A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BISHOP'S-WOOD, a liberty, in the township and parish of Brewood, union of Penkridge, E. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 2½ miles (W. by N.) from Brewood. This place is an open common, in the vicinity of Kiddermore Green.
Bishopthorpe (St. Andrew)
BISHOPTHORPE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of York, Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S. by W.) from York; containing 404 inhabitants. This place was called originally St. Andrew's Thorpe, from the dedication of its church, which formerly belonged to the priory of St. Andrew's at York; and obtained its present appellation in the reign of Henry III., when Walter de Grey, Archbishop of York, purchased the manor, and erected a house here, which, since the destruction of Cawood Castle in the parliamentary war, has been the residence of his successors in the see. The palace is now a large and magnificent building, having been improved by several subsequent possessors, and especially by Archbishop Drummond, by whom it was greatly enlarged in 1766. Walter de Grey also built here a chapel, in the early English style, in which he founded a chantry for the souls of King John and himself, and of all faithful deceased; this is now the private chapel of the archbishop, and the most ancient part of the palace. The parish comprises by computation 760 acres, of which 464 are arable, and 164 pasture. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4; net income, £134; patron, the Archbishop: the vicarage-house was considerably enlarged in 1825. The church was rebuilt in 1768, by Archbishop Drummond, and ornamented by him with a handsome window, removed from Cawood Castle; and the edifice again requiring very extensive repairs, it was restored and embellished in 1842, by the present archbishop, at an expense of about £1500. The notorious Guy Fawkes is said to have been a native of this place, and it is certain that he was a schoolfellow of Thomas Morton, Bishop of Durham, at the free grammar school at York.
Bishopton (St. Peter)
BISHOPTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Sedgefield, S. W. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham; containing, with the townships of Newbiggin and Little Stainton, 473 inhabitants, of whom 362 are in Bishopton township, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Stockton. The parish comprises 4016a. 3r. 10p., of which 2102 acres are in the township, and of these latter 1273 are arable, 790 pasture, 12 woodland, and 20 waste: the soil is various; gravel of good quality is obtained in abundance for the highways. The Clarence railway, and the Stockton and Darlington railway, run in a direction nearly parallel on each side of the village, which is pleasantly situated on an eminence, about a mile and a half from the former, and 4 miles from the latter. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 5. 10., and in the patronage of the Master of Sherburn Hospital: the tithes of the parish, belonging to the vicar, the master of the hospital, and the lessee of the corn tithes, have been commuted for £639. 1.; and there is a glebe of 67 acres. The church was partly rebuilt in 1790. In a field at the eastern extremity of the village is a large mound, with vestiges of an intrenchment, which is supposed to have been part of the fortifications that guarded the mansion of the faithful Roger de Conyers, from whom William de St. Barbara, elect Bishop of Durham, received powerful assistance in his struggle against Comyn, the usurper of the see, about the middle of the twelfth century.
BISHOPTON, a township, in the parish and liberty of Ripon, W. riding of York, 2½ miles (N. by W.) from Ripon; containing 108 inhabitants. It is situated on the north bank of the Skell, forming a western suburb of Ripon; and comprises 118 acres of land. The tithes have been commuted for £58. 18. 7. payable to the impropriators, and £20. 10. to the Dean and Chapter of Ripon.
BISHPORT, a tything, in the parish and union of Bedminster, hundred of Hartcliffe with Bedminster, E. division of Somerset; containing 270 inhabitants. This place was formerly called Bishopsworth, and had a chapel standing in the time of Edward VI. A district church, St. Peter's, was consecrated in April, 1843; it is a beautiful specimen of Norman architecture. The living is in the gift of the Vicar of Bedminster.
Bishton (St. Cadwallader)
BISHTON (St. Cadwallader), a parish, in the union of Newport, Christchurch division of the hundred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth, 6 miles (S. E.) from Newport; containing 187 inhabitants. It comprises about 1200 acres; the surface, though level, is elevated, and commands a fine view of the Severn and the country on the opposite bank. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Archdeacon of Llandaff: the church is in the early English style of architecture. There are some remains of an ancient castle.
BISHTON, a township, in the parish of Colwich, S. division of the hundred of Pirehill, union, and N. division of the county, of Stafford, 1 mile (S. E.) from Colwich; containing 173 inhabitants. It is situated on the eastern side of the Trent, on the road from Colwich to Colton; and contains a handsome seat, called Bishton Hall.
