A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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SWINEFLEET, a chapelry, in the parish of Whitgift, union of Goole, Lower division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 2½ miles (E. S. E.) from Goole; containing 1145 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by the river Ouse, and contains by computation 1750 acres of fertile land, of level surface. The village, which is spacious and well built, consists of a long range of houses on the banks of the Ouse, and was formerly of some importance. Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, and lord of this place as part of the honour of Pontefract, obtained for the inhabitants the grant of a market on Thursday, and of a fair for three days commencing on the morrow after the Exaltation of the Cross; but both have been long discontinued. The chapel, built about 80 years since, is a very homely structure: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £127; patron, the Vicar of Whitgift; impropriator, A. R. Worsop, Esq. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists.
Swineshead (St. Nicholas)
SWINESHEAD (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of St. Neot's, hundred of Leightonstone, county of Huntingdon, though locally in the hundred of Stodden, county of Bedford, 3½ miles (S. W. by W.) from the town of Kimbolton; containing 294 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 13. 6½., and in the gift of the Duke of Manchester; the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1808.
Swineshead (St. Mary)
SWINESHEAD (St. Mary), a decayed market-town and a parish, in the union of Boston, wapentake of Kirton, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Boston; containing, with the chapelry of Chapel-Hill, 2079 inhabitants. An abbey for Cistercian monks was founded here by Robert de Greslie, in 1134, the revenue of which at the Dissolution was valued at £175. 19. 10. Many valuable coins and several skeletons have been dug up near the spot: in 1825, on sinking a well, a skeleton was discovered which measured six feet four inches. King John, in passing the Cross Keys Wash, near this place, lost his carriages and baggage, and escaped to the monastery only with his life. The ruins of the monastery have entirely disappeared, though its site is still pointed out; a mansion, recently modernised, was erected with a portion of its materials, about two centuries and a half since. The sea formerly flowed up to the town: near the marketplace was a harbour; and about fifty years since, a bridge was taken down which crossed a river then navigable for small craft, but now choked up. The South Forty-foot and other drains run through the parish. An act was passed in 1840, for the more effectual drainage of certain lands. The market, now nearly disused, is on Thursday; and a fair is held on October 2nd. The parish comprises 6725 acres; the surface is flat, and the soil varies in different parts, containing portions of loam, sand, and clay. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 9.; net income, £240; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1773; the glebe contains about 60 acres. The church is a handsome edifice, with a lofty spire. At Chapel Hill is a separate incumbency. A free school was founded in 1720, by Thomas Cowley, Esq., who endowed it with land producing £35 per annum, together with a small surplus for clothing the poor, who also receive £200 a year from bequests. About a quarter of a mile northwestward of the town is a circular Danish encampment, called the Man-war-rings, about 60 yards in diameter, and surrounded by a double fosse.
SWINESIDE, a hamlet, in the chapelry of Horsehouse, parish of Coverham, union of Leyburn, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 7 miles (S. W.) from Middleham. The tithes are attached to the church of Coverham, and a considerable portion of the lands to that of Spennithorne. In 1692, Thomas Foster left an estate here, one-fourth to the incumbent of the parish for his own use, and the other three-fourth parts to him and the churchwardens for distribution among the poor. An allotment of 3 acres was made to the property on the inclosure of the moor.
SWINETHORP, an extra-parochial liberty, in the Higher division of the wapentake of Boothby-Graffo, parts of Kesteven, union and county of Lincoln, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Lincoln; containing 67 inhabitants. It comprises 1050 acres, of which about 50 are woodland. The soil is in some parts a friable clay, but in general a sandy loam; coal of very considerable thickness has been found, but never worked. The Jungle, a mansion of curious exterior, and deeply embosomed in wood, is the seat of the lord of the manor.
SWINFEN, a hamlet, in the parish of Weeford, union of Lichfield, S. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 2¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Lichfield; containing 95 inhabitants. Swinfen Hall, a magnificent structure built by Mr. Wyatt, father of the celebrated architect, stands in a wellwooded park with a fine lawn and lake, and commands an extensive view of the country around Lichfield.
Swinford (All Saints)
SWINFORD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 3½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Lutterworth; containing 444 inhabitants. The river Avon separates the parish from Stanford, in the county of Northampton. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 7. 11., and has a net income of £216; the patronage and impropriation belong to the Baroness Braye. The church is an ancient structure with a tower.
