A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Falkingham, or Folkingham (St. Andrew)
FALKINGHAM, or Folkingham (St. Andrew), a market-town and parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 26 miles (S. S. E.) from Lincoln, and 106 (N. by W.) from London; containing 820 inhabitants. The origin of this town is attributed to the baronial residence of Gilbert de Gaunt, son of the Earl of Flanders, and nephew of Matilda, queen of William the Conqueror; accompanying that monarch in his expedition against England, he was rewarded for his services with 113 lordships in the county of Lincoln, of which he made this place the head. Of the ancient castle, neither the time of its erection nor of its demolition is known, and the only vestiges now remaining are the inner, and some faint traces of the outer, moat, which latter inclosed an area of nearly ten acres. The parish is intersected by the road from Stamford to Lincoln, and, with the ancient parish of Laughton, comprises 2996a. 3r. 33p., of which 1765 acres are meadow, 1224 arable, and 6 woodland; the soil is partly clay, and partly loam. The town is pleasantly situated on the south side of a gently sloping hill, and on approaching it in that direction has an appearance strikingly prepossessing; the houses are in general well built, the streets paved, and the inhabitants amply supplied with water from several fine springs. There is a small market on Thursday; and fairs are held on Ash-Wednesday, Palm-Monday, May 12th, and November 22nd, for horned-cattle, sheep, and horses, and on the Thursday after Old Michaelmas-day, exclusively for sheep. In 1808, a house of correction was built on the site of the castle, at an expense of £6600, defrayed by a rate on the county; and in 1825 it was considerably enlarged, at an additional expense of £8000. The living is a rectory, with the vicarage of Laughton united, valued in the king's books at £21. 12. 3½.; net income, £511; patron, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart. The church, a spacious and handsome structure principally in the later English style, consists of a nave, chancel, and two aisles, with a lofty and richly embattled tower crowned by eight pinnacles; the chancel, which is of earlier date than the rest of the church, was repaired in 1825. The free school was founded in 1713, by Richard Brocklesby, clerk, who bequeathed the proceeds of an undivided moiety of fifty acres of land for the maintenance of a master; and a further sum of £10 per annum has since been left for the same purpose. There are also, a sum of £27 yearly, arising from a bequest of land by Thomas Arpe, Esq., for distribution among the poor; and some charitable bequests for clothing children.
Fallow, county of Berks.—See Farlow.
FALLOWDON, a township, in the parish of Embleton, union of Alnwick, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7½ miles (N. N. E.) from Alnwick; containing 113 inhabitants. About the close of the 17th century this was the estate of the Salkeld family, from whom it passed to Thomas Wood, Esq., who died in 1764; his heiress, Hannah, married Sir Henry Grey, Bart., and from him it has descended to its present possessor of the same name. Sir Henry has a seat here, beautifully situated amongst extensive and thriving plantations, and many fine specimens of timber surround the mansion, one of which, an evergreen oak, is considered one of the finest in the kingdom.
FALLOWFIELD, a township, in the parish of St. John Lee, union of Hexham, S. division of Tindale ward and of Northumberland, 3¼ miles (N.) from Hexham; containing 74 inhabitants. This place is situated to the east of the North Tyne river, and on the road from Hexham to Chollerton; the land is entirely wild moor. A vein of lead-ore was worked in 1835, but the lead was obtained only in small quantities. The hamlet, consisting of cottages, is seated on an eminence. About half a mile south of the remains of the Roman wall here, is a range of rocks, one of which, called Written Cragg, has deeply and legibly inscribed the words, "petra flavi carantini," noticed in the Archæologia Æliana.
FALLOWLEES, a township, in the parish and union of Rothbury, W. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 5¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Rothbury; containing 7 inhabitants. This is a moorland township, situated north of the Roughlees burn. The lough called Fallowlees Lough, lies a little northward. The tithes have been commuted for 7s. 11d.
FALLYBROOM, a township, in the parish of Prestbury, union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 1¾ mile (N. W. by W.) from Macclesfield; containing 36 inhabitants. The manor was given in 1232 to Sir Richard Fitton, from whose family it passed by successive female heirs to the families of Venables and Booth. The township comprises 218 acres, of a light soil, with moss. It lies west of the river Bollin, and of the road from Maccles-field to Stockport.
