A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Gateshead (St. Mary)
GATESHEAD (St. Mary), a borough and parish, and the head of a union, locally in Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 14 miles (N. by W.) from Durham; containing, with the ecclesiastical parish of Gateshead-Fell, 19,505 inhabitants. This place is by some writers supposed to be the Roman station Gabrocentum; but the only foundation for the opinion is, the discovery of an urn containing Roman coins, and the vicinity of the ancient Watling-street, whereof a branch terminated here, from which circumstance, by the indifferent use of the terms gate and street, the name is thought to have been derived. The earliest authentic notice of the spot occurs in the account of the insurrection of the Northumbrians and the murder of Bishop Walsher while endeavouring to escape from the church, to which his assailants had set fire, in 1080, as recorded by Simeon of Durham. By whom, or at what time, the town was originally founded has not been clearly ascertained. In 1164, Bishop Pudsey granted to the inhabitants a charter of privileges nearly equal to those of Newcastleupon-Tyne, with the liberties of the forest of Gateshead, and freedom from toll within the palatinate; which grant was confirmed by his successor. In 1348, Bishop Hatfield appointed a keeper of his park in Gateshead, whom, in 1438, Bishop Neville made keeper also of Gateshead Tower, described by Leland as a "strong wardyd gate," standing on the bridge. The subsequent history of the town relates chiefly to the continued contests between the bishops of Durham and the corporation of Newcastle, respecting the right of navigating the Tyne and erecting quays on its banks, which was ultimately confirmed to the corporation.
The town is situated on the southern bank of the river Tyne, opposite to Newcastle, with which it is connected by a grand railway-bridge; and by a handsome stone bridge of nine arches, of which six belong to Newcastle and three to the see of Durham. It has five principal streets, called High-street, Oakwell-gate, Church-street, Bottle-bank, and Bridge-street, from which diverge Hill-gate to the east, and Pipewell-gate to the west, extending along the margin of the river, and various others in parallel directions. The more modern streets are West-street and High West-street, to the west of which are Brunswick-terrace, Melbourne-street, Grosvenor-street, and Mulgrave and Walker terraces; and some handsome ranges of buildings have recently been erected on the borough lands (estimated at 200 acres, and divided under an act in 1814), among which are, Sedgwick-place, Claremont-place, and Woodbineterrace, and to the west of these, Barrington-place and Ravensworth-terrace, with numerous detached and elegant mansions. An act for lighting and watching the town was passed in 1814; the supply of water is obtained partly from a reservoir on Carr-hill. The environs are pleasant; and from Windmill-hills, to the west, on which were formerly numerous mills for grinding corn, is a fine view of Newcastle, and of the vale of the Tyne. A mechanics library was established in 1836.
Of the manufactures, which are on a very extensive scale, among the principal are the Gateshead Ironworks, originally established in 1745, by Mr. William Hawks, and at present affording constant occupation to nearly 1000 men and boys, in making heavy forges, rolling-iron, heavy castings, wrought-iron wheels for railway-carriages, anchors, and chain-cables, and also scrap, bar, and all descriptions of cast and malleable iron. The Gateshead-park Iron-works were established several years since, by Messrs. John Abbott and Company, and employ about eight hundred men in the manufacture of chain-cables, anchors, and forged ironwork of every kind, tin-plates, copper bolts and sheathing, bar and sheet lead, lead-piping, and various other articles. The Durham Glass-works, near the water-side, in Pipewell-gate, belonging to Messrs. Joseph Price and Company, are conducted on a large scale for the manufacture of all kinds of glass. Mr. Price has a patent for a steam-boiler which consumes one-fourth less coal than any in general use, and was the first person that applied steam-boats to the towing of vessels, for which he was presented with a handsome piece of plate by the wharfingers and manufacturers on the Tyne, in 1818, as a testimony of the value of his services. The Tyne Soap and Alkali works give employment to 150 men in the manufacture of soap, alkali, and Glauber and Epsom salts. The Stourbridge Glass-works, and the New Stourbridge mill (chiefly for the manufacture of brown paper), are situated on the bank of the Tyne above the bridge; and from the quarries of Gateshead-Fell and the immediate neighbourhood, are raised great numbers of grindstones, well known as "Newcastle grindstones." Messrs. James Easton and Company, in 1842, opened a coal-pit at the south end of Oakwell-gate, being the only one so contiguous to the buildings of a town in the north of England. Markets were held every Tuesday and Friday, but they have been discontinued since the commencement of the 16th century. Fairs are held on the 11th of August and 28th of October, for the sale of shoes; and there are statute-fairs at Wreckington, in the south of the parish, in April and November.
