A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Aldbourn (St. Michael)
ALDBOURN (St. Michael), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Hungerford, hundred of Selkley, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 6 miles (N. E.) from Marlborough; containing 1556 inhabitants. The name is compounded of the Saxon terms Ald, old, and bourne, a brook. Aidbourn anciently gave name to a royal chase, granted by Henry VIII. to Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, and which for a long period served only as a rabbit-warren, but is now inclosed and cultivated. Previously to the battle of Newbury, in the reign of Charles I., a sharp skirmish took place here between the parliamentarian forces and the royalists. In 1760, a fire consumed seventy-two houses; and in 1817, twenty were destroyed by a similar calamity. The parish comprises 8495a. 3r. 19p., of which 5037 acres are arable, 839 meadow and pasture, and 226 woodland; the surface generally is undulated, and the quality of the soil is various, presenting a sand-gritty substance together with red clayey gravel and black turfy mould, and in some places chalk and flint. The town is situated in a fertile valley; it has a willow-factory for bonnet frames, in which about 100 females are employed. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £26. 6. 3.; patron, the Bishop of Salisbury; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Winchester. The great tithes have been commuted for £1475, and the small tithes for £210: the rectorial glebe comprises about 120 acres; the vicarial consists chiefly of allotments made under an act of parliament, and is valued at £262 per annum. The church, an ancient structure exhibiting portions in the Norman style, has a tower erected at the cost of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; and the southern part of the vicarage-house is supposed to be the remains of a hunting seat which belonged to him. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Near a farmhouse called Pierce's Lodge, are vestiges of a British encampment; and in the neighbourhood may be seen various artificial mounds of earth.
Aldbrough (St. Bartholomew)
ALDBROUGH (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Skirlaugh, Middle division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York; comprising the townships of Aldbrough, Newton-East, and NewtonWest, with part of Great and Little Cowden; and containing 1119 inhabitants, of whom 845 are in the township of Aldbrough, 11½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Hull. The township of Aldbrough comprises upwards of 4000 acres, of which two-thirds are arable, and one-third is pasture: the soil, generally, is strong and tenacious; and bricks and tiles are manufactured. The village, which is large and convenient, is pleasantly situated on an eminence about a mile from the sea, and includes some good houses and shops, and a large hotel, lately built, for the accommodation of visiters who resort hither for sea-bathing. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 15., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £350: the rectorial tithes for the lordship of Aldbrough were commuted for land, under an inclosure act, in 1764. The church, the oldest in Holderness, is a large edifice, and contains a circular stone bearing this Saxon inscription: "Ulf commanded this church to be built for the soul of Hanum and Gunthral." Ulf was lord of the place, and had a castle here, every vestige of which, except the moat, has been destroyed. The chantry on the north side of the chancel contains a very splendid monument of Sir John de Melsa and his lady: the knight was governor of the city of York from 1292 to 1296, and a great warrior; his massive helmet is preserved. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Slight traces of a Roman road are discernible in the vicinity.
ALDBROUGH, a township, in the parish of Stanwick St. John, union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 7 miles (W. S. W.) from Darlington; containing 544 inhabitants. It is a large and pleasant village, situated on a small rivulet, and the lands in the vicinity are fertile and productive. Carlton Hall, a mile to the north, was formerly the seat of S. B. M. Barrett, Esq., who built a school here. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Aldbury (St. John the Baptist)
ALDBURY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Berkhampstead, hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, 3 miles (E. by N.) from Tring; containing 790 inhabitants, and comprising 2102 acres, of which 280 are common or waste. The village is pleasantly situated at the foot of the Chiltern hills, whose summits are crowned with thick plantations; the Tring station of the London and Birmingham railway is only about a mile distant from the church. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 8. 6½., and in the gift of the Earl of Bridgewater's trustees: the tithes have been commuted for £374, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. The church is in the early style of English architecture, and contains an altar-tomb of an armed knight in a recumbent posture, and his lady; also another, with brasses, to a knight and his lady, and their nine sons and three daughters; both executed in the richest style of ancient sculpture. There are two places of worship for Baptists.
