A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Lugwardine (St. Peter)
LUGWARDINE (St. Peter), a parish, in the hundred of Radlow, union and county of Hereford, 2¾ miles (E. by N.) from Hereford; containing 690 inhabitants. It is intersected by the river Lug, and the road from Hereford to Ledbury; and contains 2036 acres, of a highly fertile soil. The living is a vicarage, with the livings of Little Dewchurch, Hentland, Llangarrin, and St. Weonard's annexed, valued in the king's books at £22. 7. 1.; net income, £929; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford.
LUKE'S, ST., a suburban parish, in the Finsbury division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex; comprising the liberties of the City-road, East Finsbury, West Finsbury, Golden-lane, Old-street, and Whitecross-street; and containing 49,829 inhabitants. The earliest notice of this district occurs in its connexion with the Eald or Old street, by which term the Saxons designated the Roman military way from the western extremity of the metropolis, without the great Fen, which is stated to have given name to Fensbury, now Finsbury, and to Moorfields. The road is said to have extended from London Wall to Hoxton, and to have been continued through the churchyard of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, and through the parish of Bethnal-green, to the Old Ford near Hackney. The southern part of the Fen was gradually raised by various deposits, and particularly by many hundred cart-loads of bones removed from the charnel-house of St. Paul's, by order of the Duke of Somerset, when Protector; whence it obtained the name of Bonehill (now Bunhill) Fields. A portion of the site was appropriated by the city as a cemetery during the plague in 1665, and is now a burialground. Another portion of the same fields was assigned for the practice of archery, by the corporation of the city of London, in 1498; it was subsequently let in trust to Sir Paul Pindar, and appropriated in 1641 as a place of exercise for the city trained-bands. It is now inclosed by buildings, and is the property of the Hon. the Artillery Company, who, during the late war, formed a very efficient regiment, equipped at their own expense, and who still continue to muster occasionally, and have an armoury, a mess-room, and other apartments, forming a handsome and substantial building, in front of which is a spacious plot of ground for field exercise, called the "Artillery Ground." In Goldenlane was the original playhouse of Alleyn, founder of Dulwich College; the front, bearing the royal arms, is yet remaining. Peerless Pool, called by Stow "Perilous" Pool, and in 1743 converted into one of the largest swimming-baths in the kingdom, is still used for bathing. Adjacent to Bunhill-row, was the lord mayor's "Dog-house," or kennel for the city hounds; and at Mount Hill, near the upper end of Goswell-street, now levelled and covered with buildings, was one of the bastions erected by the parliamentarians, in 1643.
St. Luke's was anciently part of the parish of Cripplegate, the church of which being found inadequate to the accommodation of the parishioners, an additional one was erected in Old-street by the commissioners for new churches in the reign of Queen Anne, who assigned to it the present district; which, after the completion of the church, was laid out in numerous streets and squares, covered with buildings in every direction, and has become one of the most extensive and populous parishes in the suburbs of the metropolis. It is well paved, lighted with gas, and supplied with water by the New River Company. The City of London Gas Company have one of their establishments in Brick-lane, in the parish; and there are various cooperages, breweries, an indigo-manufactory, and a rope-walk. Since the formation of the Regent's canal, extensive lime, timber, and coal wharfs have been formed. The city basin, communicating with the canal, crosses the City-road, and forms a grand depot for merchandise forwarded by water to every part of the kingdom; the principal carriers have large wharfs and warehouses on the banks. The living is a rectory not in charge; net income, £578: patrons, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. The church, built in 1732, is a plain substantial edifice of stone, in the Grecian style, with a lofty steeple in the form of a fluted obelisk; the interior is neatly arranged, and the roof is supported by Ionic pillars separating the nave from the aisles: a new organ, of great power, was opened in March, 1844. In the churchyard are the tombs of several of the Caslons, eminent type-founders in the parish. St. Barnabas' district church, King'ssquare, a neat edifice of brick, with a stone portico of the Ionic order, surmounted by a slender spire, was erected in 1823, by the Parliamentary Commissioners, at an expense of £12,853, and contains 1608 sittings, of which 917 are free: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120: patron, the Rector. St. Paul's district church, in Bunhill-row, a neat edifice in a simple pointed style, was consecrated July 10th, 1839: the living is also a perpetual curacy, in the Rector's gift. On the north side of the City-road is another church, completed in the winter of 1847-8; it is built of Kentish ragstone, and has a handsome tower and spire. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Calvinistic Methodists. Of these, the Tabernacle was erected by the Rev. G. Whitefield, founder of the Calvinistic Methodists, and in it he himself for some time preached: that belonging to the Wesleyans was built on the site of the City foundry (which was used for casting cannon so late as 1715), by the Rev. J. Wesley, who was interred behind it in 1791. In front of the latter is Tindal's, or Bunhill-fields, burial-ground; the dues for interments in which are received by the corporation of London: the number of persons interred annually averages from 1200 to 1500. Among the numerous distinguished nonconformist divines buried here, may be enumerated John Bunyan, author of the Pilgrim's Progress, who died in 1618; Dr. Williams, founder of the Dissenters' Library in Redcross-street, who died in 1716; Dr. Isaac Watts, the poet, logician, and divine, who died in 1748; the Rev. Dr. Neale, author of the History of the Puritans, who died in 1765; Dr. Lardner, author of the Credibility of the Gospel History, who died in 1768; Dr. Gill, who died in 1771; Dr. Richard Price, the eminent mathematician, author of Reversionary Payments, &c., who died in 1791; the Rev. Theophilus Lindsey, who died in 1808; Dr. A. Rees, editor of the Encyclopædia, who died in 1825; and the Rev. John Townsend, founder of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, who died in 1826.
