A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Bloxworth (St. Andrew)
BLOXWORTH (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, hundred of CoombsDitch, Wareham division of Dorset, 8 miles (S.) from Blandford; containing 306 inhabitants. It comprises about 3000 acres, of which 900 are arable, 400 pasture, 200 meadow, 80 woodland (chiefly coppice), and the remainder heath; the soil is various, in some parts clay, in others chalk alternated with sand. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 7. 1., and in the gift of the family of Pickard: the tithes have been commuted for £279, and the glebe consists of 35 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower. On a hill called Woolsbarrow, situated on the heath, about a mile towards the east, are vestiges of a small fortification supposed to be of Danish origin, the ramparts and trenches of which may be traced: near it are several tumuli.
BLUBBER-HOUSES, a township, in the parish of Fewston, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 8 miles (N. by W.) from Otley; containing 99 inhabitants. It comprises about 3600 acres, chiefly moorland and pasture, with a small proportion of arable land; the surface is strikingly varied. At Brandith Craggs, a range of lofty rocks, situated in the neighbourhood, is a rocking-stone easily moved with one hand, though its weight cannot be less than 20 tons.
Blundeston (St. Mary)
BLUNDESTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Mutford and Lothingland, E. division of Suffolk, 3½ miles (N. W.) from Lowestoft; containing 592 inhabitants. It is situated on the navigable river Waveney, which forms its boundary on the south-west. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Flixton united, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the gift of the family of Anguish: the tithes have been commuted for £610, and there are nearly 13 acres of glebe. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The Rev. Gregory Clarke, in 1726, gave land for the instruction of children, of the annual value of about £11.
Blunham (St. Edmund)
BLUNHAM (St. Edmund), a parish, in the union of Biggleswade, hundred of Wixamtree, county of Bedford, 5¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Biggleswade, and on the great north road; containing, with the hamlet of Muggerhanger, 1050 inhabitants. The parish is situated at the junction of the Ivel with the Ouse, which is navigable to Bedford. It comprises 2589 acres, whereof 1785 are arable, 424 meadow, 250 pasture, and 130 plantation; the soil is light and convertible, the surface level, and the meadow lands subject to floods. A large portion of the females are employed in the manufacture of pillow-lace, and in preparing straw-bonnet plat. In the reign of Edward II., the inhabitants obtained the grant of a weekly market on Wednesday, and of an annual fair on the festival of St. James, both which have long been discontinued. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £46. 2. 11., and in the patronage of Earl de Grey; net income, £731, derived from about 600 acres of land. The church is a commodious, plain structure; the interior and the tower appear of different dates: there are some ancient monuments, among which is one to Lady Susan Longueville, daughter and heiress of Charles de Grey, Earl of Kent, who died at the manor-house in 1625. Here is a place of worship for Particular Baptists. Within the parish is a mineral spring, called Poplar Well.
Blunsdon (St. Andrew)
BLUNSDON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Highworth and Swindon, hundred of Highworth, Cricklade, and Staple, Cricklade and N. divisions of Wilts, 4¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Highworth; containing 79 inhabitants. This is supposed, from the numerous human bones, spurs, and military relics found, to have been the scene of hostilities during the parliamentary war. The parish comprises by measurement 1301 acres; stone of excellent quality for building is found in abundance. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 19. 2., and in the patronage of John James Calley, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £305. The church is ancient.
BLUNSDON, BROAD, a chapelry, in the parish of Highworth, union of Highworth and Swindon, hundred of Highworth, Cricklade, and Staple, Swindon and N. divisions of Wilts, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Highworth; containing 831 inhabitants.