Gateshead is situated on the great line of railway communication between York and Berwick-on-Tweed. The Brandling Junction railway, so called from its projector, Robert William Brandling, Esq., of Gosforth, and part of which is used by the York and Berwick trains, commences at this place, where are a spacious station and depôt, elevated on arches, and provided with every requisite arrangement: the terminus is approached from Oakwell-gate by an inclined plane for carriages, and the railway is carried over Oakwell-gate, the High-street, and West-street, by viaducts, to another station on the west side of the town. This railway connects the towns of Gateshead and Newcastle with Sunderland and South Shields; the line from Gateshead to Sunderland is 11 miles in length, from Gateshead to Shields 8 miles, and from Shields to Sunderland 7 miles. From the west of the town a branch diverges to Tanfield, about 9 miles in length, forming a junction at Redheugh, near the town, with the Blaydon branch of the Newcastle and Carlisle railway; so that goods are forwarded from the latter city direct to Sunderland and Shields, at which large quantities of coal from the collieries on the line to Tanfield moor, and the Newcastle and Carlisle railway, are shipped. The Brandling line forms also a junction at Brockley Whins with the Pontop and South Shields railway. A large portion of the land along which the Brandling railway passes, belongs to the Dean and Chapter of Durham; the whole of the line, on which are 30 viaducts and bridges, was completed at an expense of about £327,000, and was opened to the public in the month of September, 1839.
On the dissolution of the see of Durham in 1552, Gateshead was annexed to the borough of Newcastle, but on the subsequent restoration by Queen Mary, the town resumed its former independence, and the government was vested in a bailiff, appointed by the bishop. By the Municipal act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., the corporation now consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and a common-council of 18, assisted by a town-clerk, treasurer, and other officers, appointed by the council: the number of magistrates, exclusive of the mayor, is twelve, and the borough is divided into three wards, namely, the east, west, and south wards. Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., Gateshead was constituted a parliamentary borough, returning one member to parliament: the right of election is in the £10 householders, the number of whom is about 620: the mayor is the returning officer. The municipal and parliamentary boundaries are co-extensive, and include an area of 3286 acres. Petty-sessions are held every Tuesday and Friday for the borough, and every Wednesday for the county, for the northern division of which, Gateshead is a polling-place. The powers of the county debt-court of Gateshead, established in the year 1847, extend over the registration-district, or poor law union.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £27. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Durham. The church is an ancient and venerable cruciform structure, with a square embattled tower, which, with part of the nave, was rebuilt in 1740; though greatly altered by modern additions and repairs, it displays some fine specimens of the Norman and decorated English styles of architecture. Its interior was enlarged in 1839 with 487 sittings; and in the chancel is a beautiful window representing the Annunciation, in stained glass, presented in 1823, by Mr. Price. The chapel of ease dedicated to St. Edmund was erected in 1808, at a cost of £1331, raised by subscription; in the burial-ground is an obelisk to the memory of 222 persons who died of the cholera from December 26th, 1831, to November 5th, 1832. The hospital of St. Edmund, now called King James's Hospital, to which the chapel is attached, was founded in 1245, by Bishop Farnham, who endowed it for a master and three chaplains. It subsisted till the Reformation, but its charter having been lost, and its revenue converted to other purposes, it was refounded in 1610, by James I., for a master and three poor brethren; the mastership being appropriated to the rector of Gateshead. In 1811, the foundation was by act of parliament extended to the reception of three elder and two younger brethren, who are all appointed by the master; the income is about £455 per annum. The dilapidated chapel of the Holy Trinity, in High-street, has been restored by subscription, in the original style, and displays a beautiful specimen of early English architecture; it was opened for divine service as a chapel of ease on the 15th of October, 1837: the east window is embellished with the armorial bearings of the promoters of the restoration, in stained glass. At Bensham is a church, the first stone of which was laid in July, 1846. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, Methodists of the New Connexion, Independents, and Presbyterians. The union of Gateshead comprises nine parishes or places, and contains a population of 38,747.
