A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Flamstead (St. Leonard)
FLAMSTEAD (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Hemel-Hempstead, hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, 2¾ miles (N. W.) from Redbourn; containing 1492 inhabitants. The village stands near the Watling-street, upon the summit of a high ridge of land, rising abruptly from the south-western side of the valley through which the river Ver runs; and was in ancient times called Verlam-stedt, in allusion to its situation near the river. A priory, dedicated to St. Giles, is stated by Leland to have been founded at Woodchurch, in the neighbourhood, by Roger de Tony, for a prioress and nuns; the demesnes of which, at the dissolution of religious houses, were granted by Henry VIII. to Sir Richard Page, Knt., to whose mansion Edward VI. was sent in his infancy for the benefit of a salubrious air. The living is a perpetual curacy; income, £117; patrons and appropriators, the Master and Fellows of University College, Oxford, whose tithes have been commuted for £1220, and who have a glebe of 82 acres. An almshouse was founded by Thomas Saunders, in 1669.
Flasby, with Winterburn
FLASBY, with Winterburn, a township, in the parish of Gargrave, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 6 miles (N. W. by N.) from Skipton; containing 140 inhabitants, of whom 77 are in the hamlet of Flasby. The township comprises about 2940 acres, chiefly moorland and pasture; and there are some quarries of good freestone.
FLASHBROOK, a township, in the parish of Adbaston, union of Newport, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 6 miles (N.) from Newport; containing, with the hamlet of Batchacre, 109 inhabitants. It forms the southern division of the parish, and comprises 1432 acres, of which 39 are waste land or common. The ancient seat of Batchacre, now occupied by a farmer, had formerly a spacious park. Tithe rent-charges have been awarded amounting to £173.
FLAT-HOLMES, an island, in the parish of Uphill, union of Axbridge, hundred of Winterstoke, E. division of Somerset, 7 miles (N. W. by W.) from Uphill. It is about a mile and a half in circumference, commanding a delightful prospect of the Bristol Channel; and on the highest point of land is a lighthouse, at an elevation of 80 feet.
FLAUNDEN, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Hemel-Hempstead, hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, 5½ miles (W. S. W.) from King's-Langley; containing 295 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, separated from the mother church in 1834, and in the gift of the Hon. C. C. Cavendish: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £160, and the curate's for £50. The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, was formerly situated in a beautiful valley, about two miles from Flaunden, but has been lately taken down, and a new one built in the village.
Flavel, Flyford.—See Flyford-Flavel.
FLAWBOROUGH, a chapelry, partly in the parish of Orston, N. division of the wapentake of Bingham, and partly in that of Staunton, S. division of the wapentake of Newark, union of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 8 miles (S. by W.) from Newark; containing 79 inhabitants. The chapel is subject to the rectory of Staunton.
FLAWITH, a township, in the parish of Alne, union of Easingwould, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York, 5½ miles (S. W.) from Easingwould; containing 90 inhabitants. This township, in which is a small village, comprises by computation about 500 acres. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments, under an inclosure act.
Flax-Bourton.—See Bourton, Flax.
FLAXBY, a township, in the parish of Goldsborough, Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 3¾ miles (E. by N.) from Knaresborough; containing 102 inhabitants, and comprising about 580 acres. The tithes were commuted for land, under an inclosure act, in 1772. A school is endowed with £15. 10. per annum, the produce of 15 acres of land at Norwood; and also with 7 acres allotted on the inclosure of Knaresborough Forest.
Flaxley (St. Catherine)
FLAXLEY (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union of Westbury, hundred of St. Briavell's, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Newnham; containing 229 inhabitants. It has smelting works which produce weekly 20 tons of pig-iron of excellent quality. The living is a donative; net income, £104; patron, Sir M. H. Boevy, Bart. The church was rebuilt in 1730. In the reign of Stephen an abbey for Cistercian monks, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, was built here by Robert Fitz-Milo, second earl of Hereford, the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, amounted to £112. 13. 1.: the chief part was burnt down in 1777, but the building has been restored.