Bluntisham (St. Mary)
BLUNTISHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of St. Ives, hundred of Hurstingstone, county of Huntingdon, 4½ miles (N. E. by E.) from St. Ives; containing, with Earith township, 1457 inhabitants, of whom 740 are in the township of Bluntisham. This parish, which is bounded for nearly three miles on the south by the navigable river Ouse, contains two portions; the larger forms part of the manor and soke of Somersham, and the smaller a considerable manor belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Ely. In 1741, the place suffered from a dreadful hurricane, which threw down sixty barns and twelve dwelling-houses, and did much damage to other kinds of property. The living is a rectory valued in the king's books at £32. 16. 0½.; net income, £1010; patron, the Bishop of Ely. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists. Thomas Skeeles, in 1703, devised about 62 acres of fen land, now let for £32 per annum, for the endowment of a school; and the Rev. Samuel Saywell bequeathed 14 acres of pasture land, now let for £55. 10., also for the instruction of children. Lands yielding a considerable rental are also held in trust for the benefit of the poor, amongst whom the produce of other bequests is likewise distributed.
BLURTON, a parish, in the union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 4½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Newcastleunder-Lyme; containing 876 inhabitants. This place was till lately a chapelry in the parish of Trentham, but is now a distinct parish, under the 58th of George III., cap. 45. Within its limits are the inclosed district of Lightwood Forest, and the hamlets of Cocknidge, CowRidding, and Spratslade. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £189; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Sutherland. The royal arms in the church are among the few in the country that survived the great rebellion, being of the date of 1629.
Blyborough (St. Alkmond)
BLYBOROUGH (St. Alkmond), a parish, in the union of Gainsborough, W. division of the wapentake of Aslacoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3 miles (S.) from Kirton-in-Lindsey; containing 197 inhabitants. This parish comprises 2353a. 2r. 29p., and is situated on the road from Lincoln to Barton-on-Humber, by which it is bounded on the east; the soil is various, but chiefly consists of loam, clay, and sand, and the surface is rather level. Limestone is quarried for building, and the repair of roads. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £557, and there are nearly two acres of glebe, with a residence. A tessellated pavement was discovered a few years since in a field, a few inches below the surface, in a perfect state. There are mineral springs.
Blymhill (St. Mary)
BLYMHILL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Shiffnall, W. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Brewood; containing 632 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2433 acres, mostly of a strong loamy soil: the commons, called the Heath and the Lawn, were inclosed about 35 years ago. High Hall, now occupied by a farmer, is seated on a charming eminence, and is supposed to have been the residence of William Bagot, who was lord of Blymhill in the reign of Henry II. The hamlet of Brineton is in this parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 10. 7½., and in the gift of the Earl of Bradford: the tithes have been commuted for £560, and there are 76½ acres of glebe. The church was rebuilt, with the exception of the tower and chancel, in 1719. Schoolrooms have been erected, chiefly at the expense of the rector. The late incumbent, the Rev. Samuel Dickenson, was a learned and ingenious naturalist.
Blyth (St. Martin)
BLYTH (St. Martin), a parish, in the unions of Doncaster, East Retford, and Worksop; partly in the N. and partly in the S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York; and partly in the Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham; 31¼ miles (N. by E.) from Nottingham, and 151½ (N. N. W.) from London, on the old road to York; containing 3488 inhabitants, of whom 811 are in the village of Blyth. This place, anciently called Blia and Blida, was chiefly noted in former times for its religious and charitable establishments. In 1088, a priory was founded in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by Roger de Builly and his wife Muriel, for monks of the Benedictine order; which, though considered as an alien priory, being in some respects subordinate to the abbey of the Holy Trinity, near Rouen, in Normandy, was yet spared at the suppression of alien priories, and subsisted till the general dissolution, when its revenue was estimated at £126. 8. 2. An hospital for lepers, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, was founded by Hugh de Cressy, lord of Hodsock, in the reign of John, for a warden, three chaplains, and brethren, whose revenue at the Dissolution was £8. 14. Of these buildings, as well as of a strong castle which is known to have been anciently erected here, there are scarcely any remains, nearly the whole having been demolished by wanton hands, or decayed by time; the monastic institution occupied the site and grounds of the present Hall, a handsome mansion of considerable magnitude which stands near the church, in a situation surrounded by beautiful scenery. The lord of the honour of Tickhill had a castle at Blyth, where he exercised the usual feudal rights of a lord paramount; in the immediate neighbourhood was one of the five places which alone were licensed for holding tournaments, and several records are preserved of royal and noble blood having been shed in these dangerous sports.
