A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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GILBERDIKE, a township, in the parish of Eastrington, union of Howden, wapentake of Howdenshire, E. riding of York, 5½ miles (E. by N.) from Howden; containing 817 inhabitants. It comprises the hamlets of Hive, Sandholme, Owsthorpe, and New Gilberdike; and consists of about 570 acres. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1830. New Gilberdike is of recent origin, and is situated on Walling Fen; it has several brick and tile yards on the west side of the Market-Weighton canal, and abounds in excellent clay of different kinds for earthenware and bricks.
Gilcrux (St. Mary)
GILCRUX (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 5½ miles (N. by W.) from Cockermouth; containing 464 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the west by the river Ellen, and situated near the railway from Maryport to Carlisle; it comprises 1951a. 1r. 3p., of which 1466 acres are arable, 144 meadow, 333 pasture, and about 6 woodland. The surface is varied, and the lower grounds are watered by a copious stream which has its source in numerous springs in the village; the substrata are chiefly coal, and freestone of good quality for building. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 14. 2.; net income, £100; patron, the Bishop of Carlisle: the impropriation of corn-tithes belongs to F. L. B. Dykes, Esq., and others. The church stands on an artificial eminence, and is in the early English style. Joseph Tordiff, in 1799, endowed a school with £24 per annum.
GILDERSOME, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Batley, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 4½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Leeds; containing 1917 inhabitants. This district comprises by admeasurement 973 acres, about one-fifth of which is arable, 12 acres woodland, and the rest meadow and pasture; the substratum abounds with coal, some of which is gaseous. The inhabitants are employed in the woollen manufacture, originally introduced by some Flemings from Guelderland (whence the name of the village), who settled here in 1571; there is also a flax-mill. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patron, the Vicar of Batley: a glebe-house is attached to the benefice. The church, erected in 1774, was restored in 1839, and a gallery added, by which 150 free sittings were gained. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Baptists, and Wesleyans.
GILDING-WELLS, a township, in the parish of St. John Throapham, union of Worksop, S. division of the wapentake of Upper Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 5¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Worksop; containing 91 inhabitants. It comprises 574 acres, and is included within the consolidated chapelry of Woodsetts, which see. The tithes have been commuted for £100.
GILES, ST., a parish, in the union of Torrington, hundred of Fremington, Torrington and N. divisions of Devon, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Torrington; containing 915 inhabitants. This place participated in the hos tilities of the reign of Charles I., when Stevenson, the ancient manorial residence of the family of Rolle, was taken by Sir Thomas Fairfax, on the 16th of February, 1646. The parish comprises by measurement 4544 acres, of which 3474 are arable, 385 pasture, 292 coppice, 42 orchard, and 10 garden; the soil is light and stony in some places, but for the most part clayey: stone of good quality for building and the roads is quarried in abundance. The Rolle canal connects the parish with Torrington and the port of Bideford; and the road from Bideford and Torrington to Exeter partly intersects it. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Torrington: the church, erected in 1675, is of plain architecture, and, among other monuments, contains one to the memory of Tristram Risdon, the antiquary.
Giles, St., on-the-Heath
GILES, ST., on-the-Heath, a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Black Torrington, Lifton and N. divisions of Devon, 4½ miles (N. by E.) from Launceston; containing 375 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 3044 acres, of which 291 are waste land or common: the Bude canal passes within a short distance, affording facility of conveyance for sea-sand which is used for manure. Fairs are held on the third Wednesday in April, and a fortnight before Lammas. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Lady Suffield, the Marquess of Lothian, and Lord Valletort, the impropriators, whose tithes have been commuted for £123. 14.
Gill, with Motherby.—See Motherby.
GILLIMOOR, a chapelry, in the parish of Kirkby-Moorside, union of Helmsley, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 7 miles (N. E.) from Helmsley; containing 214 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1670 acres of land; the village is situated a little to the west of a stream which flows through Dowthwaite dale, and about two miles north of Kirkby-Moorside. The chapel is a neat edifice, rebuilt in 1802.