FALMER, a parish, in the union of Newhaven, hundred of Younsmere, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Lewes, on the road to Brighton; containing 493 inhabitants, and comprising 4358a. 1r. 20p. The Brighton and Lewes railway intersects the parish, passing under Falmer Hill by a tunnel 502 yards in length. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, with the rectory of Stanmer united; it is valued in the king's books at £6. 10. 10., and in the alternate patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Earl of Chichester. The tithes have been commuted for £268, and the glebe contains 11 acres. The church, erected in 1816, was enlarged in 1840: the earl has erected a school-house near it, which will accommodate about 100 children. In the vicinity of the church was a monastery, subject to the extensive priory at Southover, near Lewes. A large pond in the village is said to have received the first carp imported into England from Normandy by the monks. Anne of Cleves, the divorced queen of Henry VIII., is supposed to have been interred here.
Falmouth (King Charles the Martyr)
FALMOUTH (King Charles the Martyr), a parish, and the head of a union, in the E. division of the hundred of Kerrier, W. division of Cornwall; comprising the sea-port and incorporated market-town of Falmouth, which possesses exclusive jurisdiction, 54 miles (S. W.) from Launceston, and 267 (W. S. W.) from London; and containing 7695 inhabitants, exclusively of a portion of the parish of Budock, which extends into Falmouth. The name of this place is derived from its situation at the mouth of the river Fal: the origin of the town may be dated subsequently to the year 1600, but long before that period the haven was well known, and resorted to by ships bound for British ports, being considered one of the most secure and commodious in Great Britain. The earliest historical mention of it occurs in the reign of Henry IV., when the Duchess Dowager of Bretagne landed here on her arrival in England, to celebrate her nuptials with that monarch. Until 1613 there was only a single house of entertainment for seafaring persons, with a few fishermen's cottages, on the site of the pre sent town; at which period John, afterwards Sir John, Killigrew began to build several houses, and met with much opposition from the corporations of Penryn, Truro, and Helston, who united to petition King James against the work, stating the evil consequences they anticipated to their own interests, should a town be built at Falmouth harbour. The matter was referred to the lords of the council, and by them decided in Killigrew's favour; the buildings therefore proceeded rapidly, and the town became a place of great trade. Soon after 1670, Sir Peter Killigrew, Bart., constructed a new quay, and procured an act of parliament to secure certain duties; and the subsequent establishment of the postoffice packets to Lisbon, the West Indies, &c., contributed much to the increasing prosperity of the place. In its infancy the town was called Smithick, under which appellation it is mentioned in a resolution of the house of commons, in January, 1653, appointing a weekly market; the first record that bears the name of Falmouth is the charter of incorporation, dated 1661. It was made a separate parish in 1664, having up to that period been a part of Budock.
The town is agreeably situated on the south-western shore of that branch of the harbour stretching to Penryn, and consists principally of one street, which, under different names, extends about a mile in length; it is paved, well lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water. The buildings in general are modern, and have a neat appearance; behind are rising grounds that overlook the harbour and town. At the entrance to the harbour are the castles of St. Mawes and Pendennis: the latter, which is on the western side, being built upon a peninsular eminence two miles in circumference at the base, and standing upwards of 300 feet above the level of the sea, has a very majestic appearance; it is fortified, and contains barracks, with storehouses and magazines. The public reading and news rooms, a handsome building with an arcade of six noble columns in front, were opened in 1826. Hot and cold sea-water baths have been established, with every requisite accommodation. Falmouth, from its advantageous position, is one of the principal ports in the west of England, and superior to any as a rendezvous for outward and homeward bound fleets. The port has for many years carried on a very considerable foreign trade; it was one of the first in the western counties to which the privileges of the Bonding act were extended, and is the only tobacco port in the counties of Cornwall and Devon: its jurisdiction extends from Helford river, westward, to the Dodman Point, eastward. The imports are from America, Spain, Portugal, Holland, Russia and the north of Europe, the Mediterranean, France, and Ireland; and a great quantity of pressed pilchards is sent to Italy, besides which, the principal exports consist of the produce of the tin and copper mines and manufactories: there is also a trade with Jersey in fruit and cider. A quantity of mining apparatus and hardware has been exported to the Brazilian and Mexican mines. Several regular trading-vessels from London, Bristol, and Ireland, bring large supplies of grocery and ship chandlery, and take in return to London, &c., a quantity of tin. The number of vessels of above fifty tons' burthen belonging to the port, is 67, and their aggregate tonnage 6585. Falmouth is supposed to have become a station for post-office packets to the West Indies about the year 1688: the establishment, till very lately, consisted of 29 ships, chiefly men-of-war brigs, and 4 steam-boats employed on the Lisbon and Mediterranean duty; but, at present, packets only sail to Madeira, Brazil, and Buenos-Ayres. At Falmouth and St. Mawes was formerly a very extensive pilchard-fishery, 14,000 hogsheads having been exported hence in one season; but from the decrease of fish, little has been done for several years past. There is some employment in ship-building and rope-making. An act was passed in 1845 for improving the harbour; and in 1846 an act was obtained for a railway hence to Plymouth. Markets are held on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, for butchers' meat, fish, and other provisions; and there are fairs on Aug. 7th and Oct. 10th, for cattle. The market-house was built in 1813, at the expense of Lord Wodehouse, and has a fountain of spring water in its centre.