The parish is nearly 11 miles in extreme length, and contains the chapelries of Bawtry and Austerfield, and the townships of Barnby-Moor, Blyth, Hodsock, Ranskill, Torworth, and part of Styrrup; it comprises 15,477a. 11p. of fertile land, of which 1257 acres are in the township, and is intersected by the river Idle. The town or village, which is four miles from Bawtry, is pleasantly situated on the east bank of the Ryton, on a gentle ascent; and is clean and well built, and amply supplied with water. The market, which was formerly held on Wednesday, has been discontinued; the fairs are on Holy-Thursday and October 20th. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 9. 4½.; gross income, £751; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The great tithes of the township of Blyth have been commuted for £295, and those of the vicar for £170. 8.: there are in the township nearly three acres of vicarial glebe. The church is a lofty structure partly in the Norman style, and formed the ante-choir of the splendid cruciform church of the priory; it has a handsome tower in the later style of English architecture, with crocketed pinnacles. At Austerfield and Bawtry are chapels of ease. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends and Wesleyans; and a school endowed with land producing £12 per annum. Some almshouses for six aged people, supposed to have been originally an appendage to the hospital founded by Hugh de Cressy, have been lately rebuilt; and there are also almshouses for two aged women, endowed with £10 per annum, under the management of the Society of Friends; besides other charitable bequests for the relief of the poor.
BLYTH, NORTH, a township, in the parish and division of Bedlington, union of Morpeth, N. division of Northumberland, 8½ miles (E. S. E.) from Morpeth; containing 123 inhabitants. The village is situated on a peninsula upon the northern side of the river Blyth, opposite to the port and town of South Blyth, and is chiefly inhabited by fishermen and pilots. The manufacture of salt and of earthenware was formerly carried on to a considerable extent, but has been wholly discontinued. There are several store-houses for corn, and a quay. A little to the north-east of the village is a large cluster of rocks, called the Row-cars, which appear at low-water mark, though there are five fathoms of water close to the ledge.
Blyth, South or Blyth Nook
BLYTH, SOUTH, or Blyth Nook, a sea-port and chapelry, partly in the parish of Horton, but chiefly in that of Earsdon, union of Tynemouth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 9½ miles (E. S. E.) from Morpeth, 16 (N. N. E.) from Newcastle, and 283 (N. N. W.) from London; containing, with the lordship of Newsham, and exclusively of that part of the town which is in the parish of Horton, 1921 inhabitants. The river and port were of much importance to the bishops of Durham in ancient times, and are named in the records with the Tyne, Wear, and Tees, as subject to their jurisdiction, with all the royal rights appertaining to their possession. The place was the property of a younger branch of the Cramlingtons in the reign of Elizabeth, and in the time of Charles I. was possessed by Robert Cramlington; but his estate being sequestrated by the parliament, it was purchased by a wealthy London merchant, by whom it was sold to Col. Thomas Ratcliff; and is now in the possession of Sir M. White Ridley, Bart., a descendant of the family to which the martyred Bishop Ridley belonged. In August, 1795, the Duke of York, accompanied by Prince William of Gloucester, reviewed the troops encamped on the coast of Northumberland, upon Blyth sands, the whole force consisting of 13 regiments, who performed their various evolutions in the presence of nearly 60,000 persons.