ALDCLIFFE, a township, in the parish of Lancaster, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 1 mile (S. W.) from Lancaster; containing 111 inhabitants. This place is mentioned in Domesday book. Roger de Poictou granted lands here to the priory of Lancaster, and a lease of the manor was confirmed to the prior by Duke Henry of Lancaster. In the reign of Elizabeth, Aldcliffe belonged to the Daltons of Thurnham; and about 1731 the principal part of the estate came by purchase to the family of Dawson, of whom was Edward Dawson, Esq., of Aldcliffe Hall, a spirited agriculturist, who improved the property, and inclosed the chief part of Aldcliffe Marsh. The township comprises 600 acres of very fertile land, whereof 390 are in grass, and 210 arable: the surface is undulated; and from the higher grounds are fine views of the river Lune, which flows on the west, and beyond which extend the waters of Morecambe bay. The Lancaster canal passes on the east. Besides the inclosed lands, the proprietor, who is lord of the manor, claims 367 acres adjoining the Lune. A very fine freestone is found within the township. £25 per annum are paid as a commutation for the small tithes.
Aldeby (St. Mary)
ALDEBY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Loddon and Clavering, hundred of Clavering, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (N. E.) from Beccles; containing 496 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by the navigable river Waveney, which separates it from the county of Suffolk; and comprises 3043 acres by admeasurement. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Norwich. The church, a cruciform structure with a south chapel, is partly in the early English style; the entrance to the west is through a rich Norman doorway; the tower rises between the nave and chancel. £40, the rental of land, are annually distributed among the poor. Here was a small priory, a cell to the Benedictine abbey of Norwich.
Aldenham (St. John the Baptist)
ALDENHAM (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Watford, hundred of Cashio, or liberty of St. Alban's, county of Hertford, 2¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Watford; containing, with the hamlet of Theobald-Street, 1662 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £24, and in the gift of the Trustees of P. Thellusson, Esq.: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £778, and the vicarial for £110. The church is in the early English style, and contains some highly ornamented screen-work, the effigies of two females in stone, and an enriched font. A free grammar school was founded and endowed in 1599, by Richard Platt, citizen of London, for sixty children, to be chosen from among the poor of Aldenham and the families of freemen of the Brewers' Company, London. In consequence of a great improvement in the value of the property, the master and wardens of the company, who were constituted the governors, decided upon extending its benefits; and the present buildings, called the "Upper and Lower Schools," were erected in 1825, the latter school being designed for the sons of farmers and labourers of Aldenham, on the national system. The same munificent benefactor endowed six almshouses.
Alderbury (St. Mary)
ALDERBURY (St. Mary), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Alderbury, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 3 miles (S. E. by E.) from Salisbury; containing, with Farley and Pitton chapelries, 1440 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Bishop of Salisbury, with a net income of £162: the great tithes were commuted for land and an annual money payment, under an inclosure act, in 1803. At Farley and Pitton are chapels of ease. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a small endowed free school. The poor law union of Alderbury comprises 22 parishes or places, and contains a population of 14,171. A monastery formerly existed at Ivy Church, in the parish, the site of which is now occupied by a modern residence.
Alderford (St. John the Baptist)
ALDERFORD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of St. Faith's, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk, 3¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Reepham; containing 44 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the south by the river Wensum, and intersected by the road from Norwich to Reepham; it comprises 431a. 16p., chiefly arable. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Attlebridge consolidated, valued in the king's books at £4. 6. 8.; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Norwich. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £137, and the glebe consists of 7 acres, with a small cottage. The church is in the early, decorated, and later English styles, and consists of a nave and chancel, with a square tower; the font is curiously and elaborately sculptured.
Alderley (St. Mary)
ALDERLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Macclesfield, containing 1538 inhabitants, of whom 455 are in the township of Upper Alderley, 679 in that of Lower Alderley, and 404 in that of Great Warford. This parish comprises by computation 6009 acres of fertile land, whereof 1971 are in Upper, and 2353 in Lower Alderley; the prevailing soils are clay and sand. The surface is greatly diversified, and towards the north-east rises gradually, forming an elevation called Alderley Edge, which terminates abruptly, and commands an extensive view. Alderley Park, the seat of Lord Stanley, forms an interesting feature in the landscape; in the grounds is a sheet of water called Radnor Mere, a wood near which contains some of the finest beech-trees in England. A few of the inhabitants are engaged in weaving for the manufacturers of the neighbouring towns. The Manchester and Birmingham railway passes through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 10. 10.; net income, £514; patron, Lord Stanley. Besides the church, there is a chapel at Birtles, the incumbency of which is in the gift of T. Hibbert, Esq. The parish contains also places of worship for Wesleyans, and one for Baptists at Great Warford. An ancient school-house in the churchyard, some time after its erection, was endowed with the sum of £250, which has been placed at interest in the hands of Lord Stanley, who pays the master £10 per annum; another school is principally supported by his lordship. On Alderley Edge is a fine spring, called the Holy Well.