Gilling (St. Agatha)
GILLING (St. Agatha), a parish, in the unions of Richmond, Northallerton, and Darlington, chiefly in the wapentake of Gilling-East, but partly in that of Gilling-West, N. riding of York; comprising the townships of North Cowton and Gilling, and the chapelries of South Cowton and Eryholme; and containing 1618 inhabitants, of whom 981 are in the township of Gilling, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Richmond. This is a place of great antiquity, and remarkable as the scene of the murder of Oswy, King of Deira, by his host, Oswin of Bernicia; in expiation of which crime, a monastery was founded on the spot by Queen Eanfleda; but not the slightest vestige of it can now be traced. There are quarries of excellent freestone. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £23. 11. 5½.; net income, £1029; patron and impropriator, John Thomas Wharton, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments, under an act of inclosure, in 1815. The church, which retains some traces of Norman architecture, was appropriated in 1224 to the monastery of St. Mary, York. South Cowton and Eryholme are separate incumbencies. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Sir Thomas Wharton, in 1678, founded Hartforth free school here, and endowed it with an estate now producing about £125 a year.
Gilling (Holy Cross)
GILLING (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Helmsley, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York; containing 386 inhabitants, of whom 232 are in the township of Gilling, 5¼ miles (S.) from Helmsley, and 18 (N.) from York. The parish includes the townships of Cawton and Grimstone, and comprises by computation 2500 acres; the soil rests on limestone, of which there are several excellent quarries. The scenery, particularly in the valley of the Rye, is very beautiful. A clear stream runs through the village into a larger brook called the Holbeck, over which is a bridge. Gilling Castle, situated in a fine park on the west of the village, was built by Alan, Earl of Richmond, to repel the frequent attacks of the Saxons and Danes for the recovery of their lost estates; it was afterwards the seat of the Mowbrays, and since the time of Henry VII. has belonged to the family of Fairfax. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 10., and in the patronage of Trinity College, Cambridge, with a net income of £632; there are 208 acres of glebe. The church is an ancient edifice with a tower, and contains a vault belonging to the Fairfax family. The Hon. Anne Fairfax, in 1793, left the interest of £400, vested in the funds, for teaching children; which endowment has been augmented by the present possessor of Gilling Castle.
Gillingham (Blessed Virgin Mary)
GILLINGHAM (Blessed Virgin Mary), a parish, in the liberty of Gillingham, union of Shaftesbury, Shaston division of Dorset, 4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Shaftesbury, and on the river Stour; containing, with the chapelry of Bourton, 3661 inhabitants. Edmund Ironside, in 1016, having vanquished Canute at Pen, in Somersetshire, is said to have extended the pursuit hither, which is probable from the number of pits now discernible in the neighbourhood, on the supposed field of a second battle. The parish borders on the counties of Somerset and Wilts, and is about 41 miles in circumference, including part of the ancient Forest of Selwood, which was disafforested by Charles I., on condition that the lessee should maintain 400 deer for the king's use. About half a mile eastward from the church, on the road to Shaftesbury, are traces of a palace of the Saxon and Norman kings, who made it their residence when they came to hunt in the forest. The manufacture of linen has been carried on from a very early period, but the inhabitants derive their principal profits from the rich pastures and dairy-lands abounding in the parish. There are fairs for horses, bullocks, and sheep, on Trinity-Monday and September 12th. The living, a vicarage with the livings of East and West Stower and Motcomb annexed, is valued in the king's books at £40. 17. 6.; net income, £1313; patron, the Bishop of Salisbury; impropriators, the family of Ogle. The church is a large edifice, partly in the Norman style, with a chantry chapel attached to it, and a high tower. Bourton forms a separate incumbency. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. John Grice and others, in 1526, founded and endowed a free school, which was in much repute during the parliamentary war, and in which the celebrated Hyde, afterwards Earl of Clarendon, received part of his education.
