A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Tamerton-Folliott (St. Mary)
TAMERTON-FOLLIOTT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Plympton St. Mary, hundred of Roborough, Midland-Roborough and S. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Plymouth; containing 1214 inhabitants. This place, which is supposed by Camden to be the ancient Tamara, is delightfully situated on a creek of the river Tamar, and is inhabited by several respectable families. Warlegh House, a venerable mansion with a fine hall, has been the residence of the lords of the manor, from the reign of King Stephen; and the heronry, still existing as an appendage to the establishment, is among the indications of its former splendour. Maristow, the property of Sir Ralph Lopes, Bart., whose uncle, in 1789, had the honour of entertaining here George III. and three of the princesses, is a noble mansion with a chapel attached, in which divine service is regularly performed; the domain is extensive, and enriched with pleasingly diversified scenery. The parish comprises 4090 acres, of which 287 are common or waste. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 7. 8½., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriators, G. Leach, Esq., and others. The great tithes have been commuted for £134, and the vicarial for £338. 10.; there is a vicarage-house, and the glebe contains 5 acres. The church has a remarkably fine tower, and among several handsome memorials of the Copleston, Bampfylde, and Radcliffe families, contains an ancient altar-tomb with the figures of an armed knight and his lady, supposed to represent Sir Ralph de Gorges and Ellen Folliott his wife. A free school was founded, and liberally endowed with land and money by Mary Deane, in 1734; the income is about £120 a year.
Tamerton, North (St. Denis)
TAMERTON, NORTH (St. Denis), a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Stratton. E. division of Cornwall, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Holsworthy; containing 589 inhabitants. It comprises 4775 acres, of which 450 are common or waste. The surface is in general hilly; the soil, though various, is for the most part a poor clayey earth. The river Tamar and the Bude canal run through the parish, parallel with each other, from north to south. The living is a donative curacy; net income, £230; patrons, R. P. Coffin, Esq., and the Cowlard family: the glebe contains about 20 acres. There is a dilapidated chapel at Hornacot.
TAMHORN, an extra-parochial place adjacent to the parish of Whittington, in the union of Lichfield, N. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from Tamworth; containing 5 inhabitants. The Birmingham and Fazeley canal passes in the vicinity, and on the east flows the river Tame. The estate comprises a wood of 108 acres, and a farm of 505 acres; and is the property of Sir Robert Peel, who in the year 1827 purchased it from Lord George Cavendish.
Tamworth (St. Edith)
TAMWORTH (St. Edith), a borough, markettown, and parish, and the head of a union, partly in the N., and partly in the S., division of the hundred of Offlow, S. division of the county of Stafford; and partly in the Tamworth division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick; containing 7746 inhabitants, of whom 3789 are in the old borough, 24 miles (S. E. by E.) from Stafford, 28 (N. by W.) from Warwick, and 108 (N. W. by N.) from London. This town, which is considered the most ancient in the county of Stafford, derives its name from the river Tame, and from Waert or Worthidge, a water farm. It was the site of a Mercian fortification and royal residence, and was the seat of government under Offa, Cenwulf, Beornwulf, and others, at which period it had also a mint. Having been nearly destroyed by the Danes, it was rebuilt early in the 10th century, by Etbelfleda, daughter of Alfred the Great, who also erected a castle for its defence, which was for ages the seat of the lords of Tamworth, and was recently repaired as a private residence, though it is now uninhabited: the ancient fosse that surrounded the town, called the King's Dyke, is still visible.