Alderley (St. Kenelme)
ALDERLEY (St. Kenelme), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Sodbury, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald's-Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Wotton-underEdge; containing 174 inhabitants. The village is pleasantly situated on an eminence between two streams which unite and fall into the river Severn at Berkeley; and commands an extensive and interesting view to the south and south-west. There is a manufactory of cloth, affording employment to between one and two hundred persons. Cornua ammonis and other fossils are found. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 4. 7., and in the gift of R. H. B. Hale, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £155. 5. 8., and there are about 25 acres of glebe. The Rev. Potter Cole was in 1730 presented to this benefice, which he held till the year 1800. Sir Matthew Hale, lord chief justice in the reign of Charles II., was born here, Nov. 1st, 1609, and lies interred in the churchyard.
Aldermaston, or Aldmerston (St. Mary)
ALDERMASTON, or Aldmerston (St. Mary), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Bradfield, hundred of Theale, county of Berks, 10 miles (S. W. by W.) from Reading; containing 662 inhabitants. This place was distinguished by various military operations in the civil war. The royal army under the command of Col. Gage, on its way from Oxford to Basing House in 1643, halted at the village: on its return, finding the enemy in possession of the place, the troops were ordered to march by a different route. The Earl of Essex was here with his army in the same year, and proceeded hence by Padworth and Bucklebury heath to Newbury, immediately before the second battle fought near that town. The parish comprises 3689a. 6p., and is intersected by the river Kennet. Fairs are held on May 6th, July 7th, and Oct. 11th. The living is in the gift of the lord of the manor, and valued in the king's books at £12. 12. 8½. The tithes were formerly appropriated to the priory of Sherborne, subject to the payment of a small quit-rent to Queen's College, Oxford; but since the reign of Elizabeth they have belonged to the lord of the manor; they have been commuted for £535. The church is an ancient structure, and contains several fine monuments of the families of Orchard, De la Mere, and Foster.
Alderminster (St. Mary)
ALDERMINSTER (St. Mary), a parish, partly in the Upper division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, but chiefly in the Upper division of the hundred of Pershore, union of Stratford-upon-Avon, Blockley and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, of which it is a detached portion, surrounded by Warwickshire, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Stratford; containing 508 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3073a. 3r. 26p.; it is bounded on the south-west by the river Stour, and has a great variety of soil. There are three manors, viz.: Alderminster, Apthrop, and Goldecote, the last containing the handsome seat of Gustavus Smith, Esq. The village is situated on the London and Birmingham road. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7; the patronage and impropriation belong to the Crown. The great tithes have been commuted for £188. 4., and those of the incumbent for £160. 19.; the glebe comprises 20 acres in this parish, and 3½ acres in that of Bengworth, near Evesham. The church is a curious cruciform edifice, with a low tower; the nave is in the Norman style: a new gallery was added in 1839.
ALDERNEY, an island, dependent on, and under the jurisdiction of, the states of Guernsey; situated 6 leagues (N. E.) from that island, and 7 miles (W.) from Cape La Hogue, in Normandy (from which it is separated by a strait, called by the French Raz Blanchard, and by the English the Race of Alderney); and containing 1030 inhabitants. This island, named in old English records Aurney, Aureney, and Aurigny, by which last name it is still designated by the French geographers, is supposed to have been the Riduna of Antoninus; but little of its history is known prior to the time of Henry III., in the fourth year of whose reign an act of parliament was passed, by which it appears that one moiety of the island belonged to that monarch, and the other moiety to the Bishop of Coutances. From an extent of the crown, made in the fourth year of the reign of James I., the whole of the island seems to have been the property of the king, who was entitled to the amends, or fines, and the perquisites of the court; to the treizièmes, or thirteenths, upon the sale of lands; and to the wrecks, and other princely rights and royalties; but it was subsequently granted in fee-farm to successive tenants. George III., by letters-patent under the great seal, bearing date Dec. 14th, 1763, in consideration of the surrender of the former lease or patent, and for other considerations therein specified, granted the island to John Le Mesurier, Esq., for 99 years, with a proviso for resuming the lease at any time, upon payment to the lessee of such amount of money as should have been disbursed in improving the mansion called the Governor's house, and the other premises. In this grant was included the advowson of the church and chapel, with power to levy duties upon all vessels coming into the port of the island, in the same proportion as they are levied in the harbour of St. Peter's Port, in Guernsey. The rights and property of the island were, however, purchased by government from J. Le Mesurier, Esq., of Poole, who was the last governor.
