A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Foulk-Stapleford, in the county of Chester.—See Stapleford, Foulk.
Foulmire, or Fulmer (St. Mary)
FOULMIRE, or Fulmer (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Royston, hundred of Thriplow, county of Cambridge, 5½ miles (N. E.) from Royston; containing 610 inhabitants. This place had formerly a market, the grant of which was renewed in the reign of James I. The parish comprises 2326 acres, whereof 1900 are arable: on a heath is a large warren, where a great number of aquatic and bog plants is found. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £29. 14. 2.; net income, £675; patron, the Earl of Hardwicke. There is a place of worship for a congregation of Independents.
Foulness (St. Mary)
FOULNESS (St. Mary), an island and parish, in the union and hundred of Rochford, S. division of Essex, 9 miles (E. by N.) from Rochford; containing 674 inhabitants. Its circumference is about 20 miles, exclusively of a tract called the Saltings, not yet embanked from the sea. Courts leet and baron are occasionally held by the lord of the manor; and there is a fair for toys on July 10th. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £15; net income, £300; patron, G. Finch, Esq. The church, nearly in the centre of the island, was formerly a chapel, in which a chantry was founded by Isane, Countess of Hereford, for a priest to perform religious offices for the inhabitants, who, on account of the floods, were frequently prevented from attending their respective places of worship on the main land.
FOULNEY, an island, in the parish of Dalton-inFurness, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 7 miles (S. by E.) from Dalton. It lies to the east of the Isle of Walney; its name signifies "the isle of fowls." There is no dwelling-house upon it, the land being held by farmers on the adjacent shore. The Pile of Fouldrey is distant about a mile.
FOULRIDGE, a township, in the parish of Whalley, union of Burnley, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 1¼ mile (N.) from Colne; containing 1458 inhabitants. This place, anciently Folrigge, was held by John de Grigleston, in the reign of King John, of the Earl of Lincoln. In the 15th of Edward II., John de Thornhill held the manor; and by marriage with his daughter, Sir Henry Saville became possessed of the property in 1404. John Pollard was seised of it in the 6th of James I., and Margery Emmott was owner of the manor in the 7th of the following reign of Charles. The township adjoins the county of York, its northern boundary, and comprises about 1400 acres of land: the neighbourhood is remarkable for its interesting scenery. This is the highest point, or head level, of the Leeds and Liverpool canal, for the supply of which, in seasons of drought, here are two spacious reservoirs.
Foulsham (Holy Innocents)
FOULSHAM (Holy Innocents), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk, 18 miles (N. W.) from Norwich, and 108 (N. N. E.) from London; containing 1048 inhabitants. The town, with the church, was almost totally destroyed by fire in 1770, but has been rebuilt in a superior manner, and now contains many good houses. There is a fair on the first Tuesday in May, for cattle and toys, and a statute-fair for hiring servants is holden on the first Tuesday after Michaelmas-day; petty-sessions are held on every alternate Monday. The parish comprises 3226a. 1r., of which 1993 acres are arable, 1027 pasture and meadow, and 18 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £27. 14. 9½., and in the gift of Lord Hastings: the tithes have been commuted for £780, and the glebe comprises 24½ acres, with a house. The church, which was rebuilt after the fire, is in the later English style, with an embattled tower 90 feet high, crowned by pinnacles; on the south side of the chancel are a double piscina and three sedilia of elegant design. The Baptists have a place of worship.
FOULSTON, a township, in the parish of KirkBurton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1856 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1200 acres; the surface is beautifully diversified with hill and dale. The village is situated on an eminence surrounded by lofty hills; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the woollen manufacture.
FOUNTAIN'S-EARTH, a township, in the chapelry of Middlesmoor, parish of Kirkby-Malzeard, union of Pateley-Bridge, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 3¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Ripon; containing 435 inhabitants. The township comprises 6833 acres, of which 2312 are meadow and pasture, 311 arable, 210 wood, and about 4000 common or moorland; the surface is varied, the scenery in some parts picturesque and beautiful. The river Nidd has its source near one extremity of the township; it enters above the hamlet of Lofthouse through an arched fissure, called the Goydon Pot-Hole, into a huge rock of limestone, and pursues a subterranean course of more than two miles. Coal and lead mines have been wrought, and copperas was obtained; but at present no works are carried on. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £38. 14., and the impropriate for £37. 10., payable to Trinity College, Cambridge. There is a place of worship for dissenters; and at Lofthouse is a grammar school, endowed by John Lazenby, in 1734, with land now let for £27 per annum. At a place called Helks, in the township, are two kinds of tumuli; and traces of an encampment, and also Druidical remains, are visible.