Bisley (All Saints)
BISLEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Stroud, hundred of Bisley, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Stroud, and 11 (S. E.) from Gloucester; containing 5339 inhabitants. The parish, according to survey in 1841, comprises 7912 acres, whereof 864 are common. The town or village, to which the privilege of a market was granted by James I., is situated partly on the acclivity of a hill, and partly in the vale beneath it, which is watered by a small stream; the streets are irregularly formed, and contain some houses of respectable appearance. In Lypiatt Park, amidst beautiful scenery, is situated the manorhouse of Bisley and Stroud, noted as the place where Guy Fawkes and the other conspirators met and consulted, prior to carrying their evil designs into effect: the apartment which they used is still shown. The inhabitants of the parish are chiefly employed in the manufacture of broad-cloth, which is carried on to a considerable extent; silk is also manufactured, and stone is quarried for building and for pavements. The market has been discontinued; but fairs are held on May 4th and Nov. 12th, chiefly for sheep.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £19. 10. 5., and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the great tithes, belonging to T. M. Goodlake, Esq., have been commuted for £1204, and those of the incumbent for £748. 15., with a glebe of 17 acres, and a vicarage-house. The church is a spacious and handsome structure, partly in the decorated and partly in the later English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire 130 feet high, which forms a conspicuous landmark: in the churchyard is an octagonal cross. At Chalford is a district church; and a chapel of ease has been built at Oakridge, containing 380 sittings. At Bussege is a beautiful little church, erected at a cost of £2000 by twenty students of different colleges of Oxford; it is in the decorated style, is dedicated to St. Michael and All Angels, and was consecrated in Oct. 1846. There are places of worship for Independents, Baptists, and Wesleyans. The free school is supported by a portion of the produce of lands left for the repair of the church, the payment of the clerk, and the salary of a schoolmaster; with it has been incorporated a Blue-coat school. The common is reported to have been given to the poor by Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, in the reign of Edward III.; it then comprised 1200 acres, but a considerable part of it has been inclosed. At Lilly-house, a hamlet south of the town, a vaulted chamber has been discovered, with several adjoining apartments, having tessellated pavements, and niches in the walls. Some other relics of antiquity, supposed to be Roman, were found at Custom-Scrubs, another hamlet, in 1802; and in Oct. 1841, near Lillygate, was discovered an extensive range of Roman chambers, whose communications with each other were distinctly marked, and of which a part exhibited the supports and bases of tessellated floors. Many fragments of glazed pottery, antique glass, implements, stags' bones, sacrificial knives, &c., were found, as were also 1223 coins of various emperors, some in a state of cohesion.—See Chalford.
Bisley (St. John the Baptist)
BISLEY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Chertsey, First division of the hundred of Godley, W. division of Surrey, 4 miles (S. E.) from Bagshot; containing 321 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 700 acres: the soil is rather light, but yields good corn; the surface is moderately undulated. The lands belonged to the convent of Chertsey for several centuries, the whole being then included within the manor of Byfleet. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 16. 8.; net income, £188; patron, John Thornton, Esq.: 28 acres of land in this parish, and 9 in that of Purbright, belong to the rectory. The church, part of which is built with timber and brick, covered with plaster, is said to be six centuries old; near it is a chalybeate spring, called St. John the Baptist's well.
BISPHAM, a parish, in the union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster; comprising the townships of Bispham with Norbreck, and Layton with Warbreck; and containing 2339 inhabitants, of whom 371 are in Bispham with Norbreck, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Poulton. This place, which is of great antiquity, is styled in Domesday survey Biscopham. It was early a possession of the Boteler family; and in the 13th of Elizabeth, the manors of "Litle and Grete" Bispham were held by the Fleetwoods. The parish includes the chapelry and bathingplace of Blackpool, and a part of South-Shore. The sea forms its western boundary, and the parish of Poulton incloses it on the north, south, and east. It comprises about 4200 acres, whereof 1606a. 3r. 20p. are in Bispham township; of the latter number 619 acres are arable, 271 meadow, 675 pasture, and 40 acres homesteads, sites, and water. Two small rills irrigate the soil; namely, Blackpool brook, so called, perhaps, from the tinge which it receives from its source in Marton moss; and Bispham brook, which, after a short course, falls into the Wyre at Thornton. The growth of wood here, is checked by the vicinity of the sea, and even the hedges which are planted from time to time are stunted by the blighting influence of the saline atmosphere. Bispham Lodge is the seat and property of Frederick Kemp, Esq.