GATESHEAD-FELL, an ecclesiastical parish, in the parish and union of Gateshead, locally in Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham. This place derives its name from Gateshead, and from having been a fell or common contiguous to it. The common was inclosed, and separated from the parish of St. Mary, Gateshead, by an act of parliament obtained in 1809, the award of which made the extent 631 acres, exclusively of all public and private roads, quarries, &c.: the manorial rights are in the Bishop of Durham. The surface rises from Gateshead to Beacon Hill, very steeply up the old road to Durham; and the views present some of the most extensive and beautiful scenery in the north of England, embracing the ocean to the north and east, the whole navigable course of the river Tyne, the Cheviot hills, Tynemouth Priory, Ravensworth Vale and Castle, the Cathedral of Durham, and numerous seats. The soil is in general unproductive. The grindstones from the quarries here, known as "Newcastle grindstones," have been celebrated for centuries, and are exported to all parts of the world. Coal-mines have been in operation for more than a hundred years, and still afford employment to numbers of the inhabitants. The living is a rectory not in charge, in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes have been commuted for £106, and there are 2 acres of glebe, with an excellent rectory-house, surrounded by ornamental grounds. The church is in the early English style, with a graceful spire, which is seen in every direction for 15 miles; it was consecrated 30th August, 1825, having been erected at a cost of £2742, towards which the incorporated Society contributed £350: of upwards of 1000 sittings, more than one-half are free. Besides morning and evening service at the church, evening service is performed at the hamlet of Wreckington; and there are places of worship for Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, and Methodists of the New Connexion. A library, newsroom, &c., have been established. William the Conqueror, in 1068, gained on the Fell a victory over Malcolm II., King of Scotland, who had invaded the kingdom in support of Edgar Atheling.
GATTON, a parish, and formerly a borough, in the union, and Second division of the hundred of Reigate, E. division of Surrey, 22 miles (E. by N.) from Guildford, and 18 (S. by W.) from London; containing 219 inhabitants. This was once a considerable town, and had a castle. It sent two members to parliament from the 29th of Henry VI. to the second of William IV., when it was disfranchised; the right of election was vested in the freeholders and inhabitants paying scot and lot, and the constable for the manor was returning officer. The parish comprises 1260a. 2r. 21p., of which 571 acres are arable, 452 pasture, and 158 woodland. The river Mole has its source in the parish; and here is a quarry of white stone which will bear exposure to a high degree of heat, and is therefore much used in the construction of ovens, furnaces for glass-houses, &c. The London and Brighton railway runs within a mile to the south-east of the church. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 2. 8½., and in the gift of Lord Monson: the tithes have been commuted for £226, and the glebe comprises nearly 12 acres. The church, picturesquely situated near the mansion of Gatton, was in 1834 nearly rebuilt, and fitted up in a splendid style with finely carved oak brought from a convent in the Netherlands, at the cost of the late accomplished Lord Monson; the windows, also, were embellished with ancient stained glass, at a very great expense.
Gaulby (St. Peter)
GAULBY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Billesdon, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 8 miles (E. S. E.) from Leicester; containing, with the hamlet of Frisby, 108 inhabitants. It lies south of the road between Leicester and Uppingham. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 2. 6.; net income, £275; patron, G. A. Legh-Keck, Esq.
GAUNTS-EARTHCOTT, a tything, in the parish of Almondsbury, union of Thornbury, Lower division of the hundred of Berkeley, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 5¾ miles (S. by E.) from Thornbury; containing 55 inhabitants.
Gautby (All Saints)
GAUTBY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, wapentake of South Gartree, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6½ miles (W. N. W.) from Horncastle; containing 99 inhabitants, and comprising about 2400 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown. The tithes have been commuted for £90; attached to the rectory is a farm purchased with Queen Anne's Bounty, and valued at £60 per annum, and the glebe comprises 25 acres. The church is a neat ancient structure.
GAWCOTT, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and county of Buckingham, 2 miles (S. W.) from the town of Buckingham; containing 665 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £148; patrons, the Incumbents of certain parishes in the county. The ancient chapel, dedicated to St. Catherine, was demolished, but a new one was opened in 1828.
Gawsworth (St. James)
GAWSWORTH (St. James), a parish, in the union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 3 miles (S. W.) from Macclesfield; containing 806 inhabitants. This place is noticed in Domesday book as forming part of the demesne of Earl Ranulph, who gave it to Hugh Bigod, Earl of Chester, for a caparisoned horse. The parish comprises 5400 acres, of which 1000 are arable, 3600 pasture, and 800 woodland and plantations: the surface is pleasingly undulated; the soil in the eastern portion is light, but in the western a stiffish clay. The ancient manor-house, formerly the residence of Lord Mohun, is now a farmhouse. The Macclesfield canal, connecting the Grand Trunk and Peak-Forest canals, passes through the parish. A court leet and a court baron are held at Martinmas. The living, originally a chapelry to Prestbury, is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 4. 4½.; net income, £734; patron, the Earl of Harrington. The church is situated on an ascent near the village, and is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a tower strengthened by buttresses and surmounted by pinnacles: there are some ancient monuments to the Fittons, among which is one to the last male descendant of that family, who was killed at the battle of Bristol, in 1643, fighting on the side of the royalists. On a bank called the Warren are the remains of a cross, at which, it is said, the country people, afraid of entering the neighbouring towns during the prevalence of the plague in 1665, exposed their provisions for sale; and at some distance on the road to Macclesfield is the tomb of the eccentric author of Hurlo Thrumbo, a burlesque drama, acted for 30 nights at the Haymarket theatre, in 1722.