FLAXTON-on-the-Moor, a township, in the parishes of Bossall and Foston, union of York, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York, 9 miles (N. E. by N.) from York; containing 412 inhabitants. The township is on the east side of the river Foss, and comprises by computation 1600 acres of land. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In 1807, a leaden box. containing about 300 small Saxon silver coins, in high preservation, some silver rings, and several pieces of spurs, were turned up by the plough.
Fleckney (St. Nicholas)
FLECKNEY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Harborough, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from Harborough; containing 473 inhabitants. The parish is situated near the Leicester and Northampton canal, and three miles from the Leicester and Harborough road. It comprises by computation 1255 acres, of which the portions of arable and pasture are nearly equal; the soil in some parts is a strong loam, with a clay subsoil, and in other parts a strong cold clay. The Union canal passes on the east. The living is a curacy, in the patronage of Lady Byron, with a net income of £144: the tithes were commuted for land in 1769. The church is a small ancient edifice, in the early English style. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Fledborough (St. Gregory)
FLEDBOROUGH (St. Gregory), a parish, in the union of East Retford, N. division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 5¼ miles (E. by N.) from Tuxford; containing 112 inhabitants. It is pleasantly situated on the river Trent, and comprises by measurement 1427 acres, of which the surface is level. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 7. 6., and in the gift of Earl Manvers: the tithes have been commuted for £340, and the glebe comprises 8 acres.
Fleet (Holy Trinity)
FLEET (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Weymouth, hundred of Uggscombe, Dorchester division of Dorset, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Weymouth; containing 140 inhabitants. This parish, which is supposed to take its name from the Fleet water, near which it is situated, belonged to the priory of Christchurch, in the county of Hants. A market and a fair, granted in the 28th of Henry III., have been long discontinued. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.; patron, Miss Jackson: the tithes have been commuted for £31, and the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church, a small edifice, was destroyed, with part of the adjacent houses, by an inundation of the sea during a storm in 1824, and has been handsomely rebuilt in the later English style.
Fleet (St. Mary Magdalene)
FLEET (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Holbeach, hundred of Elloe, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 2¼ miles (E. by S.) from Holbeach; containing 960 inhabitants. It is intersected by the road from the north into Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, and comprises by measurement 6500 acres, of which about a third is arable. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15; patron and incumbent, the Rev. R. Dods, whose tithes have been commuted for £1236, and whose glebe consists of 87 acres. The church is in the early English style. A school is endowed with £47. 10. per annum.
FLEETHAM, a township, in the parish of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Bambrough ward and of Northumberland, 6 miles (S. E. by S.) from Belford; containing 52 inhabitants. It consists of a few farmholds and cottages, and lies two miles west from Beadnel, which is situated on the sea-coast.
FLEETWOOD-on-Wyre, a town and port, in the township of Thornton, parish of Poulton, union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 20 miles (S. W. by W.) from Lancaster, and 238 (N. W.) from London; containing, in 1841, 2833, and now upwards of 3000, inhabitants. This place, which is bounded on the north by Lancaster and Morecambe bays, and on the east and south by the river Wyre, has risen within the last few years into some importance. The lands on which the town is built have been for some centuries the property of the ancestors of Sir Peter Hesketh Fleetwood, Bart.; and prior to the year 1836, formed a wild tract of rabbit-warren without any buildings save one solitary kiln for burning limestone. The baronet, from whom the place derives its name, perceiving the facilities afforded by the river, for the construction of a capacious harbour and docks, and the great advantages the locality derived from its proximity to the manufacturing districts, projected the erection of a town, the plan of which was drawn by Decimus Burton, Esq. The town is laid out for streets radiating to the south-east and south-west from its northern boundary, and intersected at right angles by others: the buildings are chiefly of stone from the quarries in the neighbouring districts, and such as are of brick are principally stuccoed. It is lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are supplied with water from wells attached to the houses. To the north is a mount commanding fine views; and east of this is a lighthouse, a handsome structure of stone with alcoves on either side, to the south of which stands the North Euston hotel, a spacious and elegant building of stone, with an extensive establishment of public baths. At the eastern extremity of Pharos-street is a circus, with another lighthouse, a Tuscan column 95 feet in height. On the south side of the town is Dock-street, near which is the terminus of the Preston and Wyre railway, appropriated for passengers, from which a branch diverges to the landing-quay, where is the terminus for goods and merchandise: the cost of the main line, a length of 20 miles, was £430,000; and there are branches to Blackpool and Lytham, which cost £40,000.