The approach to the island, particularly in stormy weather, is dangerous, from the rapidity and diversity of the currents, which at spring tides rush in contrary directions, with a velocity of six miles an hour; and from the numerous rocks by which it is surrounded. These rocks were fatal to Prince Henry, son of Henry I., who was wrecked on his return from Normandy, in 1119; and, in 1744, to the Victory man-of-war, which was lost with the whole crew, consisting of 1100 men: the French fleet, notwithstanding, escaped through the passage here after its defeat at La Hogue, in 1692. About seven miles to the west are the Caskets, a cluster of rocks rising to a height of twenty-five or thirty fathoms from the water, and about one mile in circumference. On the south-west side of the cluster is a naturally-formed harbour, in which a frigate may shelter as in a dock; steps are cut in the rock, and conveniences are provided for hauling up boats: there is a smaller and less compact harbour on the north-east side. On these rocks three light-houses have been erected, furnished with revolving reflectors.
The island, which is four miles in length, one mile and a half in breadth, and nearly ten miles in circumference, shelves considerably to the north-east, and is intersected by deep valleys. The whole of the southern and eastern parts, from La Pendante to La Clanque, is bounded by cliffs varying in elevation from 100 to 200 feet, and presenting picturesque and striking scenery; the northern and eastern sides have lower cliffs, alternating with small bays and flat shores. The bay of Bray is remarkably fine, affording good anchorage to vessels, and at low water the sands are very extensive: Longy bay is also commodious; and Craby harbour, in which at spring tides the water rises to the height of twenty-five feet, affords every facility for a wet-dock. A harbour of refuge was commenced in the early part of the year 1847. The east side of the island consists chiefly of reddish sandstone, and the west side principally of porphyry, neither of which rocks is found in large masses in any of the other islands of the group. About onehalf of the land is in cultivation; the remainder consists of common and furze land, affording good pasturage for sheep, but insufficient for cattle. The soil, though light and sandy, is in general productive, and the system of agriculture similar to that of Guernsey; but the general appearance of the land is bare, as few trees and no thorn hedges are to be seen, the inclosures being formed by walls of loose stones, and furze banks. Of the Alderney breed of cows, which has taken its name from this island, Jersey and Guernsey furnish by far the greater number for exportation, this island but very few. The town is situated nearly in the centre of the isle, and, with the exception of the Governor's house, contains few buildings worthy of notice; it is partially paved, and well supplied with water: there is a good road to Bray harbour, and another to Longy bay, where was an ancient nunnery, subsequently used as barracks during the war, and, since the peace, converted into an hospital, and a depôt for military stores. The pier, near which are several houses, is of rude construction, with but one projecting arm, and affording shelter to vessels only from the north-east.
The civil jurisdiction is exercised by a judge and six jurats, the former of whom is nominated by the governor, and the latter elected by the commonalty; they hold their several appointments for life, unless removed for misbehaviour, or malversation in office. The judge and jurats, with the queen's officers, viz., the procureur, or attorney-general; the comptroller, or solicitor-general; and the greffier, or registrar, who is also nominated by the governor, compose the court, the decision of which, however, is not necessarily definitive, being subject to an appeal to the royal court at Guernsey, and from that to the queen in council. In all criminal cases the court of Alderney has only the power of receiving evidence, which is transmitted to the superior court of Guernsey, where judgment is pronounced, and the sentence of the law executed. The entire jurisprudence is similar to that of Guernsey, as appears by the order of the royal commissioners sent to the island by Queen Elizabeth, in 1585. The judge and jurats, together with the douzainiers, the latter being twelve men chosen by the commonalty for their representatives, compose the assembly of the states of the island, wherein all ordinances for its government are proposed. But the douzainiers have only a deliberate voice, and no vote, the judge and jurats alone deciding upon the expediency of any proposed measure. The governor, or his lieutenant, must be present at each assembly, but has no vote in it. The public acts were first registered at Alderney in 1617, and the first contract was enrolled in the year 1666. The privileges of the charter are inherited by birth, or obtained by servitude.