The town, which is advantageously situated on the north side of the Blyth, at its influx into the North Sea, is remarkably pleasant and well built; and though at the commencement of the present century it was of slight importance, and its streets narrow and few, it is now extensively engaged in commerce, and ranks among the most bustling small sea-ports of the kingdom. The trade consists principally in the export of coal from the Cowpen and other collieries, and the importation of various articles of local consumption. The produce of the Bedlington iron-works, which are about three miles distant, is brought down the Blyth to this port for shipment; it includes a great number of locomotive engines and vast quantities of machinery, justly noted for their excellence, and which are sent to all parts of the world. In a recent year, 8 foreign and 120 coasting vessels, with cargoes, entered inwards, and 223 foreign and 826 coasting vessels cleared outwards; 190,000 tons of coal were exported, and the amount of duties received was £1641: the number of ships registered as belonging to the port and to Seaton-Sluice, is 100. The river near its mouth abounds with sea-fish, and the higher parts of the stream are frequented by fresh-water fish of extremely fine quality. The harbour, the entrance to which is at all times free from obstruction, is quite secure, even during the most tempestuous weather, but is accessible only to vessels of moderate burthen; the tide flowed over an extensive waste on the western side of it, but, with a view to counteract this, a quay has been formed on the margin of the river. A circular stone lighthouse was built in 1788, and there is also a beacon-light, called the Basket-Rock light: a dry-dock was constructed in 1811. The custom-house here had formerly the control of the coast as far south as Cullercoats, where large quantities of coal were shipped, and the vessels had to pay their dues and clear out at Blyth; but since the Tyne has risen into such importance, the whole is now under the Newcastle customs. Ship building and repairing (for which latter there is a patentslip), and likewise sail-making, are carried on: there are some roperies, a large brewery, and extensive timber, iron, and slate yards; also two steam, and three wind flour-mills. A branch of the Newcastle and Berwick railway extends to this place. There are excellent and commodious inns; and vapour, shower, and warm baths. A bench of magistrates hold a monthly court. The chapel was erected by the then Sir M. W. Ridley, in 1751: the living is a donative curacy, in the patronage of the present baronet, with a net income of £93. The tithes have been commuted for £227. 6. There are places of worship for Presbyterians, Scottish Seceders, Wesleyans, and Methodists of the New Connexion. George Marshall, author of a miscellaneous volume of poems, and Letters from an Elder to a Younger Brother, was born at the place.
Blythburgh (Holy Trinity)
BLYTHBURGH (Holy Trinity), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Wangford; containing, with the hamlets of Hinton and Bulcamp, 837 inhabitants. Among the relics of antiquity that have been found are some Roman urns, dug up about 1768; which circumstance, together with the termination of the name of the parish, affords evidence of its having been a Roman station. In 654, a battle was fought at Bulcamp, between Anna, King of the East Angles, and Penda, King of Mercia, of whom the latter was victorious, and the former was slain, together with his son Ferminus, and interred in the church, whence their remains were afterwards removed to Bury St. Edmund's. A priory of Black canons, of uncertain foundation, was given by Henry I. to the abbey of St. Osyth, in the county of Essex, to which it remained subordinate till the Dissolution, when its revenue was valued at £48. 8. 10. The parish comprises 3711 acres, and is situated on the river Blyth; the quality of the land varies from a mixed soil to a sandy loam. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £45; patron, Sir Charles Blois, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £505. The church, a spacious and handsome building, but much dilapidated, consists of a nave, chancel, and aisles, with a lofty embattled tower; it was formerly profusely ornamented with paintings, sculpture, monumental brasses, and stained glass, but the three first were destroyed in the time of Cromwell, and of the last only a few fragments remain. The house of industry for the union of Blything is situated at Bulcamp; the union comprises 49 parishes or places, and contains a population of 27,319. A portion of the ruins of the priory may still be discerned, and there are some slight remains of an ancient chapel, called Holy Rood chapel.
Blythford (All Saints)
BLYTHFORD (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 2¾ miles (E. by S.) from Halesworth; containing 223 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the river Blyth, and comprises 953 acres. The living is a private donative, of which the stipend is optional, in the patronage of the Rev. Jeremy Day: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £72. The church consists of a nave and chancel, with an embattled tower; the entrances on the north and south are through decorated Norman doorways.