Swinford, King's (Holy Trinity)
SWINFORD, KING'S (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Stourbridge, N. division of the hundred of Seisdon, S. division of the county of Stafford, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Dudley; containing 22,221 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the roads from Dudley to Stourbridge, and from Wolverhampton to Worcester, comprises by admeasurement 7315 acres, of which 3510 are arable, 1607 meadow and pasture, 454 woodland and plantations, and the remainder common and waste. The scenery is greatly diversified, and enlivened by numerous tastefully-embellished demesnes, some of which abound with stately and valuable timber. Prestwood is an elegant mansion beautifully situated in an extensive park separated from the parish of Kinfare by the river Stour. Fir-Tree House, Summer Hill, Ashwood House, and Wordsley House, are good residences; and Lawns-Wood is a handsome structure in the Italian style, erected at a cost of £20,000, on an eminence commanding some fine views, and in a demesne which has been much improved.
The situation of King's-Swinford in a country abounding with iron and coal, has given rise to the establishment of extensive manufactures, the principal being those of iron, tin, and glass. Facility of conveyance is afforded by the Dudley and Stourbridge and the Staffordshire and Worcestershire canals, which both pass through the parish, and to the latter of which a railway from the principal mines was constructed by the late Earl of Dudley. In 1845 an act was passed for a railway from Oxford to Wolverhampton, with a branch of 2½ miles to King's-Swinford. The Oak-Farm Company's iron and steel works were established in 1835, for the manufacture of all kinds of iron and steel goods, including those for which patents had been granted to James Boydell, Esq., the managing partner. The Corbyn's-Hall collieries and iron-works were established in 1818, and afford employment to about 800 persons. The Lays iron and coal mines, established in 1835, give occupation to 450 persons; and in the Brockmore iron and tin works, established in 1844, 300 persons are engaged. There are also some extensive works for blue brick and tiles, which are remarkable for their durability in subterraneous buildings; some potteries for stone ware and earthenware of every kind; a wire-mill, and manufactories for nails, chains, and scythes. A court leet and court baron are held annually for the manor, and the inhabitants claim exemption from tolls under charter of Queen Elizabeth, confirmed by Charles I. Pettysessions are held every Monday and Thursday, and a copyhold court occasionally.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 13. 4., and in the gift of Lord Ward: the tithes have been commuted for £800, and the glebe comprises 165 acres. The church, erected in 1831, at a cost of £10,000, on a site at Wordsley given by the late Earl of Dudley, is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and, by a special act of parliament, has been made the mother church: the parsonage-house, erected in 1838, is also a handsome building. The former parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, and now a chapel, is an ancient edifice, with a massive tower, and contains monumental inscriptions to the families of Corbyn, Scott, Hodgetts, and Bendy: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £450; patron, Lord Ward. There are churches at BrierlyHill, Brockmoor, Pensnett, and Quarry-Bank. The Baptists, Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans, have places of worship. Holbeche House, in the parish, was the residence of Sir Stephen Littleton, who, being concerned in the gunpowder plot, fled for concealment to Rowley Regis. It was then occupied by Catesby and other conspirators, who defended it as their last retreat, against the sheriff of Worcester; but by the blowing up of their powder, Catesby and Piercy with two others were killed on the spot, several were dreadfully burnt, and those who made their escape were afterwards taken and publicly executed. On Ashwood Heath are some remains of a Roman encampment; and the spa called Ladywell is partly in the parish.
Swinford, Old (St. Mary)
SWINFORD, OLD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Stourbridge, partly in the S. division of the hundred of Seisdon, S. division of the county of Stafford, but chiefly in the Lower division of the hundred of Halfshire, Stourbridge and E. divisions of the county of Worcester; containing, with the hamlet of Amblecoat, and the townships of Lye, Stourbridge, Wollaston, and Wollescott, 17,483 inhabitants, of whom 2220 are in Upper Swinford township, 1 mile (S. S. E.) from Stourbridge. The parish comprises by measurement 3212 acres, of which 869½ are in Upper Swinford. The inhabitants are partly employed in the making of nails, which is carried on to a considerable extent, and in various branches connected with the trade of Stourbridge. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 6. 8.; net income, £781; patron, Lord Ward: the tithes, with the exception of those for Amblecoat, were commuted for land in 1780. The body of the church was rebuilt in 1843, at a cost of £4900, raised by subscription and the profits of sermons published by the rector, aided by grants from the Incorporated and Worcester Diocesan Societies: the edifice is of stone, and in the style of the 13th century; it contains 1432 sittings, of which 756 are free. There are also churches at Stourbridge, the Lye, and Amblecoat. The Blue-coat hospital here, founded by Thomas Foley, Esq., ancestor of the noble family of that name, and endowed by him with estates now producing nearly £2300 per annum, is a commodious brick edifice, somewhat in the style of a college, pleasantly situated on the road to Bromsgrove; the number of boys is 70, and they are all boarded. A school near Red-Hill is supported with endowments made by John Wheeler and Henry Glover, Esqrs., the former of whom granted property for the instruction of twenty boys, and the latter bequeathed £400, since laid out in land, for six boys; two scholars have since been added by the governors of Stourbridge grammar school, who are the trustees, and the boys on the foundation of both these charities are taught by the same master. What is left of Glover's endowment, after all necessary charges for the school are paid, is distributed amongst the poor of that part of the parish which is in the county of Worcester.