The harbour, which is about a mile and a half from the sea, and to which the river Wyre for that distance forms the entrance, is situated to the east and south of the town, and has been greatly improved under the superintendence of Captain Denham, F.R.S.: the average depth at low water is 20 feet, and it is protected from storms and heavy seas by a natural breakwater consisting of an immense bank of clay, in which coarse gravel is thickly imbedded. The navigation of the river is assisted by a screwpile lighthouse, erected in June, 1840, on pillars of iron driven into the bed of the river, and admitting between them a free passage for the water; it has an elevation of 45 feet above the level of half-tide, and at night displays a light visible at a distance of ten miles. The foreign trade is chiefly in corn, flour, flax, cotton, sugar, rice, timber, and various wooden wares, from the British plantations, and other ports: a coastingtrade is carried on with Ireland and the south of Scotland, in grain, meal, flour, provisions, flax, linen, and cattle; and the exports are chiefly coal, slates, and manufactured goods, from the neighbouring counties. The place has also been made a warehousing port for tobacco removed coastwise for home consumption, for all East India produce after having been warehoused at an approved port, and removed coastwise under certain regulations, and for all other articles of merchandise whether imported direct or otherwise; for the reception of which, bonding warehouses have been erected, and timber, coal, stone, and slate yards have been inclosed. The number of vessels in the foreign trade that entered inwards in the year 1845, was 23, of the aggregate burthen of 7366 tons, the number in the coasting-trade, inwards, was 580, and outwards, 473, whose aggregate burthen was 111,202, and 104,218 tons, respectively: the amount of customs' duties in the same year, was £6714. 18. 11. Steamers ply to Ardrossan and Glasgow, to the Isle of Man, to Ulverston and the Lake district, and to Belfast; the passengers step from carriages into the steamers under an arched building. Her Majesty and the court landed here from Scotland, in September, 1847. The market is supplied with corn and other produce by the farmers of the vicinity, with poultry by steamers from Ulverston, and with provisions from Belfast; it is open daily, but the principal business is transacted on Friday. The land in the neighbourhood is fertile, and the chief agricultural produce is wheat, for which the soil is very favourable: a rich black loamy kind of marl, which lies at a considerable depth beneath the surface, is dug for manure. A church dedicated to St. Peter has been erected by subscription: it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a well-proportioned spire, erected after a design by Mr. Burton, and completed in 1841; it contains 450 sittings, of which 150 are free. The living is endowed with great tithes in Thornton to the amount of £66. 2. 6., and the pew-rents, which, when the pews are all let, produce about £200 per annum. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a Roman Catholic chapel in Walmsley-street. A national school in the Elizabethan style was erected in 1846, as a testimonial to Sir P. H. Fleetwood, for his great enterprise in establishing the town, harbour, and railway; it is calculated to hold 140 boys and the same number of girls, and has an excellent house adjoining for the master and mistress. About a mile from the town, a spacious area has been inclosed for a public cemetery.
