A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Lydham (Holy Trinity)
LYDHAM (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Clun, partly in the hundred and county of Montgomery, but chiefly in the hundred of Purslow, S. division of Salop, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Bishop'sCastle; the English portion containing 128 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the west of the road from Bishop's-Castle to Shrewsbury, and comprises about 4000 acres: the river Camlet rises in it. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £463; patron, Sir H. Oakeley: the glebe contains 40 acres of land.
LYDIATE, a township, in the parish of Halsall, union of Ormskirk, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Ormskirk; containing 848 inhabitants. In the reign of Richard II., this place was possessed by a family of the local name, whose heiress married into the Blackburn family; and an heiress of the latter conveyed Lydiate to Thomas, son of Sir John Ireland, of the Hutt, and Hale. The Irelands continued to hold the property till the latter part of the 17th century; in the middle of that century, Lawrence Ireland, the then proprietor of Lydiate, had two daughters, one of whom was married to Sir Charles Anderton, of Lostock, who died in 1691, leaving his widow with five sons and a daughter. The two eldest of the sons died young; the third became a Benedictine monk, and the fourth, Francis, risked his fortune and life in the cause of the Stuarts, in 1715: after the battle of Preston he was attainted, but his life was spared; and being liberated from prison, he resided at Lydiate with his mother until her death in 1720, and possessed the property until his own decease in 1760, having survived all his brothers. Their sister had married Henry Blundell of Ince-Blundell, and in 1700 she became the mother of Robert Blundell, who, on the death of his uncle, took possession of Lydiate, which has since continued in the Ince-Blundell family.
The township comprises by computation 850 acres of arable, 972 of meadow and pasture, and 6 acres of woodland. The soil is in a high state of cultivation, from the abundant supply of excellent town manure. The surface is generally flat, broken occasionally by eminences affording extensive views of the valley between the Ribble and the Dee, and of the bold mountainous range of North Wales, with the shipping in the offing of the Mersey. The road from Preston to Liverpool, and the Leeds and Liverpool canal, intersect the township; and the Sudell brook, a small tributary to the river Alt, winds through it. The Liverpool, Ormskirk, and Preston railway passes within a mile and a half, at the Aughton station. Lydiate Hall was built, or, more properly, renewed, in the 16th century, though portions of it indicate a later date; it was of quadrangular form, but the front, becoming greatly dilapidated, was taken down about seventy years ago. The interior presents several objects of interest to the antiquary, ancient sculptured effigies of saints and martyrs, carved oak, richly-traced cornices, and other details; the upper rooms of the central part have been thrown into one, now used as a Roman Catholic chapel, and it is said that ever since the Reformation the Roman Catholics of the district have resorted to the Hall for the exercise of religious worship. Fir-Grove, a well-wooded seat, is the property of Peter Bretherton, Esq., and the residence of his mother.
A church was built in 1841, at Lydiate-Cross, at a cost of £1500, raised by subscription. It is a stone edifice, in the early English style, with a square tower, and contains 450 sittings, whereof one-third are free; the organ and the communion-plate were gifts, but no name of a donor is recorded. A district has been assigned to this church, consisting of parts of Lydiate and Down-Holland, and containing a population of 1130: the living is in the gift of the Rector of Halsall. There is a parsonage-house; also a daily and Sunday school. John Goare, in 1669, bequeathed the rents of certain estates, now producing nearly £100 per annum, to be distributed half yearly among the poor of the township; and there is a self-supporting clothing society. Here is a picturesque little ruined chapel, erroneously called by the people Lydiate Abbey, erected in the latter part of the 15th or beginning of the 16th century; it seems to have been originally intended for the convenience of the family and immediate neighbourhood, owing to the distance of the parish church. The tower is in tolerably good preservation, but the roof of the building has entirely disappeared; its low pitch, however, is clearly ascertained by the moulding still remaining against the east wall of the tower.