It is not known at what time the church was built: it is an ancient edifice, not entitled to architectural notice; the tower was added to it in 1767, and a chapel near it was erected in 1763. The net income of the incumbent is £120. From the year 1591 to 1607 Alderney was without an officiating minister; baptisms and marriages were solemnized at Guernsey, and registered in the parish of St. Saviour. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A school for boys, and another for girls, were founded by J. Le Mesurier, Esq., the last governor; the building was erected in 1790. A general hospital was erected in 1789, and is supported by subscription. There still exists part of a castle begun by the Earl of Essex, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, but never finished; the ruinous foundations yet bear that favourite's name. The islet of Burhou, lying to the westward, is used as a rabbit-warren.
ALDERSEY, a township, in the parish of Coddington, union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 8¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Chester; containing 138 inhabitants. It comprises 743 acres; the soil is clayey. Salt-works were carried on here in the middle of the sixteenth century; and there is still a brine spring in the neighbourhood, but it is not worked, owing to the distance from which coal must be brought for that purpose.
Aldershott (St. Michael)
ALDERSHOTT (St. Michael), a parish, in the hundred of Crondall, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Farnham; containing 685 inhabitants. It is situated on the road between Farnham and Guildford; and comprises 4130 acres, of which 731 are arable, 550 pasture, 130 woodland, 20 acres sites and gardens, 19 hops, and 2700 common. The Basingstoke canal passes within a mile and a half of the village. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £64; patrons, J. Eggar, S. Andrews, J. Alden, and W. Tice, Esqrs.; impropriators, the Master and Brethren of the Hospital of St. Cross, Winchester. The church contains a curious monument to the Titchbourne family, whose ancient seat has been converted into a farmhouse. There are some remains of an extensive Roman camp on Brixbury Hill.
Alderton (St. Margaret)
ALDERTON (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Winchcomb, Upper division of the hundred of Tewkesbury, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Winchcomb; containing, with the hamlet of Dixton, 411 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 1750 acres; the surrounding country is beautiful, and extensive views are commanded from the hills. Near Alderton Hill stood the fine old mansion, recently taken down, where one of the ancestors of the family of Tracy (Lord Sudely) was born; and at Dixton is a large manor-house, where the Higfords, who have been great benefactors to the parish, resided for several centuries. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 1. 10½.; net income, £337; patron and incumbent, the Rev. C. Covey. The glebe consists of 230 acres, allotted in lieu of tithe, and the tithes for the hamlet of Dixton have been commuted for a rent-charge of £150: a handsome and commodious parsonage-house has been built by the present rector, on an eminence. The church, which is an ancient structure, is distinguished for the elegance of its arches. Numerous fossils are found in the stonequarries in the parish.
Alderton (St. Margaret)
ALDERTON (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Potterspury, hundred of Cleley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Towcester; containing 166 inhabitants. On the north the parish is bounded by the river Tow, and on the east partly by the road leading from Northampton to StonyStratford. It consists of 869a. 20p.; the surface is boldly undulated, and the village stands on the western declivity of an eminence. The living is a rectory, annexed to that of Grafton-Regis, and valued in the king's books at £12.
Alderton (St. Andrew)
ALDERTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Wilford, E. division of Suffolk, 7 miles (S. E. by S.) from Woodbridge; containing 620 inhabitants. It comprises 2377 acres, of which 368 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 18. 4., and in the patronage by turns of the lords of the four manors in the parish, of whom the Bishop of Norwich, as lord of Alderton Hall, is one. The tithes have been commuted for £630, and there are about 22 acres of glebe.
Alderton (St. Giles)
ALDERTON (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Malmesbury, forming a detached portion of the hundred of Chippenham, Malmesbury and Kingswood, and N. divisions of Wilts, 9 miles (N. W. by N.) from Chippenham; containing 183 inhabitants. It comprises 1584 acres, of which a considerable portion is waste land. Stone is quarried suitable for building and the repair of roads. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of J. Neeld, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £145, and the glebe consists of 47 acres. The present church has been lately built, with much taste, and has a square tower surmounted by a spire: the former church was a very ancient structure.
ALDERWASLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of Wirksworth, union of Belper, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 2¼ miles (E. by S.) from Wirksworth; containing 398 inhabitants. The manor anciently belonged to the Ferrars family, and was afterwards annexed to the earldom and duchy of Lancaster. The Le Foune or Fawne family held lands here in the reign of Henry III., and their heiress intermarried with the Lowes, who obtained a grant of the manor from Henry VIII.: the Hurt family afterwards became possessed of the manor, through an heiress of the Lowes. The township comprises 3054 acres, of which 32 are common or waste. There are iron-works and furnaces for smelting lead-ore in the neighbourhood. The chapel belongs to F. Hurt, Esq., who appoints the chaplain.