The parochial school for boys was established in 1698, and that for girls in 1761; the school-house, in Goldenlane, was built in 1780: these schools are supported by subscription, and by a fund of £6500 three per cent. consols., which has arisen from benefactions and savings. The free school founded by William Worrall in 1689 has an endowment producing about £300 per annum. The Haberdashers' Company have a house and premises in Bunhill-row, in which a considerable number of boys are instructed. St. Luke's Hospital, for lunatics, is noticed under the head of London. Almshouses for eight aged women were founded in 1650, by Mrs. Susan Amias; the income exceeds £220 per annum. Edward Alleyn, founder of Dulwich College, erected ten houses, in Pesthouse-row, now Bath-street. Six were founded in the City-road by the Dyers' Company, in 1776: six others, founded by the Girdlers' Company, were rebuilt in 1741; and four houses founded by the Ironmongers' Company, in Mitchel-court, Old-street, were rebuilt in 1811, pursuant to the will of Thomas Lewer, Esq. The French Hospital, in Bath-street, for the maintenance and support of French Protestants, was incorporated in the reign of George I.; it is a substantial building of brick, occupying three sides of a quadrangular area, the centre of which is laid out in gardens. The City of London Lying-in Hospital, originally instituted in 1771, in Shaftesbury House, Aldersgate-street, and subsequently removed to its present situation, is supported by subscription, and constitutes a school of midwifery, to which female pupils only are admitted.
Lullingstone (St. Botolph)
LULLINGSTONE (St. Botolph), a parish, in the union of Dartford, hundred of Axton, Dartford, and Wilmington, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 7 miles (S. E. by E.) from Foot's-Cray; containing 59 inhabitants. It includes the merged parish of Lullingstane, and comprises 1530 acres, of which 200 are in wood. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Lullingstane united, valued in the king's books at £7. 16. 8.; net income, £350; patron, Sir P. H. Dyke, Bart. The church, pleasantly situated in the park of Lullingstone Castle, the seat of Sir P. H. Dyke, is a small edifice, of which the nave and chancel are separated by a richly carved screen supporting a rood-loft, in good preservation; the windows exhibit a series of Scriptural representations in beautiful stained glass, and the building contains several fine monuments. The church of Lullingstane is demolished. Roman bricks, coins, and military weapons, with part of a tessellated pavement, have been ploughed up.
Lullington (All Saints)
LULLINGTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Repton and Gresley, S. division of the county of Derby, 7 miles (S.) from Burton; containing 650 inhabitants. The manor of "Lulletune" was in the Gresley family, in the reign of Edward I.; and the church was given by that family to the priory of Gresley, in the reign of Edward II. The parish is bounded by the river Maise on the south, and consists of the townships of Lullington and Coton-in-the-Elms, together comprising 2990a. 1r. 14p., whereof 1803a. 3r. 18p. are in Lullington township; of the latter, two-thirds are arable, and the remainder pasture, with a little wood. The soil of the parish is partly a marly and partly a sandy loam, on a red marly subsoil; the land is elevated, with extensive prospects, embracing Lichfield cathedral, Tamworth, &c. Charles Robert Colvile, Esq., is lord of the manor of Lullington, and owner of the township. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 11. 10.; and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriators, Lady Sophia Des Voeux, Lady Wilmot Horton, and Mr. Colvile. The glebe consists of 56a. 3r. 23p., valued at £114 per annum; with a glebe-house. The church is an ancient structure, comprising a nave, chancel, tower, and spire; the last is high, and very peculiar. A neat school was built near the east end of the church, in 1843, by the lord of the manor, by whom it is also supported. Lullington is celebrated for the excellent quality of its cheese.