Lydlinch (St. Thomas)
LYDLINCH (St. Thomas), a parish, in the union of Sturminster, hundred of Sherborne, Sturminster division of Dorset, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Sturminster; containing 419 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2448a. 1r. 35p., of which 149 are common or waste land. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 5. 10., and in the gift of F. W. Fane, Esq.: the tithes of Lydlinch have been commuted for £440, and those due from the parishes of West Parley and Horton for £60; the glebe contains 63 acres, with a house. The church was thoroughly repaired in 1839, when a handsome carved roof of oak was added at the expense of the rector and the proprietors of land.
Lydney, county of Gloucester.—See Lidney.
LYE, The, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Old Swinford, union of Stourbridge, Lower division of the hundred of Halfshire, county of Worcester, 2 miles (E.) from Stourbridge, on the road to Birmingham; containing about 6000 inhabitants. It comprises, with Wollescott, which lies within the district, 645 acres, whereof 240 are in the township of Lye: the surface is very much undulated, and the soil clayey. There are mines of coal and ironstone; and here is obtained the celebrated clay, called Stourbridge clay, for fire-bricks, crucibles, glass-house pots, gas-retorts, &c. The principal firms for these articles are, Messrs. Joseph and William King, Mr. Francis Rufford, Messrs. Davies and Hickman, and Mr. Richard Brettel. Immense quantities of nails are made, as also chain-cables, scythes, spades, anvils, vices, and similar articles; in these branches of manufacture the chief firms are, Messrs. T. and J. Pargeter, Wood Brothers, and Everson and Son. The church, dedicated to Christ, was erected in 1813, by the late Thomas Hill, Esq., of Dennis House, Staffordshire, at the cost of £10,000. The living, a perpetual curacy, was endowed by Mr. Hill with land producing £200 a year; he also built the parsonage-house: the Rev. Melsop Hill, M.A., grandson of the founder, is the present minister. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans; and a national school, attached to the church, is supported by subscription.
LYFORD, a chapelry district, in the parish of West Hanney, union of Abingdon, hundred of Ock, county of Berks, 4 miles (N.) from Wantage; containing 147 inhabitants. It comprises 744 acres by admeasurement; the surface is flat, and the soil in some parts clayey, but in general a deep rich black earth. The living is in the gift of Worcester College, Oxford. The tithes were commuted for land in 1801. An almshouse for ten aged persons was founded and endowed in 1603, by Oliver Ashcombe, Esq., at that time chief proprietor of Lyford.
LYHAM, a township, in the parish of Chatton, union of Glendale, E. division of Glendale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Wooler. It is situated on the road from Chatton to Holborn, and comprises 1661 acres, of which 492 are common or waste land. The Hetton burn passes on the west of the township. The great tithes have been commuted for £145, and the small for £46.
LYME-HANDLEY, a township, in the parish of Prestbury, union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 7½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Macclesfield; containing 268 inhabitants. The township comprises 3768 acres; the soil is clay, and stony. Lyme Hall, the principal seat of the family of Legh, is a quadrangular building of white gritstone, of which the more ancient part was erected about the end of the reign of Elizabeth; the south and west fronts are of the Ionic order, from a design by Leoni. The park is one of the largest in the kingdom.
Lyme-Regis (St. Michael the Archangel)
LYME-REGIS (St. Michael the Archangel), a borough, market-town, and parish, having separate jurisdiction, in the union of Axminster, Bridport division of Dorset, 22 miles (W.) from Dorchester, and 144 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 2756 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the river Lim, on which it is situated. In 774, Cynewulf, King of the West Saxons, granted by charter "the land of one mansion near the west bank of the river Lim, not far from the place where it falls into the sea, to the abbey of Sherborne, that salt should be there boiled to supply the wants of the church." In Domesday book, Lyme is surveyed in three parcels, one belonging to the Bishop of Salisbury, a second to Glastonbury Abbey, and the third to William Belet, one of the king's servants. Edward I. gave to it the privileges of a borough and port, and assigned the town as part of the dower of his sister, Margaret, Queen of Scotland. It furnished Edward III. with four ships and 62 men for the siege of Calais, but afterwards became so impoverished, that in Camden's time it was little better than a fishing-town. During the civil war in the reign of Charles I., Lyme was a station of considerable importance to both parties; it was early fortified by the parliament, and though besieged by Prince Maurice, always remained in their possession. The first engagement of the English fleet with the Spanish Armada, in 1588, took place off this part of the coast; and in 1672, another occurred between the English and Dutch fleets, when the latter, being beaten, retired to the coast of France. The Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme in 1685, and slept at the George inn; he was soon after defeated at Sedgmoor, and twelve of his adherents, condemned at Dorchester by Judge Jeffreys, were executed here. Few events of importance have since occurred: about forty houses were destroyed by fire, in May, 1844.