By the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., cap. 64, the town and parish were incorporated with the ancient borough of Penryn, for parliamentary purposes. The municipal body of Falmouth, by charter of incorporation granted by Charles II. in 1661, consisted of a mayor, aldermen, burgesses, recorder, and other officers; but, by the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the government is now vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors: the number of magistrates is two. The recorder holds a court of quarter-sessions: there are petty-sessions weekly; and the county justices meet at the Green Bank hotel once a month, on Thursday, to hold a petty-session for the eastern division of the hundred of Kerrier. The powers of the county debtcourt of Falmouth, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Falmouth. A neat and convenient gaol was erected in 1831, at a cost of £400. The rural district of the parish comprises by admeasurement 656 acres, of which 255 are arable, and the remainder pasture, plantation, and garden-ground. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £3; net income, £688; patron, the Rev. W. J. Coope. The church, built soon after the Restoration, and dedicated to the memory of Charles I., "King and Martyr," was made parochial in 1664, by act of parliament. A handsome chapel was erected at the north-west end of the town, within the parish of Budock, in 1828; and a church in the early English style was built in 1842, by subscription, aided by a grant from the Incorporated and Diocesan Societies: it has 400 sittings, of which 245 are free. There are places of worship for Baptists, Bryanites, the Society of Friends, Independents, Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, and Unitarians, a synagogue, and a Roman Catholic chapel; also a classical and mathematical school for 100 boys, established in 1825. A branch of the Merchants' hospital for the relief and support of disabled seamen belonging to the port of London, and the widows and children of such as are killed or drowned in the merchants' service, was established about 1750. The Widows' Retreat, an almshouse containing ten small rooms, was erected in 1810, at the expense of Lord Wodehouse, and Samuel Tregelles, Esq. A dispensary was established about the year 1807. The poor law union of Falmouth comprises ten parishes or places, and contains 21,654 inhabitants. Near Pendennis are the remains of an intrenchment made by Cromwell during the civil war. Falmouth confers the title of Earl on the family of Boscawen, of Tregothnan.
FALSGRAVE, a township, in the union and borough of Scarborough, N. riding of York, 1 mile (S. W. by W.) from Scarborough; containing 545 inhabitants. In Domesday book this place is called Walesgrave or Walsgrave. The township comprises 1020 acres, and forms the western suburb of the town of Scarborough; it is intersected by the road from Scarborough to East and West Ayton.