BLYTH-NORNEY, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Blyth, and partly in that of Harworth, union of Worksop, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 2 miles (N.) from Blyth; containing 75 inhabitants. It is situated on the north bank of the river Idle, and opposite to the village of Blyth.
Blyton (St. Martin)
BLYTON (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Corringham, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. E.) from Gainsborough; containing, with the township of Wharton, 647 inhabitants, and comprising 4002a. 3r. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12; net income, £399; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Scarborough. The tithes were commuted for land in the 36th of George III.; the vicarial portion consists of 260 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a school is endowed with £20 per annum.
Boardley, with Hetton
BOARDLEY, with Hetton, a township, in the parish of Burnsall, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 8 miles (N. N. W.) from Skipton; containing 191 inhabitants. It comprises about 4980 acres, stretching in a northern direction on both sides of a rivulet to its source; a great portion of the soil is open moorland. At the time of the inclosure, 15a. 2r. 3p. were allotted to the poor in lieu of right of commonage.
BOARHUNT, a parish, in the union of Fareham, hundred of Portsdown, Fareham and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2 miles (N. E.) from Fareham; containing 232 inhabitants. It comprises about 8000 acres of land; the surface is marked by gentle undulations, and the soil consists of chalk, sand, and clay. From the top of Portsdown hill, which skirts the parish, is one of the finest views in England. Beneath is the harbour of Portsmouth, studded with shipping; in the distance is the famous anchorage of Spithead, while the hills of the Isle of Wight close the landscape to the sea: on the other side is a richly wooded country, chiefly planted with oak, and forming a far-extended valley which terminates at the foot of a range of hills. Portsdown fair is of fashionable resort. The living is a donative, annexed to that of Southwick: the tithes have been commuted for £47. 2. The church is in the early English style; it was formerly the chapel of a Cistercian monastery, of which there are still traces. Five chantries were founded here by William of Wykeham. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. On that part of Portsdown within the parish, a monument has been erected in memory of Lord Nelson, which also serves as a beacon. Several Roman urns have been found in the park of Mr. Thistlethwayte.
Boarstall (St. James)
BOARSTALL (St. James), a parish, in the union of Bicester, hundred of Ashendon, county of Buckingham, 7½ miles (S. S. E.) from Bicester; containing 252 inhabitants. This place formed part of the ancient demesnes of the Anglo-Saxon kings, who had a palace here, which was frequently the residence of Edward the Confessor, when enjoying the pleasure of the chase in Bernwood forest. According to tradition, corroborated by the records of the manor, the forest was at that time infested by a wild boar, which, after committing great depredation, was killed by a hunter named Nigel, to whom the king granted some lands here to be held by the tenure of cornage, or the service of a horn. Nigel erected a spacious manor-house on these lands, which continued in the possession of his descendants till the beginning of the fourteenth century, when the estate was conveyed by marriage to Richard de Handlo, who, in 1322, obtained permission of the king to fortify his mansion at Boarstall, and convert it into a castle. In the early part of the civil war, Boarstall Castle was garrisoned for the king, but was evacuated in 1644, and immediately seized by the parliamentarian forces stationed at Aylesbury: it was retaken by Col. Gage, and again garrisoned for the king; but, after holding out for some time, it was ultimately surrendered to General Fairfax, in 1646. The old mansion was demolished by the late Sir John Aubrey, and the only part remaining is the gateway tower, which is quadrangular and defended by embattled turrets at the angles, with portions of the moat by which it was surrounded, and over which is a bridge of two arches. The parish comprises by measurement 2550 acres, of which 100 are woodland, and the rest is divided between arable and pasture. It was formerly a chapelry in the parish of Oakley, from which it was separated in 1418. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Brill; impropriator, Sir T. D. Aubrey, Bart. The church erected in 1818 by Sir John Aubrey on the site of the former edifice, is a neat building.