The town is situated at that extremity of the county which borders on Devonshire, between two rocky hills, and is divided by the river Lim, which rises about two miles northward. One part of it, occupying a steep declivity, has a very striking appearance, the houses rising in succession, and being mostly built of blue lias stone; the principal street, called Broad-street, contains excellent shops, and is a very handsome thoroughfare. The town is lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are supplied with good water from a copious spring about half a mile distant. Recent improvements have made Lyme a fashionable bathing-place: the accommodations for visiters are good; there are baths, and assembly, billiard, and card rooms, with some libraries. In 1846, an act was passed for further improving the town. The surrounding scenery is remarkably fine; the walk upon the Cobb is almost unrivalled, and several beautiful villas have been erected in the environs. There was formerly a considerable trade with France, Spain, and the West Indies, which has declined; and a few vessels were at one time fitted out for the Newfoundland fishery. The port, which, in a return made to the exchequer in the 31st of Charles II., is represented as a member of Poole, has the privilege of bonding corn, wine, spirituous liquors, hemp, tallow, timber, deals, iron-bars, and other goods; the vessels belonging to it are chiefly employed in the coasting-trade, and a packet sails to Guernsey once a fortnight. The harbour, or Cobb, about a quarter of a mile west-south-west from the town, existed so early as the time of Edward III.; it was originally composed of vast pieces of rock, rudely piled, but is now a work of regular masonry, consisting of two piers, inclosing a basin. A breach made in it during the "Great Storm," was repaired by government in 1825, at an expense of £17,337. The dues, which average about £450 per annum, are appropriated to its repair. The manufacture of broad-cloth for great coats, often called "Lyme cloth," is carried on in the vicinity, and the town was formerly noted for the manufacture of lace. The markets are on Tuesday and Friday; and fairs are held on February 13th and October 2nd.
Lyme was incorporated by Edward I., and its privileges were confirmed and augmented by succeeding monarchs, particularly by Henry VIII. A court of pie-poudre was granted to the mayor and burgesses by Mary, and a new charter by Elizabeth; to which various privileges were added by James I., Charles I., and William III. The government is now vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, under the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; the number of magistrates is ten. Sessions are held four times in the year; and there is a court for the recovery of debts, under the direction of the mayor and aldermen: the royalty of the manor is vested in the corporation, and a manorial court takes place annually. Lyme returned members to parliament, with only three intermissions, from the 23rd of Edward I. to the year 1832; but by the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, it was enacted that it should thenceforward return only one representative. The borough now comprises the parishes of Lyme and Charmouth, and the franchise is vested in the £10 householders; the mayor is returning officer. The parish comprises by computation an area of about 1200 acres.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 5. 7½., and in the patronage of the Prebendary of Lyme-Regis and Halstock in the Cathedral of Salisbury: the tithes have been commuted for £272. 5., of which £218. 10. are payable to the vicar. The church, which was rebuilt about the end of the fifteenth century, has portions in the decorated and later styles, and consists of a nave, chancel, and two aisles, both of which are embattled on the outside: one of these aisles was formerly dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and the other to St. Nicholas. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics; also two almshouses, founded in 1548, by John Tudbold. A convent of Carmelite friars existed here; and in the fourteenth century there was an hospital for lepers, dedicated to St. Mary and the Holy Ghost. The vicinal way from Hogchester, on the ancient Ikeneld-street, runs through the parish. Some fine specimens of antediluvian remains are found, from which the most eminent geologists, both British and Foreign, have enriched their collections: among these especially are the bones of the Icthyosauri and the Plesiosauri; and fossil remains of the greatest interest are discovered in the blue lias which forms the line of coast, and on which the town itself stands. From this stone is made the celebrated mortar which has the property of setting under water, and is so extensively used in London for stucco plaster. Among the natives of the place were, Captain Thomas Coram, who established the "Foundling Hospital," born about 1668; and Sir George Summers, the distinguished admiral, who discovered the Bermuda Islands.