FALSTONE, a parish, in the union of Bellingham, N. W. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 9½ miles (W. N. W.) from Bellingham, and 25½ (N. W. by N.) from Hexham; containing, with the townships of Plawskets and Wellhaugh, 560 inhabitants. This place, anciently Fast-Stone, was a chapelry in the very extensive parish of Simonburn, which was divided by act of parliament, in 1811, into six parishes, whereof this is one. It is bounded on the north-west by Scotland, is 12 miles in length, and comprises by computation 57,700 acres of wild, mountainous, and heathy land, affording good pasturage for sheep, and of which some portions, especially near the river, are a rich alluvial soil; the quantity of arable is very small. The North Tyne, over which a handsome and substantial stone bridge of three arches was erected in 1844, has its source in a morass, and in its progress through the parish receives the Kielder and numerous other tributary streams; in the same morass is the source of the river Liddel, within a few yards only of the boundary of Scotland, into which it takes its course. Coal, of a good bituminous quality, is abundant, and two collieries are in operation for the supply of the district; freestone is quarried for building purposes, and there is also limestone. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Governors of Greenwich Hospital, with a neat and convenient glebe-house: the tithes have been commuted for £228. The church, a handsome structure with a tower, was rebuilt in 1823. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians. In the neighbourhood are several springs, one of which, near the head of the Tyne, is said to be equally efficacious with those of Gilsland Spa. At the Bells are the remains of a religious building, contiguous to which is a cemetery. A gold coin of the Emperor Cæsar Magnentius Augustus, was found in Dec. 1843, in opening a grave in the churchyard.
Fambridge, North (Holy Trinity)
FAMBRIDGE, NORTH (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Maldon, hundred of Dengie, S. division of Essex, 7 miles (S.) from Maldon; containing 142 inhabitants. The parish is separated from that of South Fambridge by the navigable river Crouch, which is crossed by a ferry; it comprises 1248a. 17p., whereof 970 acres are arable, 200 meadow, 24 woodland, and 30 salt-marsh. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £334. The church, situated near the ferry, is a small edifice of brick.
Fambridge, South (All Saints)
FAMBRIDGE, SOUTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Rochford, S. division of Essex, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Rochford; containing 94 inhabitants. This parish comprises about 1000 acres; the soil is heavy, and in several parts stiff and hard to work, and the surface is generally flat. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17, and in the gift of Rowland Standish, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £285, and the glebe comprises 100 acres. The church is a small low edifice, about half a mile from a ferry over the river Crouch.
FANGFOSS, a parish, in the union of Pocklington, Wilton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 3½ miles (N. W.) from Pocklington; containing, with the hamlet of Spittle, 185 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1324a. 1r. 38p., of which about two-thirds are arable, and the remainder rich meadow land. Fangfoss Hall is a stately mansion. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Dean of York, with a net income of £46. The church is a Norman structure, erected about the time of William II., and has an elegant arch separating the chancel from the nave: the clergyman and wardens have four acres, a cottage, and garth, and some money payments from land in the parish, for the repair of the church. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
FARCETT, a chapelry, in the parish of Standground, union of Peterborough, hundred of NormanCross, county of Huntingdon, 2¾ miles (S. by E.) from Peterborough; containing 620 inhabitants. It comprises 3106 acres, of which 97 are common or waste land. On the elevated grounds are extensive views, which embrace Whittlesea mere and the adjacent fens. The tithes were commuted for land, under an act of inclosure, in 1801. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary, and is a small ancient building, consisting of a nave, a south aisle, and a tower at the west end. A school has an endowment of £15. 5. per annum.
Fareham (St. Peter and St. Paul)
FAREHAM (St. Peter and St. Paul), a markettown and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Fareham, S. division of the county of Southampton, 12 miles (E. S. E.) from Southampton, and 73 (S. W.) from London, on the road from Southampton to Portsmouth; containing 6168 inhabitants. This town, which is situated on the north-west branch of Portsmouth harbour, is mentioned in Domesday book as having, from its maritime situation, been much exposed to the invasions of the Danes. In the 34th of Edward I. it returned members to parliament, but in the 36th of the same reign was released from that duty, on petition. It is a neat and flourishing town, occupying an elevated site, and consists chiefly of two spacious streets, the one extending along the road to Titchfield, and the other along that to Bishop's-Waltham; it is lighted with gas, partially paved, and well supplied with water. The environs abound with varied scenery, and with objects of interest. Several wealthy ship-owners live in the town, which has much increased in population and commerce; and from its immediate contiguity to the first naval arsenal in the country, it is the residence of numerous naval and military men. Within a quarter of a mile is a station on the Gosport branch of the London and South-Western railway; and there is also railway communication with Portsmouth and Chichester. Here is a literary institution, with a library attached; also a handsome room where lectures are occasionally delivered; and rooms in which assemblies are held monthly during the winter season.