Bobbing (St. Bartholomew)
BOBBING (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Milton, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 1¼ mile (W. by N.) from Milton; containing 404 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 1070 acres, of which 157 are in wood. A fair is held on September 4th. The living is a vicarage not in charge, in the gift of the Rev. G. Simpson, who is also impropriator of one-third of the parish; the remainder is impropriate in R. Hinde, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £194. 12., and the vicarial for £140; there are 35 acres of glebe. The church is composed of two aisles, two chancels, and a western tower. A benefaction of £50 from Ann Gibbon has been invested in land, now producing £6. 6. per annum, for which seven girls are instructed. At Keystreet, a small hamlet in the parish, corruptly so called from Caius'-street (Caii Stratum), a Roman highway, is a gravel-pit of unusual size and depth, from which the Romans perhaps obtained part of the materials for making the road.
Bobbington (St. Mary)
BOBBINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Seisdon, partly in the hundred of Brimstree, S. division of Salop, but chiefly in the S. division of the hundred of Seisdon and of the county of Stafford, 8 miles (W. N. W.) from Stourbridge; containing 418 inhabitants. It comprises 2676a. 3r. 9p., strong land, mostly arable; the surface is undulated, and the scenery highly picturesque. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £97; patron, T. Whitmore, Esq., of Apley Park, Salop: the tithes have been commuted for £543. The church is a neat structure, with a square tower; it was repewed in 1828. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a free school built in 1792 by Hannah Cobbett, who endowed it with four acres of land and £1400 three per cents.
Bobbingworth (St. German)
BOBBINGWORTH (St. German), a parish, in the union and hundred of Ongar, S. division of Essex, 2½ miles (N. W.) from Ongar; containing 357 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises 1400 acres, is of very uneven surface, rising into hills of moderate elevation, and commanding in some parts pleasing and in others highly enriched scenery; the village is built round a pleasant green, and has a cheerful aspect. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the patronage of Capel Cure, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £446. 5., and there are 35 acres of glebe. The church, which is at some distance from the village, appears to have been erected at different periods; the chancel is the most ancient part, and has a handsome east window of the decorated English style.
BOCKENFIELD, a township, in the parish of Felton, union of Morpeth, E. division of Morpeth ward, N. division of Northumberland, 8½ miles (N. by W.) from Morpeth; containing 127 inhabitants. Near this place, which lies west from Eshott and comprises 1970 acres, is an eminence called Helm-on-the-Hill, over which the road from Morpeth to Alnwick was once carried, but which is now avoided by a new branch, formed some years since, on its west side. Here was formerly a chapel.
BOCKHAMPTON, a tything, in the parish and hundred of Lambourn, union of Hungerford, county of Berks, ¾ of a mile (S. E. by E.) from Lambourn; containing 78 inhabitants. It comprises, by survey in 1806, 1098a. 1r. 15p.
Bocking (St. Mary)
BOCKING (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Braintree, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 1 mile (N.) from Braintree; containing 3437 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4490a. 1r. 12p., of which 3460 acres are arable, 617 meadow and pasture, 262 woodland, and 30 acres hop-grounds; and is intersected by the river Blackwater, which puts in motion the machinery of several corn-mills and silk-factories. The lands rest on a substratum of clay partially mixed with chalk; that portion under tillage produces fair average crops. The village, one of the most extensive in the county, has one principal street reaching to the town of Braintree, and containing several well-built houses. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £35. 10., and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury: the tithes have been commuted for £1360, and there are nearly 114 acres of glebe. The church, built partly of flints and stone, is a spacious and handsome structure in the early English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains many interesting monuments. John Gauden, Bishop of Worcester, established a school for boys, and endowed it with land now producing £50 per annum. An almshouse, endowed with about £8 per annum, was built by license of Henry VI., as a Maison Dieu, or "God's House," by John Doreward, who gave to it, and the chaplain of his chantry in the parish church, his manor of Tendring and a rentcharge on all his lands in the county; but this revenue, it is supposed, was lost at the Dissolution.