Lyminge (St. Mary and St. Eadburgh)
LYMINGE (St. Mary and St. Eadburgh), a parish, in the union of Elham, hundred of Loningborough, lathe of Shepway, E. division of the county of Kent, 2 miles (S. S. W.) from Elham; containing 941 inhabitants. It comprises 4588a. 2r. 4p., of which about 1713 acres are arable, 1283 pasture, 1049 woodland, and 275 common or waste. A stream rises here which flows in a northern direction, past Elham, and joins the Stour near Stourmouth. The living comprises a sinecure rectory, with the chapelries of Standford and Paddlesworth annexed, valued in the king's books at £21. 10.; and a vicarage, endowed with the small tithes of Lyminge and the chapelries, and rated at £10. 18. 9.; net income of the two, £625; patron, the Rev. Ralph Price. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In 1661, Timothy Bedingfield devised some lands for education, producing an annual income of £111. 10. A monastery of the order of St. Benedict existed here, but there are no remains. The ancient Stane-street traces the western boundary of the parish.
LYMINGTON, a borough, market-town, parochial chapelry, and liberty, and the head of a union, in the Lymington and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 18 miles (S. W. by S.) from Southampton, and 95 (S. W.) from London; containing 3813 inhabitants. The earliest notice of this place occurs in Domesday book, in which it is called Lentune; the name was afterwards changed to Limintun, of which the present name is a variation. The town is situated on the western bank of a creek, or river, which falls into the Solent channel: it consists principally of one spacious street, nearly half a mile in length, and is lighted with gas; the houses are modern and neatly built, and the environs abound with romantic scenery. Its excellent accommodations for sea-bathing have rendered it a favourite place of resort for invalids during the summer: substantial and convenient baths were erected by a public company formed in 1833. A neat theatre is occupied every other year by a company of performers, from August to October; and there is an assembly-room at the Angel inn.
In the reign of Henry I. the town rose into note, being then made a port; French wines and foreign commodities were imported, and at that time also it became celebrated for its salt-works. In the 29th of Edward III. the port contributed 9 ships and 159 men towards the fleet for the protection of the southern coast, which was more by 4 ships and 63 men, than the quota supplied by Portsmouth. The petty duties were levied by the inhabitants on certain articles of merchandise brought to the port, but the right to such an impost being questioned by the superior port of Southampton, the case was tried in 1329, and decided against the inhabitants of Lymington, who were subsequently often fined for persisting in their claim. At length, in 1730, having again taken these duties, and being sued by the corporation of Southampton, the defendants procured the removal of the cause to the county assize court, in which they obtained a verdict in their favour, and since that time the petty customs have been regularly paid. The commercial advantages of the port were seriously affected in 1731 by the construction of a dam, or causeway, to the north of the town, which so contracted the channel of the river, and diminished its depth, by excluding a great body of water, that it is now navigable only for vessels of 300 tons' burthen instead of 500, as formerly. The trade is confined entirely to coastingvessels. The manufacture of salt, which was extensive, has greatly declined, although the superiority of the Lymington salt is generally acknowledged: the works are situated along the sea-shore to the south of the town. On the quay are a commodious public wharf and storerooms, and near it is a yard for ship-building. The harbour at the entrance of the creek is excellent, and affords a favourite and safe shelter for vessels belonging to the members of the Royal Yacht Squadron. The market is on Saturday; and fairs are held annually on May 12th and October 2nd, for the sale of cheese, horses, cattle, &c.