Fareham has a considerable trade in corn, coal, timber, &c., which has been for some years gradually increasing; and vessels of 300 tons' burthen can sail up to the quay. The place supplies nearly the whole of the upper part of the county with coal. At Fontley is an iron-foundry; the manufacture of common earthenware is carried on extensively, and there are a rope-walk, and a manufactory of fine red bricks and tiles. Vessels of from 200 to 300 tons' burthen are built here. The cornmarket is one of the largest in the county; the marketday is every alternate Monday, and there is a fair for cattle and cheese, &c., on the 29th of June. The town is within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates: two constables and two ale-tasters are annually chosen by a jury, at the manorial court leet of the steward of the Bishop of Winchester; and petty-sessions are held every alternate Wednesday for the division of Portsdown. The parish comprises 5062 acres, of which 28 are waste land or common. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 12. 6.; net income, £671; patron, the Bishop: the impropriation belongs to the hospital of St. Cross, and is leased on lives. The church is a spacious edifice, rebuilt some years ago, with the exception of the chancel, which is of early English architecture. A district church in the English style, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, has been built and endowed by the Rev. Sir Henry Thompson, Bart., in whose family the patronage is vested; the total cost was £5000, exclusively of £1000 endowment. The Independents and Wesleyans have each a place of worship. In 1721, William Price gave by will £200, for the erection of a charity school; also estates, now producing about £230 per annum, of which £35 are paid to a master, and the rest distributed among widows. The poor law union of Fareham comprises nine parishes or places.
Farewell (St. Bartholomew)
FAREWELL (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Lichfield, S. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 2 miles (N. W.) from Lichfield; containing, with the hamlet of Chorley, 203 inhabitants. It comprises about 1300 acres, arable and pasture; the surface is hilly and the soil of light quality. The villages of Farewell and Chorley are very picturesque, and are situated within a mile of each other. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £50; patron and impropriator, the Marquess of Anglesey. The tithes have been commuted for £129, and the glebe contains 20 acres. The church is a neat edifice, mostly built in 1780; the chancel is of earlier date. Roger, Bishop of Chester, or Lichfield, founded about 1140 a house for Canons regular, who afterwards gave place to Benedictine nuns; it was suppressed by Wolsey.
Farforth (St. Peter)
FARFORTH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Louth, Wold division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6¼ miles (S. by W.) from Louth; containing, with the ancient parish of Maiden-Well, 92 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, united in 1753 to the rectory of Ruckland, and valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 8.
Faringdon (All Saints)
FARINGDON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Alton, hundred of Selborne, Alton and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Alton; containing 545 inhabitants. The village is compactly built, with an open area in the centre. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 6. 0½., and in the gift of T. Hull, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £592, and the glebe comprises about 7 acres, and a house.
FARINGTON, a township, in the parish of Penwortham, union of Preston, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 3 miles (S.) from Preston; containing about 2500 inhabitants. This place was given, at the close of the 11th century, by the first baron of Penwortham to the abbey of Evesham. In the 10th of Edward III., William de Farington held certain portions of land here, and 14s. rent, in trust for the abbot. The manor appears to have been transferred at the Dissolution to John Fleetwood, the grantee of Penwortham priory and manor. The township comprises 1786a. 3r., all arable and pasture, with the exception of 61 acres in roads; the soil though various is excellent. The land lies high, and the scenery is extensive, embracing Rivington Pike, Pendle Hill, and the hills north of Preston: the river Lostock runs through the township. Here is a station of the North-Union railway: a line to Blackburn diverges from the railway here; and the Liverpool, Ormskirk, and Preston railway crosses it close to the station, joining the Blackburn railway between Farington and Bamber-Bridge. The village has considerably increased in size within the last few years; two new streets have been built. Farington mills, erected in 1834, are very extensive, and employ 1000 persons in spinning and weaving cotton; they are the property of Messrs. W. Bashall and Company, who have good mansions close by. A large tan-yard, belonging to Richard Bashall, Esq., was established sixty years ago, and is carried on by the firm of John Barrett and Co.