Fovant, or Foffont (St. George)
FOVANT, or Foffont (St. George), a parish, in the union of Wilton, hundred of Cawden and Cadworth, Hindon and S. divisions of Wilts, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Wilton; containing 620 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17, and in the gift of the Earl of Pembroke: the tithes have been commuted for £540, and the glebe comprises 45 acres.
FOWBERRY, a township, in the parish of Chatton, union of Glendale, E. division of Glendale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 3 miles (E. N. E.) from Wooler; comprising about 1260 acres of land. Good freestone is obtained in Fowberry Park, and a considerable quantity of wood is grown on the estate. Fowberry Tower, standing pleasantly on the south side of the Till rivulet, was formerly the property of Sir Francis Drake, of whom it was purchased by Matthew Culley, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £150 payable to the impropriators, and £79. 7. 4. to the vicar. In 1532 this place was plundered by the Scots.
Fowey (St. Fimbarrus)
FOWEY (St. Fimbarrus), a sea-port, markettown, and parish, and formerly an incorporated borough, in the union of St. Austin, E. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 29 miles (S. W. by S.) from Launceston, and 234½ (S. W. by W.) from London; containing 1643 inhabitants, of whom 1388 are in the town. This place, the name of which was formerly Ffowey, is of ancient origin, and rose into importance during the wars that occurred in the reigns of Edward I. and III. and Henry V. In the time of Edward III., its ships refusing to strike when required, as they sailed by Rye and Winchelsea, were attacked by the vessels of those ports, but defeated them; and in commemoration of this gallant conduct, the inhabitants bore their arms united with the arms of the two cinque-ports, which gave rise to the appellation of the "Gallants of Fowey." To the fleet of Edward III. before Calais, this place contributed 47 ships, being a greater number than was supplied by any other port in England; and also furnished 770 mariners, which was a greater proportion than that of any other town except Yarmouth. Fowey was attacked and partly burnt by the French, in 1457; and being again threatened by them in the reign of Edward IV., that monarch caused two towers, the ruins of which are yet visible, to be built at the public charge for its security; but he was subsequently so much displeased with the inhabitants for attacking the French during a truce with Louis XI., that he took away all their ships and naval stores, together with a chain drawn across the river, between the two forts, which was carried to Dartmouth. In the parliamentary war, it was, at first, one of the royal garrisons; in 1644, the town and harbour were taken possession of by the Earl of Essex, with several ships and 17 pieces of ordnance, and here his army was mostly quartered when it surrendered to the king. The fortress and haven were held by the royalists till March, 1646, when they were delivered up, with 13 pieces of ordnance, to Sir Thomas Fairfax. The Dutch, under Admiral de Ruyter, made an unsuccessful attempt on the harbour in 1667.
The town is situated at the mouth of the Fowey, extending a mile along its eastern bank; the scenery around the harbour is grand and interesting, and the cliffs on the opposite side of the river, across which is a ferry for passengers, are of the boldest character. The streets are narrow and irregular, with numerous angles, rendering it difficult for carriages to drive through the town. There is a spacious market-house, over which is the town-hall, erected some years since by Viscount Valletort, and Philip Rashleigh, Esq., then representatives for the borough. Though at one time a place of commercial importance, little of this now remains, except what arises from the pilchard-fishery, in which most of the inhabitants are engaged, and which affords employment to a great number of vessels, it being computed that upwards of 28,000 hogsheads of fish are annually brought into the port: there are a few vessels in the timber and coal trade, two or three London traders, and some small country barges. The number of vessels of above 50 tons' burthen, registered as belonging to the port, is 68, and their aggregate tonnage 4302. The market is on Saturday; and fairs are held on ShroveTuesday, May 1st, and September 10th. The harbour is esteemed the best outlet to the westward of all the ports in the west of England, being at all times safe, and affording such excellent anchorage, that vessels of 1000 tons' burthen can ride in safety, and enter at the lowest tide, drawing three fathoms of water, and go into deeper water above. The shores are bold, and free from danger; and ships in distress may run in with perfect safety, without cable or anchor. The fort of St. Catherine, constructed for the protection of the harbour in the reign of Henry VIII., still exists, with four guns mounted upon it; and between this and the town are two small forts of more modern erection.