Swingfield (St. Peter)
SWINGFIELD (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Elham, hundred of Folkestone, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 5 miles (N.) from Folkestone; containing 323 inhabitants. The parish is situated near the road from Folkestone to Canterbury, and comprises 2606 acres, of which 582 are common or waste now inclosed, and 466 in wood. Under the act of 1840 for the inclosure of the waste, 5 acres were allotted for recreation. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £52. 10.; patron and impropriator, Sir John W. E. Brydges, Bart. A preceptory of Knights Templars was founded here before 1190, to which Sir Waresius de Valoniis and others were considerable benefactors; it subsequently passed to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and at the Dissolution had a revenue of £87. 3. 3. On Swingfield common, during the agitations of 1745, the neighbouring nobility, gentry, and yeomen, to the number of several thousands, supplied with arms and ammunition, assembled to oppose an expected invasion on the coast of Kent.
SWINHOE, a township, in the parish of Bambrough, N. division of Bambrough ward, union of Belford, N. division of Northumberland, 9½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Belford; containing 118 inhabitants. It comprises 1476 acres, of which two-thirds are arable, and the remainder good pasture land, with about 100 acres of plantation; the whole the property of Mr. Tewart, of Glanton, with the exception of 160 acres belonging to the Duke of Northumberland. The surface is undulated, and the soil a strong loam; coal and limestone are in abundance, and from the clay obtained here, draining-tiles are made. The sea bounds the township on the east. The tithes have been commuted for £50. 2. payable to the impropriators, and £12. 18. to the perpetual curate of Bambrough.
Swinhope (St. Helen)
SWINHOPE (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Caistor, wapentake of Bradley-Haverstoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2 miles (N.) from Binbrooke; containing 117 inhabitants, and comprising 1306 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 17. 8½., and in the patronage of G. Alington, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £226. 7. 7., and there are 15½ acres of glebe.
Swinnerton (St. Mary)
SWINNERTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 3½ miles (W. N. W.) from Stone; containing 961 inhabitants. The parish comprises 6400 acres, whereof 1300 are wood and uninclosed common; of the arable land, the larger part is adapted for barley and turnips, and the rest for wheat, beans, &c. The surface is undulated, and the scenery and views are rich and varied. The river Sow runs along the boundary on the west, and the roads from Stone to Chester and from Newcastle to Eccleshall pass through the parish; the Trent and Mersey canal flows three miles eastward of the village, and the Liverpool and Birmingham railway is distant two miles. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 2. 6.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Christopher Dodsley: the glebe consists of 70 acres, with an excellent rectory-house. The church is an ancient fabric, built at different times: in the vestry, which is used as a parochial school, is a colossal figure of Our Saviour pointing to the wound in his side; this figure was discovered buried at a short distance from its present situation, and is supposed to have been secreted there during the Reformation. A Roman Catholic chapel is attached to Swinnerton Hall, the seat of Thomas Fitzherbert, Esq., the largest landowner in the parish.
Swinstead (St. Mary)
SWINSTEAD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2 miles (S. E.) from Corby; containing 451 inhabitants. It comprises about 1710 acres, more than half of which is arable land, and the remainder pasture; the soil of a large part is wet and clayey, and the substratum solid rock. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 19. 7.; net income, £80; patron and impropriator, Lord Willoughby de Eresby. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1777; the glebe contains about 100 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
SWINTON, a chapelry, in the township of Worsley, parish of Eccles, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Manchester, on the road to Wigan. A large pile has been erected here of late years, by the guardians of the Manchester poor-law union, for training up orphans and other unprotected children. The building is in the Elizabethan style, of red brick with stone dressings, the main front being of imposing aspect, and 400 feet in length; it will accommodate a thousand children, and there are at present about half that number within the walls. The cost of erection was about £40,000. The chapel of Swinton, dedicated to St. Peter, is a cruciform structure, built by subscription in 1791, since which it has been twice enlarged. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Eccles; net income, £126. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Independents, Unitarians; and a Church Sunday and infant school.