Lymington, which is a borough by prescription, was incorporated by charter of James I. It was governed by a mayor, recorder, town-clerk, town-sergeant, and an indefinite number of burgesses; but the control is now vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, under the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76. The mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, the county magistrates having concurrent jurisdiction. The elective franchise was conferred by Elizabeth in the 27th year of her reign: the boundary of the borough, comprising 134 acres, was extended in 1832, and now contains an area of 4256 acres: the mayor is returning officer. Petty-sessions for the division are held by the magistrates on alternate Saturdays. The powers of the county debt-court of Lymington, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Lymington.
The living is annexed to the vicarage of Boldre. The church, a handsome structure capable of accommodating 2000 persons, and dedicated to Thomas á Becket, was built at different periods, and is irregularly constructed of brick and stone, with a castellated tower and cupola; the interior is neat, and contains several monuments. There are places of worship for Irvingites, Baptists, and Independents; and a Roman Catholic chapel at Pylewell. A small grammar school was founded and endowed in 1668, by George Burford: a bequest of £300 was made in 1777, by Ann Burrard, for education; and a national school, erected at a cost of £1200, is supported partly by endowment. Rear-Admiral Thomas Rogers, who died in 1814, bequeathed £1000, directing the interest to be divided between ten men and women; and there are various charitable institutions for the relief of the sick and indigent. The poor-law union comprises 6 parishes, containing a population of 11,489. On a neck of land, or bank, to the south-west of Lymington, is Hurst Castle, a circular tower strengthened by semicircular bastions, erected by Henry VIII. to defend this part of the channel between the main land and the Isle of Wight. In 1648, Charles I. was confined in it for several days after his removal from Carisbrooke, about one month prior to his decapitation. It is now an important station, occupied by men employed in the preventive service; and two lighthouses and a beacon are placed here for the service of vessels navigating the coast. Buckland Castle, or the Rings, consists of two camps about three furlongs apart, situated one mile from Lymington. Admiral Hawke resided at Grove House, in the town, where many of his children were born; Dr. Guidott, who revived the drinking of the Bath waters in 1673, was a native of the place.
Lymm (Virgin Mary)
LYMM (Virgin Mary), a parish, in the union of Altrincham, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 5½ miles (E. S. E.) from Warrington; containing 2658 inhabitants. It comprises 4083 acres, chiefly of a clayey soil. The Duke of Bridgewater's canal passes through the village. The living is a rectory in medieties, of which that of Lymm with Warburton, valued in the king's books at £11. 0. 7½., is in the patronage of R. E. E. Warburton, Esq., and the other, valued at £11. 0. 5., in the gift of E. Leigh, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £499. 15., and the glebe comprises 12½ acres. The church is a very ancient structure. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free school was endowed in 1698, by Sir G. Warburton, and W. Domville, Esq.; the income is £105.
Lympne (St. Stephen)
LYMPNE (St. Stephen), a parish, in the union of Elham, partly within the liberty of Romney-Marsh, but chiefly in the hundred of Street, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 2¾ miles (W.) from Hythe; containing 606 inhabitants. The parish takes its name from the ancient river Limene, now the Rother, a branch of which passed below it, and formed the Roman haven Portus Limanus; the place itself is generally considered to have been the Aimin of Ptolemy. The great military road called Stane-street, still visible for some miles, ran hither from Durovernum, or Canterbury. At Shepway Cross, about half a mile from the church, the Leminarcha, or Lord Warden of the cinque-ports, was sworn into office. The parish comprises 2658 acres, of which 273 are in wood; that part in Romney-Marsh is flat, but the rest hilly, and the soil is partly loamy and partly rocky. The Royal Military canal intersects the parish. A fair for pedlery and toys is held on July 5th. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 1. 4.; patron, the Archdeacon of Canterbury; impropriator, A. Evelyn, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £468, and the vicarial for £239; the vicar's glebe consists of one acre, and the impropriator's of about 150 acres, besides which there are portions of land in West Hythe. The church stands on the edge of a rock near the village, and is principally in the Norman style, with a tower rising from the centre. There are considerable benefactions to the poor. Near the church is Stutfall Castle, a stronghold or fort of the Romans; the walls are constructed of brick and flint. About 633, Ethelburga, daughter of Ethelbert, built a nunnery here in honour of the Virgin Mary, which subsequently became an abbey, and continued till 964; after the Danish invasion it came into the possession of the archbishops of Canterbury.