Lullington (All Saints)
LULLINGTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Frome, E. division of Somerset, 2¾ miles (N. by E.) from the town of Frome; containing 139 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £63; patron and impropriator, Richard H. Cox, Esq. The church has some Norman portions, with others of later style.
LULLINGTON, a parish, in the union of Eastbourne, hundred of Alciston, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 8 miles (S. E. by E.) from the town of Lewes; containing 39 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the Cuckmere river. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 12. 11.; net income, £42; patron, the Bishop of Chichester: the impropriation belongs to the Earl and Countess Amherst. The church, which is in the early English style, is the chancel of a former edifice, and only about eighteen feet square.
Lullworth, East (St. Andrew)
LULLWORTH, EAST (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, hundred of Winfrith, Wareham division of Dorset, 6 miles (S. W.) from Wareham; containing 392 inhabitants. This place, at a very early period, was in the possession of the De Lolleworths, and subsequently of the Newburghs, who succeeded to the property in the reign of Edward I.; the lands afterwards came to the Howards, earls of Suffolk, one of whom, in 1588, on the site of an ancient castle, laid the foundation of the present noble castle of Lullworth, which was completed in 1641 by an ancestor of the Weld family. It is said to be from a design by Inigo Jones, and is a massive structure, forming an exact square, the sides of which measure 80 feet, and having at each angle a circular tower 30 feet in diameter. The main entrance, on the east, is approached by a handsome flight of steps, and decorated with the arms of Weld, several fine statues, and two inscriptions commemorating the visits of George III. and his Royal Consort in 1789. This castle, which is situated on an eminence about a mile from the sea, was long the residence of the late Duke of Gloucester, and subsequently of Charles X., on his expulsion from the throne of France. Dr. Weld, the late proprietor, who was raised to the dignity of cardinal in the Church of Rome, received many exiles of the order of La Trappe at the period of the first French Revolution, and appropriated to them a farm, where they formed a religious fraternity, and remained till they were recalled at the general peace by Louis XVIII. The parish comprises 1939 acres, of which 331 are common or waste land. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 14. 7.; patron and impropriator, Joseph Weld, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £100, and the vicarial for £80; the vicarial glebe consists of 65 acres. The old church, a spacious and beautiful edifice, was taken down, with the exception of the tower, at the commencement of the present century; and a new church, a much smaller structure, was erected in its stead. Near the castle is a Roman Catholic chapel, fitted up with much taste and magnificence. The sum of £56 per annum, the bequest of Mrs. Dorothy Pickering, is distributed to twelve poor Protestant widows or maidens. Within the parish are many vestiges of antiquity; especially barrows, in which human and other skeletons, rude urns, trinkets, &c., have been found, supposed to be British from the coarseness of the urns, and the absence of all Roman relics. On a lofty hill called Flower's Barrow, is a triple intrenchment denominated the "British Camp."
Lullworth, West (Holy Trinity)
LULLWORTH, WEST (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, liberty of Bindon, Wareham division of Dorset, 8 miles (S. W.) from Wareham; containing 407 inhabitants. The village is entirely encircled with hills, with the exception of a narrow gorge, which winds southward to the sea. Lullworth Cove is a great natural curiosity, into which the sea flows, through a wide gap in the cliff, of sufficient depth for vessels of 100 tons' burthen; the landing, however, is not good, and is often dangerous. The surrounding rocks, rising to an immense height, are singularly undermined and perforated by the lashing of the waves, which keep up a continual and terrific roar. The "Arched Rock," about a mile from the Cove, has an opening about 20 feet high, through which the sea presents a peculiarly grand appearance. The living of West Lullworth is annexed to the rectory of WinfrithNewburgh.
LULSLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of Suckley, union of Martley, Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 7½ miles (W.) from Worcester; containing 120 inhabitants. It is bounded on the northeast by the river Teme, and comprises 846 acres of fertile land under good cultivation; the surface is gently undulated, and the scenery of pleasing character. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits, and many of the females in the making of gloves for the manufacturers in Worcester. The tithes have been commuted for £162. 11., and the glebe comprises 3¼ acres. The chapel, dedicated to St. Giles, is a neat structure with a wood tower; marriages, baptisms, and burials are solemnized in it: the chapel-yard is not consecrated, and consequently interments take place only in the chapel.
LUMB, a hamlet and ecclesiastical district, in the parochial chapelry of Newchurch-in-Rossendale, parish of Whalley, union of Haslingden, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 10 miles (N. N. W.) from Rochdale; containing 2262 inhabitants. The hamlet, which is of small extent, is situated in a picturesque valley, along which runs the stream or brook Whitewell; the scenery around is bold and mountainous, reminding the traveller much of the hills of Derbyshire. There are numerous quarries of good building-stone, and abundance of coal, in the district; articles of great importance to the several woollen and cotton mills built along the banks of the stream. The foundation stone of the church, to be called St. Michael's, was laid by John Hargreaves, Esq., the donor of the site, on Michaelmas-day, 1847, and it is intended that the building shall contain 600 sittings: divine service is at present performed in a licensed room. The patronage is vested, conformably with the provisions of the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37, in the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester, alternately. The Baptists and Methodists have places of worship.
Lumby, with Huddleston.—See Huddleston.
LUMLEY, GREAT, a township, in the parish and union of Chester-le-Street, N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham, 1½ mile (S. S. E.) from Chester-le-Street; comprising 1321 acres, and containing 1796 inhabitants, who are principally employed in collieries. The village is seated on the east side of the river Wear, and about a mile to the south of Lumley Castle. The impropriate tithes, including those of Little Lumley, have been commuted for £314. 10. Church service is performed every Sunday in a licensed room; and there are two places of worship for Wesleyans. An hospital for twelve persons was founded in 1686, by Sir John Duck, Bart., of Durham, who endowed it with property now producing £40 per annum; and the township is entitled to rents, under the will of Henry Smith, averaging between £40 and £50, which are annually distributed among the poor.
LUMLEY, LITTLE, a township, in the parish and union of Chester-le-Street, N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham, 1½ mile (S. E.) from Chester-le-Street; containing 381 inhabitants. It comprises 1001 acres, of which two-thirds are land favourable to the growth of wheat, barley, and turnips. A coal-mine is in operation. On a fine eminence, sloping to the eastern bank of the river Wear, stands the stately castle of Lumley, erected in the reign of Edward I. by Robert de Lumley, ancestor of the Earl of Scarborough: it is built of yellow freestone, in a quadrangular form, and has at each corner an octangular machicolated turret; but the eastern part only retains its ancient appearance. At the bottom of one of the avenues leading to the castle are a fine basin of water, a salmon lock, and a ferry over the Wear.
LUND, an ecclesiastical parish, in the parish of Kirkham, union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of Lancashire, 2½ miles (E. by S.) from Kirkham, and 6½ (W. by N.) from Preston; containing 862 inhabitants. This parish, which was constituted in 1840, under the provisions of the act 1st and 2nd of Victoria, cap. 106, comprises the townships of Clifton-with-Salwick and Newton-with-Scales. The Lancaster canal, and the road from Kirkham to Preston, pass through. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford, who are the impropriators; gross income, £192, with a parsonage-house. The vicarial tithes of the two townships will be added to the income on the next avoidance of Kirkham, and the value of the living will then be about £350 per annum. The church, formerly a chapel, was built in 1825, and is a stone edifice in the early English style, with a campanile turret: the cost of erection was £800.—See Clifton, and Newton.
Lund (All Saints)
LUND (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Beverley, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from Beverley; containing 419 inhabitants. The parish is on the road from Beverley to Malton, and comprises by measurement 2950 acres, of which about 2000 are pasture, and 60 woodland, and the remainder arable; the surface is rather flat and open, and the scenery embraces some agreeable prospects. There are quarries of chalkstone, which is burnt into lime, and used for building and agricultural purposes. A pleasure-fair is held in the village on the third Thursday in Lent. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 0½.; net income, £188; patron, Charles Grimston, Esq.: the tithes were commuted at the inclosure, in 1795, for 146 acres of land to the vicar, and 185 to the impropriator. The church is a neat plain structure, consisting of a nave, chancel, and north aisle, with a south porch. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
Lund, with Cliff.—See Cliff
Lunds, or Helbeck-Lunds
LUNDS, or Helbeck-Lunds, a chapelry, in the parish of Aysgarth, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) from Hawes; containing about 80 inhabitants. This chapelry is about six miles in length, and three in breadth, and includes the hamlets of Birk-Riggs, Cam-houses, and Litherskew; it is chiefly grazing-land, and the houses are much scattered. The source of the river Ure is here, at the point of division between the counties of York and Westmorland. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £75; patron, the Vicar of Aysgarth.