GAYDON, a chapelry, in the parish of Bishop'sItchington, union of Southam, Kington division of the hundred of Kington, S. division of the county of Warwick, 2 miles (N. E.) from Kington; containing 276 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises by computation 1488 acres, the soil of which is a strong clay, with a substratum of blue limestone; it is intersected by the road from Banbury to Warwick. The chapel is dedicated to St. Giles. The tithes were commuted for land, under an inclosure act, in 1758. The inhabitants marry and bury at Chadshunt, which is a chapelry within the same parish. Lord Chief Justice Willes, whose father was vicar of the parish, was born and buried here.
Gayhurst (St. Peter)
GAYHURST (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 2¾ miles (N. W.) from Newport-Pagnell, on the road to Northampton; containing, with the extra-parochial liberty of Gorefields, 116 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the east by the river Ouse, comprises about 894 acres, the greater part of a strong soil, with some of a shelly quality, resting on lime and other stone. Four-fifths of the land are pasture, and the remainder arable; the surface is undulated, and the scenery picturesque, the higher grounds being well wooded. The living is a rectory, to which that of Stoke-Goldington was united in 1736, valued in the king's books at £6. 0. 2½., and in the patronage of the Misses Wyndham; net income, £297, with a glebe-house. The church was rebuilt in 1728 by Mr. Wrighte, then lord of the manor; it is in the Grecian style, with a tower, and contains a handsome monument to Chancellor Wrighte. There is a chalybeate spring. Sir Edward Digby, one of the Gunpowder-plot conspirators, was proprietor of the estate; and in the mansion which he occupied, is shown a recess where he hid himself to escape being captured on the discovery of his treason.
GAYLES, a township, in the parish of Kirkby-Ravensworth, union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 5 miles (N. W. by N.) from Richmond; containing 186 inhabitants. It comprises about 2000 acres, partly high moorland; the hamlet is small and scattered, and situated on the road between Kirkby-Ravensworth and Newsham.
Gaystead, in the county of Northumberland.—See Greystead.
GAYTON, a township, in the parish of Heswall, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from Great Neston; containing 149 inhabitants. The manor was given by Edward I. to Reginald de Tibermont of Normandy, who having soon after surrendered it into the king's hands, it was granted in 1277 to the convent of Vale Royal. In 1312 the abbot gave it to Stephen de Merton in part exchange of his manor of Merton, in the forest of Delamere; and about 1330, Gayton passed by marriage with his heiress into the family of Glegg. William III. slept at Gayton Hall, the ancient seat of the Gleggs, in June 1689, previously to embarking for Ireland. The township comprises 670 acres, of which the soil is clay and sand. There is a ferry over the Dee into Flintshire, the estuary at this place being nearly four miles broad.
Gayton (St. Nicholas)
GAYTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 7 miles (E.) from Lynn; containing 789 inhabitants. It comprises 3275a. 3r. 5p., of which 2386 acres are arable, 474 pasture and meadow, 213 heath, and 66 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 6. 8.; patron, the Bishop of Norwich; appropriator, the Bishop of Ely. The great tithes have been commuted for £500, and the vicarial for £318. 4.; the glebe contains 24 acres. The church is in the early and decorated styles; on the south side of the chancel are three stone stalls and a piscina. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. At the inclosure, in 1811, 30 acres were allotted to the poor, the rent of which is distributed in fuel. The union workhouse is situated in the parish. William de Scohies founded a Benedictine priory here in the reign of William the Conqueror.
Gayton (St. Mary)
GAYTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Towcester, S. division of the county of Northampton, 4¼ miles (N. by E.) from Towcester; containing 428 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1711a. 2r. 19p., of which 39 acres are waste land or common. The soil varies from a rich loam to a heavy clay; the substratum is generally limestone, alternated with rubble, and limestone is quarried for rough building, and for burning into lime. The Grand Junction canal, and the London and Birmingham railway pass through the parish, within half a mile of the village; and upon the line of the latter is a station at Blisworth, within a mile and a half. In the ancient manor-house, now a farmhouse, Charles I. took refuge after the battle of Naseby, and assembled there a council of war. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 5. 2½., and in the gift of Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £530, and the glebe comprises 72 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the decorated English style, containing many interesting monuments, which have been restored at the expense of the Rev. Geo. Butler, D.D., who has also beautified the chancel, and inserted stained glass in the windows. Several cottages, and £40 per annum, have been bequeathed to the poor. The remains of a Roman villa have been discovered by Dr. Butler, in a field called the Warren, in which were about 30 copper coins, and a bronze statue of Cupid.