Half-way between Fleetwood and Thornton, on the beach, is the hamlet of Rossall, with Rossall Hall, formerly the seat of Sir P. Hesketh Fleetwood, but now appropriated as a public school for the sons of clergymen and other gentlemen, under the name of "The Northern Church of England School." This school was opened on the 22nd August, 1844; it is on nearly the same principle as Marlborough College, and these two institutions are, perhaps, the only public boarding schools in England, all the pupils being boarded and lodged on the premises, and not in the masters' houses, and no dayscholars being admitted. The visiter is, the bishop of the diocese; the president, the Earl of Derby; and among the vice-presidents are, Lord Stanley, the Earls of Ellesmere, Burlington, and Balcarres, Lord Skelmersdale, and the Bishops of Chester, London, Llandaff, Norwich, and St. David's. There is a council of twentyfour, exclusively of the chairman, treasurer, and secretary, fourteen being clergymen and ten laymen; and the head master, who must be in holy orders, and M.A. of Oxford or Cambridge, has absolute authority in the household, and appoints the other masters, of whom there are seven, three or four being generally in orders, and all graduates of some university. The system of education resembles that in King's College, London, and Marlborough College; and is provided at the lowest rate, consistent with selectness, and ample and elegant maintenance. The charges are, for the sons of clergymen, if nominated, £30, and if not nominated, £40, per annum; and for the sons of laymen, nominated and not nominated, £40 and £50 respectively: admission may also be had by insurance from an early age, instead of nomination, the terms in such cases being £25 per annum. There are drawing and music-masters, a swimmingmaster, and drill-serjeants, for whom no extra charge is made. Of about 200 pupils at present in the school, 100 are the sons of clergymen. The situation of the house is admirably adapted to the purpose, it being on the seacoast, with three miles of fine sands, similar to those of Blackpool, spread in its vicinity; and sufficiently retired to allow great liberty to the scholars, yet so convenient to Fleetwood as to admit of easy communication. A large sanatorium, capable of holding 36 beds, has been added, and placed under the superintendence of a separate establishment. It may be mentioned, that to the unwearied zeal and indefatigable exertions of the honorary secretary, the Rev. St. Vincent Beechey, first incumbent of Fleetwood, by whom the plan was proposed, this institution owes its rise, and early prosperity.
Flempton (St. Catherine)
FLEMPTON (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union and hundred of Thingoe, W. division of Suffolk, 4¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Bury St. Edmund's; containing 210 inhabitants. It is situated on the navigable river Lark, and comprises about 950 acres, of which the surface is flat. The living is a rectory, with the rectory of Hengrave united, valued in the king's books at £5, and in the patronage of the family of Dixon, with a net income of £398: the tithes of Flempton have been commuted for £195. 18., and there is a glebe of 40 acres. The church, an ancient edifice, has been repaired; part of the tower fell down in 1726.
Fletching (St. Andrew and St. Mary)
FLETCHING (St. Andrew and St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Uckfield, hundred of Rushmonden, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 3¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Uckfield; containing 1914 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road from London to Lewes, was the seat of encampment of a part of the forces of the barons, under the command of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, the night previous to the battle of Lewes, in the reign of Henry III. The parish comprises about 5830 acres, of which the greater portion is good arable land; and the river Ouse flows in a meandering course through it. Sheffield Place, the seat of the Earl of Sheffield, is a stately castellated mansion, in a park of nearly 600 acres, richly embellished. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 6. 8.; net income, £167; patron, Lord Sheffield; impropriator, John Villiers Shelley, Esq. The church is a handsome cruciform structure, in the early English style, with a lofty tower and spire; the chancel is separated from the nave by a richly-carved screen of oak, and at the end of the north transept is the sepulchral chapel of the Holroyd family, in which are the remains of Gibbon, the historian. At Dane Hill is a chapel, erected by subscription in 1836, and containing 378 sittings, of which 276 are free. A national school has been established; and the parish derives £40 per annum from Henry Smith's charity.
Fletton (St. Margaret)
FLETTON (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Peterborough, hundred of Norman-Cross, county of Huntingdon, 1 mile (S. by E.) from Peterborough; containing 256 inhabitants. It comprises 921a. 1r. 19p. of good arable and pasture land in nearly equal portions. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 3. 9.; net income, £292; patron, Earl Fitzwilliam. A school is supported by a bequest of £12 per annum. In digging a well, in the year 1739, fossil shells and wood were found at the depth of 30 feet.
Flimby (St. Nicholas)
FLIMBY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Maryport; containing 546 inhabitants. The parish was a chapelry in Cammerton, from which it was separated in 1545: it lies on the sea-coast, and comprises 1155a. 26p., of which 384 acres are woodland; the district abounds with coal. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £82; patrons, the Landowners. The church was rebuilt in 1794.