Fowey was incorporated by charter of James II.; another charter was granted by William and Mary in 1690, and a third in 1819. Under the last, there were a mayor, recorder, eight aldermen, a town-clerk, and assistants; but a writ of ouster was brought against the corporation for the abuse of their chartered privileges, and judgment having been recorded against them in Trinity Term, 1827, no attempt has been made to elect another mayor, hold sessions, or do any other corporate acts; and the county magistrates have ever since acted for the borough. The town sent members to a national council in the 14th of Edward III., and first returned representatives to parliament in the 13th of Elizabeth, from which period it continued to send two members till disfranchised in the 2nd of William IV. The parish comprises 1895a. 1r. 3½p. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10; patron, J. T. Treffry, Esq.; impropriators, W. Rashleigh and E. Pearse, Esqrs. The great tithes have been commuted for £163. 18., and the vicarial for £168; the glebe comprises 6 acres. The church is a handsome edifice, with a lofty pinnacled tower at the west end; it was rebuilt in 1336, and again rebuilt, or much altered, and its present tower erected, about 1466: there are several monuments belonging to the families of Rashleigh and Treffry. The Wesleyans and Independents have places of worship. In the reign of Charles II., Jonathan Rashleigh, Esq., built an almshouse for eight widows, and endowed it with the great tithes of the parish of St. Wenn, now let for £150 per annum. The castellated mansion of Place-house, on an eminence near the church, anciently the residence of the Treffry family, is a curious relic of early domestic architecture; an oriel, projecting from the south side of it, is richly ornamented with tracery. The ruins of the block-houses erected for the defence of the harbour by command of Edward IV., are also still to be seen.
Fownhope (St. Mary)
FOWNHOPE (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Greytree, union and county of Hereford, 6 miles (S. E.) from Hereford; containing, with the chapelry of Fawley, 1004 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 3700 acres, of which nearly 1000 are coppice-wood; the surface is varied and picturesque, and from the summit of Capler Hill, which is finely wooded, the prospects are extensive. There are quarries of coralline limestone used for burning, and of sandstone of good quality for building. The village is situated on the eastern bank of the Wye, the road from Hereford to Newent passing through it. Petty-sessions for the division are held every fourth Monday. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 9. 9½., and endowed with one-third of the rectorial tithes; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford. The appropriate tithes have been commuted for £320, the vicarial for £160; and there are about 70 acres of glebe, of which one-half belongs to the rectory, and the other half to the vicarage. The church, a large and wellbuilt edifice, exhibits traces of the Norman, early English, and decorated styles; a Norman tower supports a more recent shingled spire of considerable elevation. There is a chapel of ease at Fawley. About half a mile to the north of the village is an eminence crowned by an ancient camp; and at some distance, on Capler Hill, is a second camp, double trenched, and called Woldbury.
FOXCOTE, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and hundred of Andover, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2 miles (N. W.) from Andover; containing 72 inhabitants. The living is in the gift of the Vicar of Andover.
Foxcott, or Foscott (St. Leonard)
FOXCOTT, or Foscott (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 2 miles (N. E.) from Buckingham; containing 119 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 9. 4½., and in the gift of the Duke of Buckingham: the tithes have been commuted for £165, and the glebe comprises 28 acres. Within the last few years excavations have been made of a Roman villa, on the north of the road leading from Buckingham to Stony-Stratford.
FOXEARTH, a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 3½ miles (N. W.) from Sudbury; containing 474 inhabitants. It is partly bounded by the river Stour, and comprises by admeasurement 1473 acres, of which 1275 are arable, 166½ pasture, and 31½ woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 4. 4½., and in the gift of F. B. Pearson, Esq. The incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £435, and the glebe comprises 23 acres; tithes belonging to the trustees of the Guildhall charity in Bury St. Edmund's have been commuted for £68. 16. The church is an ancient edifice, with a square embattled tower.
Foxhall (All Saints)
FOXHALL (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Carlford, E. division of Suffolk, 4¼ miles (E. by S.) from Ipswich; containing 200 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 2000 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Brightwell: the church is in ruins.
FOXHOLES, a parish, in the union of Driffield, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Butterwick, 349 inhabitants, of whom 249 are in the township of Foxholes with Boythorp, 7 miles (N. E. by N.) from Sledmere. The parish comprises by computation 4210 acres, of which 2480a. 2r. 15p. are in the township; the lower grounds are watered by several brooks, and the curious stream called the Gypsies terminates its course here. The village, which has a neat appearance, is seated in a valley. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22, and in the patronage of R. Sykes, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £389, and the glebe consists of 418 acres. The church is an ancient structure, consisting of a nave and chancel separated by a fine Norman arch. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Foxley (St. Thomas)
FOXLEY (St. Thomas), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (E.) from North Elmham; containing 293 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected by the road from Norwich to Fakenham, comprises by admeasurement 1620 acres, whereof 1103 are arable, 226 meadow and pasture, and 291 woodland: the village is pleasantly situated on an eminence. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the gift of E. Lombe, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £403, and the glebe contains 21½ acres, with a handsome parsonage-house, erected in 1842. The church is chiefly in the early and later English styles, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles.