A church, dedicated to St. Paul, was consecrated in 1840; it is in the Romanesque style, with a square tower and pinnacles, and was built at an expense of £1450, on a site given by Laurence Rawstorne, Esq., by whom, also, was given part of the land for the parsonage. To this church has been assigned an ecclesiastical district, comprising all Farington, and parts of Penwortham, Hutton, and Longton. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £150; patron, the Incumbent of Penwortham. Schools are supported out of the funds of the Hutton School Trust; the salary of the master and mistress is £90 per annum: Messrs. Bashall, also, have built large schools, which they support. Several chalybeate springs exist in the neighbourhood of Higher Farington Hall.
Farlam (St. Thomas à Becket)
FARLAM (St. Thomas à Becket), a parish, in the union of Brampton, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland; containing 1035 inhabitants, of whom 526 are in the township of East Farlam, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Brampton, and 509 in that of West Farlam. The parish comprises by admeasurement 5164 acres, of which about one-third is arable, and the remainder pasture and meadow, with a portion of woodland; the substratum is chiefly limestone and coal, the former extensively quarried and burnt into lime, and the latter worked in the adjoining parish of Hayton. At Milton is a station on the Newcastle and Carlisle railway. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £98; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Carlisle.
FARLEIGH, EAST, a parish, in the union and hundred of Maidstone, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 2½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Maidstone; containing 1377 inhabitants. The parish consists of 2023 acres, and is situated on the river Medway, which is crossed by an ancient stone bridge of five arches, at the entrance to the village. The fertility and beauty of the neighbourhood have obtained for it the designation of the "Garden of Kent;" the soil is peculiarly adapted for the growth of fruit and hops, the former of which is sent in large quantities for the supply of the London markets. There are 313 acres of wood. The Maidstone branch of the South-Eastern railway has a station at this place. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 16. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £858; impropriators, Alex. Randall, Esq., and others. The church was enlarged in 1837; in the tower is a curious Saxon arch. The foundations of a Roman villa were discovered in 1838.
Farleigh-Hungerford (St. Leonard)
FARLEIGH-HUNGERFORD (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Frome, hundred of Wellow, E. division of Somerset, 7 miles (S. E.) from Bath; containing 154 inhabitants. This place derives the adjunct to its name from the distinguished family of Hungerford, for more than 300 years lords of the manor, which was sold in 1370, with the hundred of Wellow, to Sir Thomas Hungerford, steward to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. The parish is on the river Frome, and comprises 937 acres, of which 26 are common or waste; the surface is diversified, rising into hills of various elevation, clothed with forest-trees and thriving plantations. The substrata are chiefly forest marble, grit, and oolite freestone of good quality. Farleigh Castle, the manorial seat, is beautifully situated in a well-wooded park, approached by a pleasing carriage-drive from the new turnpike-road between Warminster and Bath. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 11. 8., and in the gift of Mr. Houlton: the tithes have been commuted for £107, and the glebe consists of 47½ acres. The church is an ancient structure, with a tower, and a south porch, over which is a circular stone with a monkish distich in Latin; the interior was repaired and beautified by the late Lieut.-Col. Houlton: in one of the windows is a portrait in stained glass of Sir Thomas Hungerford, speaker of the house of commons. The castle of Farleigh is of uncertain foundation; it was enlarged in 1378 by Sir Thomas Hungerford, with four towers, of which two are remaining. The building was quadrangular, and some of the walls are still pretty perfect. The chapel and the mausoleum within the walls are in tolerable preservation, and contain some sepulchral monuments of great beauty, among which are, a panelled altar-tomb with the recumbent effigies of Sir Thomas Hungerford and his lady Joanna, and a black and white marble monument with the effigies of Sir Edward Hungerford and lady; the walls of the mausoleum are covered with armorial bearings, and those of the chapel with pieces of ancient armour. A Roman tessellated pavement was discovered in 1685; and more recently, a bath and other vestiges of a Roman villa were found, on digging in a field about half a mile north-westward from the castle. During the wars of the roses, the castle was the birthplace of Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, and mother of Cardinal Pole. The Rev. B. Richardson, late rector of the parish, was one of the founders of the English school of geology.
Farleigh-Wallop (St. John)
FARLEIGH-WALLOP (St. John), a parish, in the union of Basingstoke, hundred of Bermondspit, Basingstoke and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Basingstoke; containing 94 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, united to the rectory of Cliddesden, and valued in the king's books at £9. 12. 6.: the tithes have been commuted for £340, and there are 9 acres of glebe.