Gayton (St. John the Baptist)
GAYTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the N. division of the hundred of Pirehill, union, and S. division of the county, of Stafford, 6 miles (N. E.) from Stafford; containing 291 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £46; patron, Mrs. Mould; impropriator, John Fitzgerald, Esq.
Gayton-Le-Marsh (St. George)
GAYTON-LE-MARSH (St. George), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5¾ miles (N. by W.) from Alford; containing 312 inhabitants, and comprising 2172a. 2r. 33p. This place is of great antiquity, and had a church prior to the time of the Conquest. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 10. 2½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £457. 10., and the glebe comprises 72a. 3r. 9p., with a commodious parsonage-house, surrounded by plantations, and lately erected by the Rev. W. B. Harrison, the rector. The church was an elegant structure, of which only the tower is remaining, a handsome specimen of the early English style; the nave and chancel have been rebuilt without regard to uniformity of character. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. At the inclosure in 1706, thirty acres of land were allotted to the poor, and eight acres for the repairs of the church. There are two chalybeate springs.
Gayton-Le-Wold (St. Peter)
GAYTON-LE-WOLD (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Louth, Wold division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6¼ miles (W. by S.) from Louth; containing 125 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 11., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £120.
Gayton-Thorpe (St. Mary)
GAYTON-THORPE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 8 miles (N. W. by N.) from Swaffham; containing 179 inhabitants. It comprises 2328 acres, of which about 2000 are arable and pasture, 100 plantation, and 199 common. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6, and united to the living of East Walton: the rectorial tithes have been commuted for £312, and the impropriate for £2. 6. 8.; there is about half an acre of glebe. The church has a circular tower with two bells, and is surmounted by a dome.
Gaywood (St. Faith)
GAYWOOD (St. Faith), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, ¾ of a mile (E. by N.) from Lynn; containing 1064 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the river Gaywood, comprises 2321a. 35p., whereof 815 acres are arable, 1146 pasture, 133 woodland, and 207 fen and marsh; the surface is generally flat, and the soil light and gravelly. Gaywood Hall, the seat of Richard Bagge, Esq., occupies the site of a palace erected by John Grey, Bishop of Norwich; and part of the moat by which the old building was surrounded is still remaining. The village forms a suburb to Lynn; and about a mile to the north of it, is Reffly chalybeate spring, which is much resorted to by the inhabitants, being beautifully situated in a rural spot: on the opposite side of the valley is Gaywood spring. Fairs for stock are held June 22nd, and for horses October 17th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 13. 4., and in the gift of Mr. Bagge: the tithes have been commuted for £630, and the glebe comprises 18½ acres. The church is a cruciform structure, with a tower of brick, in which is an ancient and highly-enriched Norman doorway: in the tower, also, are two ancient paintings, one of Queen Elizabeth's visit to Tilbury Fort, and the other of the trial of Guy Fawkes. The parsonage-house, a handsome edifice, was built by the Rev. E. L. Hulton, LL.D. On the inclosure of the parish, in the year 1810, 25 acres of land were allotted to the poor.
Gazeley (All Saints)
GAZELEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Newmarket, hundred of Risbridge, W. division of Suffolk, 5¼ miles (E. by N.) from Newmarket; containing, with the hamlets of Higham-Green and Needham-Street, 860 inhabitants. It comprises 5899a. 1r. 38p.: an act for inclosing waste lands was obtained in 1838. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the rectory of Kentford annexed; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Trinity Hall, Cambridge; impropriator, the Rev. Sir Robert Affleck, Bart. The great tithes of Gazeley have been commuted for £650, and the small for £416; the impropriate glebe consists of 169 acres, and the vicarial of 6.
GEDDING, a parish, in the union of Stow, hundred of Thedwastry, W. division of Suffolk, 6¾ miles (W.) from Stow-Market; containing 173 inhabitants. This place, which comprises about 580 acres, was the property of Sir John Gedding, who resided in the manorhouse of Gedding Hall, and died about the 21st of the reign of Edward I. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., and until lately in the patronage of the Corporation of Ipswich: the tithes have been commuted for £150, and there are 2 acres of glebe.