FOXLEY, a parish, in the union and hundred of Malmesbury, Malmesbury and Kingswood, and N. divisions of Wilts, 2½ miles (W. S. W.) from Malmesbury; containing 70 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by a branch of the Avon, and comprises 760 acres; the surface is flat, and the soil of inferior quality, chiefly stone brash. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 17. 8¼., and in the gift of Lord Holland: the tithes have been commuted for £147, and the glebe comprises 94 acres. There are some slight traces of a Roman station in the parish, where the Avon crosses the Roman Fosse-way.
FOXT, a township, partly in the parish of Ipstones, N. division, and partly in that of Checkley, S. division, of the hundred of Totmonslow, union of Cheadle, N. division of the county of Stafford, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Cheadle; containing 280 inhabitants. The portion of the township situated in Checkley, is six miles from the parish church. The small village is east of the river Churnet, and of the Uttoxeter canal. A church was built here in 1838, at almost the sole expense of the Rev. John Sneyd, the incumbent of Ipstones, at a cost of £800; it is in the early English style, with a tower, and contains 150 sittings.
Foxton (St. Lawrence)
FOXTON (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union or Royston, hundred of Thriplow, county of Cambridge, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Cambridge; containing 452 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 2. 11.; patron, the Bishop of Ely; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter: the great tithes have been commuted for £534, and the vicarial for £120; the appropriate glebe comprises 21 acres, and the vicarial nearly two. The church was erected about the year 1456. A fair is held at Easter.
Foxton, with Shotton
FOXTON, with Shotton, a township, in the parish and union of Sedgefield, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 9 miles (N. W. by W.) from Stockton; containing 44 inhabitants. The manor of "Foxdene" belonged to the Knights Templars, whose possessions, on the dissolution of their order, were transferred to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John; among the families who formerly held lands here, was that of Elstob, of whom were William and Elizabeth Elstob, celebrated Saxon scholars, at the beginning of the last century. The Setons were also owners of property in the place at an early period. The township comprises about 1787 acres of rather poor land, and is intersected by the Clarence railway. The hamlet of Foxton is about three miles south of Sedgefield. The tithes have been commuted for £82.
Foxton (St. Andrew)
FOXTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Harborough, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Harborough; containing 385 inhabitants. It comprises about 1200 acres. The surface rises gently from the margin of a brook which bounds the parish for a considerable extent, and frequently inundates the lower grounds; the soil is a mixture of clay, gravel, and black loam. Limestone is quarried and burnt for manure, and there are some valuable gravel-pits. The Union canal runs through the village. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £128; impropriator, the Rev. F. T. Corrance. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists.
Foy (St. Mary)
FOY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Ross, partly in the hundred of Greytree, but chiefly in the Upper division of the hundred of Wormelow, county of Hereford, 3¾ miles (N.) from Ross, and on the road between Gloucester and Hereford; containing, with the township of Eaton-Tregoes, 278 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Wye, which flows with a considerable bend through it; and comprises by measurement 2243 acres. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. John Jones: the tithes have been commuted for £550, and the glebe contains 52 acres. The church is a neat plain edifice. An almshouse for three persons was founded in 1640.
FRADLEY, a township, in the parish of Alrewas, union of Lichfield, N. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 4½ miles (N. E.) from Lichfield; containing 362 inhabitants. Fradley heath formed part of the extensive waste of Alrewas-Hay, but was inclosed about 1805. Plott says, that in one part of the common is a remarkable spring, vulgarly said to be bottomless, which always overflows, and though in a low situation, permits the plummet to descend 42 feet. On the Fazeley canal, half a mile south of Fradley, are Dunstall wharf and hamlet.
FRADSWELL, a chapelry, in the parish of Colwich, S. division of the hundred of Pirehill, union, and N. division of the county, of Stafford, 7¼ miles (E. by S.) from Stone; containing 237 inhabitants. It comprises 1391 acres, of which 44 are waste land or common, and forms a fertile but hilly district adjoining Chartley Park. Fradeswell Hall is a neat mansion on an eminence. The chapel stands near the foot of an abrupt declivity, and was rebuilt in 1764, with the exception of the chancel; the lower part is of stone, and the upper of brick. The tithes have been commuted for £138. 7., of which £60 are payable to the vicar.
FRAISTHORPE, a parish, in the union of Bridlington, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Bridlington; containing 104 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, united to the living of Carnaby. The village of Auburn, here, has been reduced, by the encroachments of the sea, to a single farm containing about 300 acres of land; its chapel was totally destroyed by the waters about 60 years ago.