The town is about equally divided between the counties of Stafford and Warwick, though commonly considered a Staffordshire place: it consists of good streets, and is situated near the confluence of the rivers Tame and Anker, which are crossed by bridges about a mile distant from the Coventry canal. The manufacture of paper and tape affords employment to several persons; and many others are engaged in raising fruit and vegetables: veins of coal are worked in the vicinity, and bricks and tiles of great durability are made from a clay which abounds in the district. Here is a station on the Birmingham and Derby railway: the highest embankment on the line, elevated 30 feet above the level of the surrounding country, is situated to the south of the town; and between Tamworth and Kingsbury the railway crosses the river Anker, by a beautiful viaduct of 18 arches of 30 feet span, and one oblique arch of 60 feet, the whole erected at a cost of £18,000. The first sod of the Trent-Valley railway was raised by Sir Robert Peel, Bart., M. P. for the borough, in November 1845, about half a mile from the town; the line was privately opened June 26th, 1847, when a grand banquet was given at Tamworth. In the town is a permanent library, under the direction of a committee; and a reading-room, with a collection of books, was established under the auspices of Sir Robert Peel, in 1841. The market is on Saturday; fairs are held by charter on May 4th, July 26th, and October 24th, for cattle and merchandise, and there are five new fairs for the sale of cattle only. Till the passing of the Municipal act, the town was governed under a charter granted by Charles II. upon the surrender of one which had been conferred by Elizabeth. The government is now vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors; the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, and the total number of magistrates is four, but the county justices have concurrent jurisdiction. The borough returns two members to parliament. The elective franchise was extended in 1832, to the £10 householders of the entire parish, which was made to constitute the new borough, comprising an area of 11,000 acres, of which 4649 are in Warwickshire; the old boundaries included only 83 acres: the mayor is returning officer. The corporation hold courts leet and baron; and petty-sessions for the borough take place every alternate Wednesday. The powers of the county debt-court of Tamworth, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Tamworth. The town-hall is a handsome building in the market place.
The parish comprises the townships of Syerscote and Fazeley, and the chapelry of Wigginton, in the county of Stafford; and the townships of Amington with StonyDelph, and Bolehall with Glascote, the liberty of the Castle, and the hamlet of Wilnecote with Dosthill, in the county of Warwick. The living is a vicarage; net income, £170; patron, Admiral A'Court Repington. The church, situated in the county of Stafford, is spacious and handsome, with a fine tower, in which are two remarkable spiral staircases communicating with separate floors, their entrances being within and without the church, respectively. Beneath the edifice is a crypt, 33 yards long, filled with human bones. The building combines the decorated and later English styles, and has two Norman arches; the roof is of very fine carved oak. The church was formerly collegiate, and occupies the site of an ancient monastery: the foundation of the college, which consisted of a dean and six prebendaries, is uncertain, but is attributed, with the greatest probability, to the Marmions, who were owners of the castle. Queen Elizabeth broke up the deanery, and sold the land. Some tessellated pavement, now placed in front of the communion-table, was discovered a few years since, when the church was undergoing repair. At Fazeley, Wigginton, and Wilnecote, are separate incumbencies. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans; and a Roman Catholic chapel.
The free grammar school was refounded in the reign of Edward VI., and a stipend of £10. 13. 2¼. was confirmed to the master from the revenues of the crown: in the reign of Elizabeth the town bailiffs were incorporated governors, and in 1677 the schoolroom was rebuilt. The revenue has been increased by various benefactors, and now amounts to £33. 11. Boys from the school are eligible to a scholarship at Catherine Hall, Cambridge, established by Mr. Frankland; and a native of the town to a fellowship in St. John's College, Cambridge, on the foundation of Mr. Bailey. A school was endowed with the interest of £6000 by the late Sir Robert Peel; and anew school-house, in the Elizabethan style, has been built by the present baronet: about 80 boys are clothed and educated. A free school for twelve boys and ten girls has an income of £20 per annum, partially arising from a bequest. In 1686, the Rev. John Rawlett bequeathed land and houses for teaching and apprenticing children; and there is an almshouse for fourteen men and women, endowed in 1678 by Thomas Guy, founder of Guy's Hospital, London, who represented the borough in seven parliaments, and in 1701 rebuilt the town-hall. The town is rich in charities of all kinds, an account of which has been published in a separate volume by the Commissioners of Charities. The poor-law union of Tamworth comprises 24 parishes or places, 11 of which are in Stafford, 10 in Warwick, and 3 in Derby; and contains a population of 12,897. Lord Thurlow was a representative of the borough until his elevation to the peerage, and continued recorder until his death. Tamworth confers the inferior title of Viscount on Earl Ferrers.