The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £210; patron, the Rev. Charles Hesketh; impropriators, B. Crosse, Esq., and Messrs. Bence and Bacon. The church was granted to the nunnery of Sion at the dissolution of alien priories, and remained attached to that establishment till the Reformation: its date and dedication are unknown. About eighty years ago, the building was partially modernised, and other alterations have been since made; it is situated in the hamlet of Great Bispham, and its whitened tower is seen at a considerable distance. At both Great and Little Bispham are places of worship for Independents; and there are distinct Church incumbencies at Blackpool and SouthShore. In 1659, Richard Higginson, of London, founded a school here, which he endowed with a rent-charge of £30; the income, by subsequent benefactions, has been increased to £70 per annum.
BISPHAM, a township, in the ecclesiastical district of Mawdesley, parish of Croston, union of Ormskirk, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 6½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Ormskirk; containing 306 inhabitants. This is a richly cultivated district, situated near the Douglas river, and opposite to Burscough; it comprises 413 acres, of which 262 are pasture, and 151 arable. The Stanleys, earls of Derby, have long possessed what is called the lordship, but it is merely a fictitious manor: the Hall, a plain stone building, erected in the 16th century, is the property of Lord Skelmersdale. The tithes have been commuted for £147. 10. payable to the rector of Chorley, and £20 to the rector and vicar of Croston. A free grammar school here, founded by Richard Durning in 1692, is endowed with an estate producing about £150 per annum. Peter Lathom, of this place, in 1700, left property, now producing £340 per year, to bind apprentices, and to the poor of Bispham, in common with Mawdesley, Ormskirk, Rufford, Newburgh, Burscough, and Dalton.
Bistern, with Bartley
BISTERN-CLOSES, a district, in the parish and hundred of Ringwood, Ringwood and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S.) from the town of Ringwood; containing, with the tything of Bistern with Crow, 562 inhabitants. This place is situated on the road to Christchurch, and on the river Avon, which abounds with excellent trout, grayling, and other fish. The old chapel formerly attached to the House here was taken down many years since, and a church has been erected at an expense of £1000, on a site given by J. Miles, Esq.: the living is a curacy, in the patronage of the vicar of Ringwood. There are several barrows, and some remains of a Roman encampment.
Bitchfield (St. Mary Magdalene)
BITCHFIELD (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Grantham, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 3¼ miles (N. by W.) from Corby, and 8 (S. E. by S.) from Grantham; comprising about 1360 acres, and containing 160 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 11. 5½.; net income, £134; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Lincoln; there are about 5 acres of glebe. The church was consecrated and endowed by Hugh de Wells, who presided over the diocese from the year 1209 to 1234. There are some remains of a Roman encampment.
BITCHFIELD, a township, in the parish of Stamfordham, union of Castle ward, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 13 miles (N. W.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 36 inhabitants. The township comprises 717a. 9p. The tithes have been commuted for £18. 14. 4., of which £18. 4. 3. are payable to the vicar. The remains of an old castle formerly belonging to the Fenwicks are now used as a farmhouse.
Bittadon (St. Peter)
BITTADON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Barnstaple, hundred of Braunton, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, 6¼ miles (N. by W.) from Barnstaple; containing 78 inhabitants. It comprises about 1000 acres, and is situated on the road from Barnstaple to Ilfracombe; the soil is light, and the principal part of the land being high and exposed, it is much used for summer pasture. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 8½., and in the patronage of W. A. Yeo, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £73, and there are 23 acres of glebe. The church is very small, with a low turret.
Bittering, Little (St. Peter)
BITTERING, LITTLE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Launditch, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (N. W.) from East Dereham; containing 18 inhabitants. It comprises 398a. 2r., of which 289 acres are arable, 96 pasture, and 17 plantation and heath. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £2. 13. 6½., and in the patronage of the Dover family: the tithes have been commuted for £70, and there are nearly 45 acres of glebe. The church is in the early English style; the font is Norman.
Bitterley (St. Mary)
BITTERLEY (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of Ludlow, partly in the hundred of Munslow, but chiefly in the hundred of Overs, S. division of Salop, 4½ miles (E. N. E.) from Ludlow; containing, with the townships of Cleeton, Henley, Hill-upon-Cot, Middleton, and Snitton, 1098 inhabitants, of whom 204 are in Bitterley township. The parish comprises 6587a. 3r., of which 256 acres are common or waste, and is situated on the road from Ludlow to Birmingham: there are quarries of stone for rough building, and extensive coal-mines; and ironstone is found. The living is a rectory, with the chapelry of Middleton, valued in the king's books at £18. 6. 3., and in the patronage of the Rev. C. Walcot: the tithes have been commuted for £740, and there are 57 acres of glebe, with a residence. The parochial church is an ancient edifice. There is a place of worship for dissenters. John Newborough, in 1712, gave £400, with which land was purchased now producing £36 per annum, towards the support of a free school.