Lympsham (St. Christopher)
LYMPSHAM (St. Christopher), a parish, in the union of Axbridge, hundred of Brent with Wrington, E. division of Somerset, 7 miles (W.) from Cross; containing, with the hamlet of Eastertown, 567 inhabitants. The parish comprises by admeasurement 1967 acres, the chief part of which consists of dairy-farms, supplying cheese of very fine quality. It lies in a marsh, and the country for many miles round is a continuous flat; much of the land, however, being of superior quality. The Bristol and Exeter railway passes through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £38. 5. 2½., and in the gift of the Rev. J. Stephenson: the tithes have been commuted for £491. 15., and the glebe contains 100 acres. The church has a very elegant tower, restored by Charles I., in 1633; a stall, richly canopied, on the northern side of the edifice, distinguishes the seat appropriated to the abbot of Glastonbury, to whom the manor belonged. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Lympston (St. Mary)
LYMPSTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of East Budleigh, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 2½ miles (N.) from Exmouth; containing 999 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1120 acres, of which 54 are common or waste; it is pleasantly situated on the eastern bank of the river Exe, and the country is agreeably diversified. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 13. 4., and in the gift of T. Porter, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £263, and the glebe contains 12 acres. Here are places of worship for Wesleyans and Unitarians; and a national school partly supported by several trifling bequests.
Lyncombe with Widcombe (St. Thomas à Becket)
LYNCOMBE with Widcombe (St. Thomas à Becket), a parish, in the union of Bath, hundred of Bath-Forum, E. division of Somerset; containing 9920 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1800 acres; it is separated from Bath by the river Avon, and the Kennet and Avon canal passes through it. The surface is diversified with hill and dale, and the soil, though thin on the higher grounds, is rich in the valley adjoining the river. Freestone is extensively quarried in the hills, and large quantities of it have been used for the buildings in Bath, Windsor, London, and other places. Many of the inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of fine woollen-cloth. In this parish, and that of Twiverton, three small cuttings were made, to the extent of 86,770 cubic yards, for the line of the Great Western railway. A fair is held on May 14th. The living is a vicarage, annexed to the rectory of St. Peter and St. Paul, Bath: the impropriate and vicarial tithes have been commuted for £260 each. Besides the parish church, a modern church dedicated to St. Mark, and Dolmead chapel, are both connected with the living. Here is a college, instituted and partly supported by the Roman Catholic bishop of the western district, for the education of Roman Catholic boys in general, and particularly of secular clergymen for the service of the district. At Holloway, in the parish, John Cantlow, prior of Bath, towards the close of the 15th century, erected a small chapel dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, with an hospital for lunatics annexed; the chapel was partly rebuilt by subscription in 1761, and the incumbency is in the gift of the Crown.
Lynby, county of Nottingham.—See Linby.