Gillingham (St. Mary Magdalene)
GILLINGHAM (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Medway, hundred of Chatham and Gillingham, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 1½ mile (E. by N.) from Chatham; containing 7640 inhabitants. This ancient village, which is recorded in Domesday book by the name of Gelingeham, was much exposed to the ravages of the Danes; and it is said that 600 noblemen, who landed here in the retinue of Alfred and Edward, were murdered upon the spot, by Earl Godwin. Though now inconsiderable, it was, previously to the rapid rise of the town of Chatham, a place of note; and its harbour on the Medway was a principal station for the navy. In the reign of Elizabeth it possessed the four quays of Twydall, Midflete, Dean-Med End, and Beggar-Hyde, together with various ships and boats. Charles I. erected a fort for the protection of the royal dockyard and navy, which, proving ineffectual to resist the Dutch in their celebrated expedition up the river, in 1667, was subsequently enlarged, and distinguished by the name of Gillingham Castle. At present the entire neighbourhood is strongly fortified with outposts connected with Chatham Lines, within which, at the western extremity of the parish, is the populous village of Brompton (situated on the brow of a hill overlooking the dockyard of Chatham), partly in this parish, and partly in the adjoining parish of Chatham, and chiefly inhabited by artisans and others employed in the dockyard. The parish comprises by measurement 4500 acres, of which nearly one-half are arable, 400 pasture, 500 woodland, 200 in hop plantations and gardens, and the remainder salt-marsh. The manor of Grange or Grench, situated in it, and consisting of about 225 acres, is a member of the cinque-port of Hastings. The Living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15. 13. 11½., and in the gift of the Principal and Fellows of Brasenose College, Oxford, as governors of the grammar school at Middleton, in Lancashire: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £522, and the great tithes for £912. 6. 6., of which £22. 6. 6. are paid to the Dean and Chapter of Rochester, £815 to the College, and £75 to an impropriator. The church was formerly remarkable for what was deemed a miraculous image of the Virgin, called "Our Lady of Gillingham," in a niche over the western door, to which frequent pilgrimages were made. It is a spacious edifice, with a private chapel on each side of the chancel, which exhibits some slight portions of Norman architecture. Memorials of the Romans may be discerned within its walls. On the south side of the churchyard are foundations of an extensive building, once the archiepiscopal palace, the hall of which has been converted into a barn. There is a chapel of ease at Lidsing. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. William of Gillingham, the historian, who flourished in the reign of Richard II.; and William Adams, the discoverer of Japan, to which island he began his voyage in 1598, were born here.
GILLINGHAM, comprising the united parishes of All Saints and St. Mary, in the union of Loddon and Clavering, hundred of Clavering, E. division of Norfolk, 1¼ mile (N. by W.) from Beccles; containing 404 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Beccles to Norwich and Yarmouth, and is bounded on the south by the navigable river Waveney, which separates it from the county of Suffolk. The livings are discharged rectories united, valued in the king's books at £10. 6. 8., and in the gift of Lord G. Beresford: the tithes have been commuted for £462. 10., and the glebe comprises 60 acres, with a house. The church dedicated to St. Mary is principally of Norman architecture, with a tower rising from the centre; the west and north entrances are under beautifully enriched Norman arches, and the chancel contains a handsome monument to Sir Nicholas Bains, Bart. The church of All Saints was demolished in 1748, but the ruined tower still remains, and, being overgrown with ivy, presents a venerable and interesting appearance. There are lands producing £50 per annum, for parochial uses.
GILLMONBY, a township, in the parish of Bowes, union of Teesdale, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from BarnardCastle; containing 87 inhabitants. It is part of the manor of Bowes, is on the south side of the river Greta, and comprises by computation 1800 acres, of which about 1200 are open moorland: the village is pleasantly situated opposite the village of Bowes. The Hall is now a farmhouse.
Gillmorton (All Saints)
GILLMORTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Lutterworth; containing 866 inhabitants, a few of whom are employed in the manufacture of stockings, The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 14. 9½.; net income, £632; patron and incumbent, the Rev. D. J. Burdett: the tithes were commuted for land in 1777. Here are two schools, endowed by Mr. Edward Chandler.
GILROE, an extra-parochial liberty, in the hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 1½ mile (N. W.) of Leicester; containing 19 inhabitants. It comprises 180 acres, of a strong loamy soil; and anciently formed part of the Chase or Frith of Leicester.
GILSLAND, a watering-place, in the parish of Lanercost-Abbey, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 7 miles (E. N. E.) from Brampton. This place, which forms part of the township of Waterhead, is beautifully situated in the vale of Irthing, and has risen into some eminence from the efficacy of its sulphuretted and chalybeate spas, the former of which has been in high repute for more than a century; the latter was discovered about the year 1812. The scenery is romantic, abounding with interesting features: the river Irthing affords excellent trout-fishing, and the walks have been greatly improved by the proprietor. Two hotels have been opened for the reception of families frequenting the spas, and some neat cottages contain comfortable lodgings for persons of limited means. Numerous remains of Roman and Saxon architecture exist in the neighbourhood.
GILSTONE, a parish, in the union of Ware, hundred of Braughin, county of Hertford, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Harlow; containing 246 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises about 980 acres, is situated on the river Stort, and the London and Brandon railway passes near the village. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 3. 4.; net income, £241; patron, the Bishop of London. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a spire.