BITTERN, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of South Stoneham, hundred of Mansbridge, Southampton and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2 miles (N. E.) from Southampton; containing 881 inhabitants. This place is identified by most antiquaries with the Roman station Clausentum, and various relics of Roman times have been found on the spot. A church was erected in 1838, at an expense of £2000, raised by subscription, aided by a grant of £300 from the Incorporated Society; it is a handsome edifice in the later English style, situated on an eminence.
BITTERSCOTE, a liberty, in the township of Fazeley, parish and union of Tamworth, S. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 1 mile (S. S. W.) from Tamworth; containing 44 inhabitants. This liberty comprises about 350 acres of land.
Bitteswell (St. Mary)
BITTESWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 1 mile (N. by W.) from Lutterworth; containing 495 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Hinckley to Lutterworth, and near the Midland railway; it comprises by measurement 1729 acres, of which the soil is strong, the surface flat, and the land chiefly pasture. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 3. 0½.; net income, £428, arising from 306 acres of land apportioned in lieu of tithes; patrons, alternately, the Haberdashers' Company, and the Governors of Christ's Hospital, London, to whom also the impropriation belongs. The church is a handsome structure, in the decorated English style. The Roman Watling-street passes along the verge of the parish. There is a mineral spring.
Bitton (St. Mary)
BITTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Keynsham, Upper division of the hundred of Langley and Swinehead, W. division of the county of Gloucester; containing, with the chapelries of Hanham and Oldland, and the district of Kingswood, 9338 inhabitants, of whom 2413 are in the hamlet of Bitton, 6¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Bristol. This parish is bounded on the south by the river Avon, and comprises by admeasurement 7602 acres; the surface is varied. The substratum abounds with coal, which is worked to a considerable extent; large quantities of iron-ore are found, and copper is rolled at Swineford: the manufacture of hats, pins, and paper, is also carried on. A railway runs through the hamlet for the conveyance of coal to the Avon; the Via Julia also passes through it. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 15.; patron, the Prebendary of Bitton in the Cathedral of Salisbury. The tithes of the hamlet of Bitton have been commuted for £310 and £265, payable respectively to the impropriator and the vicar: the glebe consists of 7 acres, with a residence. The church is a large and handsome edifice, partly Norman and partly in the later English style, with a finely ornamented tower. There are separate incumbencies at Hanham and Kingswood; a chapel of ease at Oldland; and places of worship for Independents, Moravians, and Wesleyans. At Field Grove is a mineral spring.
Bix-Brand (St. James)
BIX-BRAND (St. James), a parish, in the union of Henley-Upon-Thames, hundred of Binfield, county of Oxford, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Henley; containing 427 inhabitants. This parish, with that of BixGibwen St. Michael united, and now usually called Bix, comprises altogether about 3000 acres, of which 2000 are chiefly arable, 750 woodland, chiefly beech, and 250 waste land. The soil is principally chalk, with gravel and clay in some places; the surface is hilly, and the valleys run into the Chiltern range of hills. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 15.; net income, £487; patron, the Earl of Macclesfield: the glebe consists of about 50 acres, with a house. The church of Bix-Gibwen is in ruins.
Bixley (St. Wandegisilus)
BIXLEY (ST. WANDEGISILUS), a parish, in the union and hundred of Henstead, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (S. E. by S.) from Norwich; comprising 640 acres of arable and pasture, and containing 110 inhabitants. The road from Norwich to Bury passes through the parish. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Earl-Framingham united, valued in the king's books at £5; net income, £608; patrons, the family of Brereton. The church is an ancient edifice, built by William de Dunwich, in 1272, and was formerly the resort of numerous pilgrims to the shrine of its tutelar saint.
Bixton, or Bickerston (St. Andrew)
BIXTON, or Bickerston (St. Andrew), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Forehoe, E. division of Norfolk, 5½ miles (N. by W.) from Wymondham. The living is a rectory, united, with the vicarage of Kimberly, to the rectory of Barnham-Broom, and valued in the king's books at £2. 6. 8.: the church is in ruins.
Blaby (All Saints)
BLABY (All Saints), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 5 miles (S. W.) from Leicester; containing, with the chapelry of Countessthorp, 1896 inhabitants. It is intersected by the Union canal, and comprises 1250 acres, exclusively of the chapelry, which consists of 1200 acres; the soil is various, and the surface generally level. The worsted manufacture is carried on to a considerable extent. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 5., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £350. On the inclosure of waste in 1776, an allotment of 400 acres was assigned in lieu of tithes. There is a chapel of ease at Countessthorp; and the parish contains places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. The poor law union of Blaby comprises 22 parishes and places, and contains a population of 13,699.