ALDFIELD, a chapelry, in the parish of Ripon, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Ripon; containing 132 inhabitants. This village, which is beautifully situated in the woody vale near Fountain's Abbey, is resorted to on account of its mineral springs, discovered about 1698, and whose sulphureous quality is said to be stronger than that of the Harrogate water. The surrounding scenery comprises all the variety of Matlock, in Derbyshire. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Earl De Grey; net income, £72. Rentcharges amounting to £59. 12. have been awarded as a commutation for the tithes; £38 are payable to the trustees of Smith's charity, and £21. 12. to the Dean and Chapter of Ripon.
Aldford (St. John the Baptist)
ALDFORD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Great Boughton; comprising the townships of Aldford and Churton in the Higher, and those of Buerton and Edgerley in the Lower, division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester; and containing 835 inhabitants, of whom, 488 are in the township of Aldford, 5 miles (S. by E.) from Chester, on the road to Farndon and Holt. This place, which had formerly a market and a fair, derives its name from an ancient ford on the river Dee; the stream divides it on the west from the county of Denbigh, North Wales, and a good bridge has been erected. In the reign of Henry II. a castle was built, of which at present only the earth-works, nearly adjoining the church, are remaining; and in the reign of Charles I. a garrison was placed here by Sir William Brereton, during the siege of Chester. The parish contains by measurement 2764 acres, whereof 1194 are in the township of Aldford; of the latter the soil is loam, gravel, and clay: there are two quarries of red sandstone. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 17. 8½., and in the gift of the Marquess of Westminster: the tithes of the township have been commuted for £315, and the glebe comprises 21 acres, with a large and commodious house. The church stands on the verge of the castle moat, and has been repaired in various styles; in the churchyard is the recumbent effigy of a female, sculptured in red stone. Schools are supported; and there are six almshouses for aged widows, endowed with £22 per annum. Vestiges of a Roman road connecting the northern and southern branches of the Watling-street, are discernible in the parish.
ALDHAM, a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, Witham division of the hundred of Lexden, N. division of Essex, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Great Coggeshall; containing 382 inhabitants. This place is situated on the river Colne, by which it is bounded on the north; and comprises an area of 1512 acres, whereof 27 are common or waste. Fairs are held at the hamlet of Ford-street on Easter-Tuesday and Nov. 1st. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12; net income, £327; patron, the Bishop of London. The church is a rude edifice, with a small wooden turret. A national school is supported; and £22 per annum, bequeathed by an unknown benefactor, are divided among 16 married persons who have not received parochial relief during the preceding twelve months. The Rev. Philip Morant, author of the History of Essex, was rector of the parish; he died Nov. 26th, 1770, aged 70 years, and was interred in the chancel of the church, where a monument has been erected to his memory. The learned Sir John Marsham, one of the six-clerks in chancery, and author of several valuable works, was proprietor of Bourchiers Hall (now a farmhouse), in the reign of Charles I., to whose fortunes he was a firm adherent.
Aldham (St. Mary)
ALDHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Cosford, W. division of Suffolk, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Hadleigh; containing 293 inhabitants. It comprises 1742a. 1r. 33p., and has, for the most part, a hilly surface; the land consists of arable, pasture, and wood, the last of which is tithe-free; the soil is a stiff clay, and produces good corn. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 4.; net income, £290; patron, Thomas Barret Lennard, Esq.: the glebe consists of 45 acres. The church is situated on a hill, and is built of flint and stone, with a round tower: the advowson formerly belonged to the earls of Oxford, whose arms are carved on the oak benches fitted up in the church in 1537. Dr. Rowland Taylor suffered martyrdom on the common of the parish, in 1555.
Aldingbourne (St. Mary)
ALDINGBOURNE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of West Hampnett, hundred of Box and Stockbridge, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 4¼ miles (E. by N.) from Chichester; containing, with the hamlets of Lydsey and Westergate, 772 inhabitants. This was formerly the residence of the bishops of Chichester, whose palace here was destroyed in the parliamentary war by Sir William Waller on his march to Arundel; a castellated building near the palace, situated on a mound surrounded with a moat, was demolished at the same time. The road from Chichester to Arundel, and the Portsmouth and Arun canal, both pass through the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 10. 5.; net income, £212; patron, the Dean of Chichester. The church is a cruciform structure in the Norman style, with a square embattled tower which terminates the north transept: the south transept is an ancient chapel, having an entrance by a fine Norman doorway. At Lydsey was a chapel founded prior to the year 1282, of which there are now no remains.