Gimingham, or Gymmingham (All Saints)
GIMINGHAM, or Gymmingham (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (N.) from North Walsham; containing 383 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1471 acres, of which 1202 are arable, 110 meadow and pasture, and about 7 woodland. A small stream, which turns a flour-mill, falls into the sea at the northern extremity of the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 11. 10½., and in the gift of Catherine Hall, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £404, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. The church is a handsome structure, in the later English style, with an embattled tower.
Ginge, East and West
GINGE, EAST and WEST, tythings, the former in the parish of West Hendred, and the latter in that of Lockinge, union and hundred of Wantage, county Berks; containing respectively 37 and 55 inhabitants.
GIPPING, a chapelry, in the parish of StowMarket, union and hundred of Stow, W. division of Suffolk, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Stow-Market; containing 93 inhabitants. This place, which takes its name from the small river Gipping, is the property of C. Tyrell, Esq., whose ancestor, Sir Walter Tyrell, Knt., held the lordship at the time of the Domesday survey. The living is a donative, in the patronage of Mr. Tyrell: the chapel, situated near the Hall, and forming a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, was erected by Sir James Tyrell, in the 15th century.
GIRSBY, a hamlet, in the parish of Burgh-uponBaine, union of Louth, E. division of the wapentake of Wraggoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln; containing 44 inhabitants. This place extends northward to the romantic dells and hills where the river Bain has its source; and contains the sylvan seat of Girsby Hall.
GIRSBY, a township, in the parish of Sockburn, union of Darlington, wapentake of Allertonshire, N. riding of York, 6½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Yarm; containing 80 inhabitants. It comprises 1410 acres; and is separated from the rest of the parish by the river Tees, which bounds it on the north.
Girton (St. Andrew)
GIRTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Chesterton, hundred of North Stow, county of Cambridge, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Cambridge; containing 351 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 4. 4½., and in the gift of Sir S. V. Cotton, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £446, and the glebe comprises 19½ acres. The tower of the church is in the later English style.
GIRTON, a parish, in the union, and N. division of the wapentake, of Newark, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 8 miles (S. E. by E.) from Tuxford; containing 206 inhabitants. It comprises 1075 acres, of which 570 are in open pasture; its small village is seated on the east bank of the Trent. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of South Scarle: the great tithes have been commuted for £133. 17. 6., and the vicarial for £60. The church is an humble edifice.
Gisburn (St. Mary)
GISBURN (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Clitheroe, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 10½ miles (W. by S.) from Skipton; comprising the townships of Gisburn, Gisburn-Forest, Horton, Middop, Nappa, Newsholme, Paythorne, Rimmington, and Swinden; and containing 2191 inhabitants, of whom 543 are in the township of Gisburn. This place was for many generations the seat of the family of Lister, whose descendant, Lord Ribblesdale, is lord of the manor. The parish is situated in the vale of the Ribble, and comprises by computation 18,190 acres; the surface is finely varied, and the scenery picturesque. Gisburn Park is a noble mansion, containing a valuable collection of paintings; the park is extensive, and approached by a handsome lodge. The river Ribble, which here receives the waters of the Stockbeck, flows through the grounds; and on an acclivity rising from its banks is Castle Haugh, a small square fort of great antiquity. The village was formerly a market-town; fairs for fat-cattle and sheep are held in it every fortnight on the Mondays alternating with those of Skipton fairs, and two fairs are also held on Easter-Monday and the 18th of September, chiefly for cattle. It is also a polling-place for the West riding. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £161, and a glebe-house; impropriator, Lord Ribblesdale. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles; the east window is embellished with stained glass. The Lister family are interred in a vault in the church. There is a chapel at Tosside, dedicated to St. Bartholomew; and the Wesleyans and Independents have places of worship.
GISBURN-FOREST, a township, in the parish of Gisburn, union of Clitheroe, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 8 miles (S.) from Settle; containing 372 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 4830 acres; and includes the village of Houghton-Chapel, and the hamlets of Owlshaw and Whelpstones. Two cattlefairs, commenced in 1838, are held at Houghton-Chapel on March 14th and September 3rd.
Gisleham (Holy Trinity)
GISLEHAM (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the hundred of Mutford and Lothingland, E. division of Suffolk, 4½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Lowestoft; containing 254 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the North Sea; and comprises, according to an old survey, 1292a. 2r. 5p. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8.; and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £410; the glebe comprises 6 acres, with a house. The church is an ancient structure with a round tower, and contains a curiously sculptured font.