Lyndhurst (St. Michael)
LYNDHURST (St. Michael), a parish, in the union, and N. division of the hundred, of New-Forest, Romsey and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 9½ miles (W. by S.) from Southampton; containing 1380 inhabitants. Prior to the time of Charles II., the jurisdiction of the chief justice in eyre for the New Forest, in the centre of which the parish is situated, was exercised here, where the courts under the authority of the verderers are still held, some on such days as the presiding judges appoint, others on September 14th. Attached to the wardenship is a house called the King's House, now occupied by a subordinate officer, in which is preserved an ancient stirrup, said to have been used by William Rufus, at the time when he was shot by Sir Walter Tyrrel. The parish comprises 3618 acres, of which 2114 are common or waste; the soil of the cultivated portion exhibits the several varieties of clay, sand, and marl. There are numerous gentlemen's seats. Courts leet and baron for the hundred of Redbridge and manor of Lyndhurst are held. The living is annexed to the rectory of Minstead: the tithes have been commuted for £250. There is a place of worship for Baptists. A school is endowed with £26 per annum, arising from a bequest made by William Phillips, Esq.; and a national school is supported by subscription. Sir John Singleton Copley, on being elevated to the office of lord high chancellor, was created Baron Lyndhurst, by patent dated April 27th, 1827.
Lyndon (St. Martin)
LYNDON (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Oakham, hundred of Martinsley, county of Rutland, 5 miles (N. E.) from Uppingham; containing 100 inhabitants. This parish, which was formerly part of that of Hambleton, comprises 895a. 2r. 15p. of land, bounded on the south by the small rivulet Chater, and lying in ridges extending from west to east. The soil on the high grounds is good red earth, and on the sides of the ridges whitish clay of inferior quality; the substratum is a hard limestone. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 17. 1., and in the patronage of the Misses Barker: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £24, and the rectorial for £175; the glebe contains 14 acres, with a house.
LYNEHAM, a chapelry, in the parish of Shiptonunder-Whichwood, union of Chipping-Norton, hundred of Chadlington, county of Oxford, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Burford; with 248 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1787.
Lynesack, with Softley
LYNESACK, with Softley, a township, in the chapelry of Hamsterley, parish of St. Andrew Auckland, union of Auckland, N. W. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 6 miles (N. by W.) from Staindrop; containing 910 inhabitants. This extensive township, commonly called South Side, is bounded on the south by the river Gaunless or Wanless, and on the north by the Lin-burn, and comprises the hamlets of Houl, Lynesack, Potter-Cross, Softley, and Trough-Lane Head. The land is mostly of a cold nature, especially towards the north, and a small portion is barren waste; the surface is boldly diversified with hills. Coal is found in great abundance, and several mines are in operation, the produce of which is sent into Yorkshire and the adjacent country. Ironstone is also found, and in the township are some works for smelting the ore, belonging to the Duke of Cleveland. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans. A considerable portion of the land is tithe free.
LYNFORD, a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Grimshoe, W. division of the county of Norfolk, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Brandon; containing 105 inhabitants. It comprises about 1500 acres, the property of Sir Richard Sutton, Bart., of Lynford Hall, a handsome mansion in an extensive park. The church is in ruins, and the inhabitants attend that of West Toft. Two Roman urns were dug up in 1720, and one in 1735; containing ashes and bones.
Lyng (St. Clement)
LYNG (St. Clement), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from East Dereham; containing, with the hamlet of Easthaugh, 601 inhabitants. This place, in the reign of Edward III., belonged to Sir John de Norwich, who had licence from that monarch to convert the manor-house into a castle; some of the foundations of the edifice are still remaining. The parish comprises 1899a. 2r. 22p., whereof 1459 acres are arable, 419 meadow and pasture, and 20 woodland. The village is situated on the south bank of the river Wensum, on which is an extensive paper-mill. A fair is held on the 20th of November. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11, and in the gift of E. Lambe, Esq.: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £513. 10., and the glebe comprises 60 acres, with a house; a rent-charge of £11. 10. is payable to the rector of Elsing. The church is chiefly in the later English style, with a square embattled tower; the font is of Norman character, and there are some remains of ancient stained glass. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. At the inclosure of the parish, in 1808, 16 acres of heath were allotted to the poor for fuel. There was a religious house at Easthaugh, and some portions of the chapel, which was dedicated to St. Edmund, are still remaining.