Swinton, with Warthermask
SWINTON, with Warthermask, a township, in the parish of Masham, union of Bedale, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 1 mile (S. W.) from Masham; containing 214 inhabitants. The township comprises 1614a. 1r. 30p., including the small hamlet of Roomer. Swinton Park is extensive, and has fine gardens and pleasure-grounds; the Hall is spacious and very handsome, in the Tudor style, with embattled towers and turrets. The village is seated on the west side of the river Ure. Large tracts of moor in the neighbourhood were brought into cultivation by the late Mr. Danby, who also planted many of the acclivities, and built a bridge over a deep glen. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £36; and the impropriate for £150, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge. Numerous relics of antiquity have been discovered in the neighbourhood, among which are the handle of a shield of gold, and a Roman battle-axe of brass.
SWINTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Appletonle-Street, union of Malton, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 2¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Malton; containing 387 inhabitants. The township is situated south of the river Rye, and comprises by computation 810 acres of land: the village is distant about a mile eastward of Appleton. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists.
SWINTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Wath-uponDearne, union of Rotherham, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Rotherham; containing 1660 inhabitants. It comprises 1603a. 1r. 10p., of which 930 acres are arable, 521 meadow and pasture, 74 woodland, 64 in homesteads and orchards, and 11 canal. The manufacture of china and earthenware is carried on at the Don Pottery, which employs about 250 hands. A manufactory belonging to Earl Fitzwilliam, now closed, produced some years since a splendid dessert service for the royal table, and many articles of great taste and elegance for the nobility; the Rockingham porcelain, which obtained deserved celebrity, was manufactured here. Earthenware is also made at Kilnhurst, a small hamlet in the township, about a mile distant from the village, and where iron-works are likewise carried on. The river Don, and the Dearne and Dove navigation, form a junction at Swinton; by the latter, coal is brought from the mines of Earl Fitzwilliam and others, in and near the celebrated Worsbro' Dale. The Midland railway, also, passes for a mile and a half through the chapelry, and has a station here, from which passengers for Doncaster and other places are conveyed by coach or passage-boats. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £160; patron, Earl Fitzwilliam. The chapel, dedicated to St. Margaret, was rebuilt in 1817, at a cost of £6300, of which £4500 were given, with the site, by Earl Fitzwilliam; it is in the later English style, has a square tower, with pinnacles, and contains 500 sittings. Two beautiful Norman arches were taken from the old building, one of which forms the entrance from the churchyard to the parsonage-house. The Wesleyans and Independents have each a place of worship. A national school, also used for divine service on alternate Sundays, was opened at Kilnhurst in January 1836. Charles Green, who accompanied Captain Cook as astronomer, was a native of Swinton.
Swithland (St. Leonard)
SWITHLAND (St. Leonard), parish, in the union of Barrow-upon-Soar, hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Mountsorrel; containing 306 inhabitants. It consists of about 1600 acres. The soil in some parts is clay, resting upon marl, and in others a light cold earth, underlaid with sand and stones. The surface is pleasingly undulated, and the scenery is beautiful, comprising rocky projections ornamented with wood, and the romantic outline of the Charnwood Forest hills, which, with neighbouring parks and plantations, embrace nearly two sides of the parish. Some of the inhabitants are employed in slate-quarries. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 4. 7., and in the gift of the Crown, with a net income of £300: there is a parsonage-house, with about 210 acres of land. The interior of the church was handsomely fitted up by Sir John Danvers, late lord of the manor.
Swyre (Holy Trinity)
SWYRE (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Bridport, hundred of Uggscombe, Dorchester division of Dorset, 5½ miles (S. E.) from Bridport; containing 231 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the English Channel, and the village is situated about one mile from the coast. A fair was granted to the inhabitants in the 36th of Henry VIII. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 0. 5., and in the gift of the Duke of Bedford: the tithes have been commuted for £160, and the glebe comprises 25 acres. The church was consecrated in 1503; it has a lofty tower, and north and south porches. Cornua Ammonis and Lapis Judaicus are found, the latter exactly resembling half a peascod, and of a faint green hue. In different parts is dug a grey coarse marble full of shells, and which is of a black colour when polished.