LUNDY ISLAND, in the hundred of Braunton, N. division of Devon, 2½ leagues (N. W. by N.) from Hartland Point, and 4 (N.) from Clovelly. This island is situated in the mouth of the Bristol Channel, and is upwards of three miles in length, and one in breadth, containing about 2000 acres, of which not more than 400 are in cultivation; it is so defended by lofty and precipitous rocks, as to be inacessible, except at a small beach on the eastern side, where is a landing-place, secured by the Isle of Rats. The more elevated ground, rising 800 feet above the level of the sea, commands extensive prospects of the English and Welsh coasts; and at the northern extremity of the island is a high pyramidal rock, called the Constable. Ruins exist of an old chapel, which was dedicated to St. Anne. From the quantities of human bones frequently ploughed up, and some remaining vestiges of ancient cultivation, the isle is supposed to have been formerly much more populous. It is recorded that one Morisco, having been frustrated in a conspiracy to assassinate Henry III., made this his retreat, became the chief of a band of pirates, and for his crimes was executed here by command of the king; and also that Edward II., at one time during his disturbed reign, proposed retiring hither for safety from his rebellious nobles. Morisco's castle, situated near the south-eastern point, and originally a strong fortification, with outworks, was in the parliamentary war held by Lord Saye and Sele for Charles I.; and in the reign of William and Mary, the French seized it by stratagem, and maintained themselves in it a considerable time.
LUNE-DALE, a township, in the parish of RomaldKirk, union of Teesdale, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 11 miles (N. W. by W.) from Barnard-Castle; containing 339 inhabitants. This is a large township, including the hamlets of Laith Chapel, Grasholme, Thwing-garth, Birtle, Bow-bank, Carbeck, and Wemergill, and comprising by computation 21,680 acres of land. The greater part is a high tract of open moors, called Lune Forest, extending to the borders of Westmorland. The village is situated on the road from Appleby to Lonton, a short distance westward of the river Lune. At Laith is a chapel of ease to the parochial church. The tithes were commuted for land in 1811, under an inclosure act.
LUNT, a township, in the parish of Sefton, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 7½ miles (N.) from Liverpool; containing 39 inhabitants. This small township anciently gave name to a family which had certain lands here by gift of Nicholas Blundell. It is supposed that the heiress of the Lunts married into the Molyneux family, and that the property thus descended to the earls of Sefton, whose ancestors have been from time immemorial the superior lords of the parish. The township lies to the west of the road between Liverpool and Ormskirk, and is separated from Altcar by the river Alt; it comprises 430 acres. The tithes have been commuted for £72, and the glebe consists of 4 acres.
Luppitt (St. Mary)
LUPPITT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Honiton, hundred of Axminster, Honiton and S. divisions of Devon, 4 miles (N.) from Honiton; containing 782 inhabitants. The parish comprises 5356 acres, of which about 2000 are common or waste. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 10½., and in the gift of the family of Bernard: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £140, and a modus is received in lieu of the vicarial; the glebe contains about 5 acres, with a house. The church has a stone screen and font in the early English style. Here are remains of an ancient residence of the Carews, and on the brow of a hill within the parish is an old fortification, called Dumpton Fort.
LUPTON, a township, in the parish of KirkbyLonsdale, poor-law union of Kendal, Lonsdale ward, county of Westmorland, 3¼ miles (W. by N.) from Kirkby-Lonsdale; containing, with the hamlet of Crowbrow, 285 inhabitants.
LURGASHALL, a parish, in the union of Midhurst, hundred of Rotherbridge, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 15 miles (S. by W.) from Godalming; containing 771 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by the county of Surrey; and comprises 4857a. 3r. 31p., of which about 2269 acres are arable, 561 meadow and pasture, and 599 waste. Blackdown, a hill 800 feet above the level of the sea, is in the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the gift of Colonel Wyndham: the tithes have been commuted for £450; there is a glebe-house, and the glebe contains 10 acres. The church, which is in the early style, with later additions, has a tower surmounted by a shingled spire, on the south, and contains a very fine font of Sussex marble.