side of the altar is a painting of the Nativity, and on the other a Dead Christ; behind it is a recess for the organ, supported by columns of the Corinthian order, and in the back ground are paintings of Moses receiving the Law, and Christ preaching. Handel, who resided at Canons as chapel-master, is said to have composed his sacred drama of Esther for the consecration of Stanmore church; the anthems used in it were composed by him, and the morning and evening services by Pepusch. On September 25th, 1790, a grand miscellaneous concert of sacred music, selected from Handel's works, was performed to his honour in the church. A vault was constructed on the north side of the chancel by the Duke of Chandos, for the interment of his family; and in a large chamber over it is a monument to his ancestor, James, first duke. The free grammar school was established and endowed by Sir Lancelot Lake, in 1656; the income is £50 per annum. Almshouses for seven persons were founded in 1640 by Dame Mary Lake, having an endowment of about £45 per annum.—See Edgware.