Tandridge (St. Peter)
TANDRIDGE (St. Peter), parish,in the union of Godstone, First division of the hundred of Tandridge, E. division of Surrey, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Godstone; containing 674 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Guildford, by Godstone, to Maidstone; and the South-Eastern railway passes through it, south of Tilbusta Hill. Towards the north and south, the soil is clayey; in the middle, sandy. There are some good residences. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £80; patron, C. H. Turner, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £97. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower surmounted by a spire of wood. A priory of Augustine canons, in honour of St. James, to which Odo de Damartin was a great benefactor, was founded in the time of Richard I., and at the Dissolution had possessions valued at £86. 7. 6. per annum. In the grounds of the priory are the lids of two stone coffins dug up here. In 1828 some silver and copper coins of Julius Cæsar and other Roman emperors were found.
TANFIELD, a chapelry, in the parish of Chesterle-Street, union of Lanchester, Middle division, of Chester ward, N. division of Durham, 7 miles (S. W.) from Gateshead; containing 3000 inhabitants. This chapelry, which includes the lordship of Beamish and the constablery of Lintz-Green, is bounded on the north by the river Derwent, and comprises 6863 acres, of which 700, chiefly arable land, are the property of the Marquess of Bute. The common, consisting of 1040 acres, was divided under an act of parliament, in 1800. The surface is irregularly broken into hills, and the soil generally poor and unproductive. The substratum is chiefly coal; and at Tanfield-Leigh, the marquess and his partners have a colliery of excellent steam-coal, which was opened in 1829, at a depth of 60 fathoms: it is extensively wrought, and the produce sent to Gateshead and South Shields, where it is shipped. The South Tanfield colliery is the property of Messrs. James Reid and Company, of Newcastle; the coal is good, and is shipped from the North dock at Sunderland. Tanfield arch, a stately structure of stone, was erected by certain of the coal-owners, at an expense of £12,000, to replace an arch of wood constructed for facilitating the transit of the coal wagons across a ravine; it is 130 feet in span, and rises from abutments 9 feet high to a height of 60 feet, forming a continuation of the level road. The village consists of houses irregularly built on the declivity of a hill sloping to the north, and near the river Houghwell, which discharges itself into the Tyne a little above Gateshead. The manufacture of paper is carried on in two mills. Tanfield constituted a prebend in the collegiate church of Chester-le-Street, the dean of which was bound to maintain a chaplain here; and at the Dissolution, some provision was made out of the small tithes for the support of a perpetual curate. The chapel, dedicated to St. Margaret, was rebuilt by subscription, in 1749, with the exception of part of the chancel, in which is an ancient piscina: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Lord Ravensworth; net income, £140, with a glebe of two acres. The tithes, which are held by his lordship and others, have been commuted for £466.
TANFIELD, EAST, a township, in the parish of Kirklington, wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York, 6½ miles (N. N. W.) from Ripon; containing 38 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1160 acres, and is chiefly the property of the Marquess of Ailesbury. The tithes have been commuted for £228.
Tanfield, West (St. Nicholas)
TANFIELD, WEST (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York, 6½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Ripon; containing 696 inhabitants. The village is pleasant, and well built. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 0. 5., and in the gift of the Marquess of Ailesbury: the tithes have been commuted for £415. 10.; there is a parsonagehouse, and the glebe comprises 63 acres. The church is an ancient structure, containing many curious monuments: attached to it was the chantry of Maud Marmion, founded in the time of Henry III., for a master, warden, and two brothers, to pray for the souls of Lord and Lady Marmion. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. On the bank of the river Ure, which is crossed by a bridge at this place, are the remains of a castle.
Tangley (St. John the Baptist)
TANGLEY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Andover, hundred of Pastrow, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 5½ miles (N. N. W.) from Andover; containing 281 inhabitants. A fair for sheep is held on April 15th. The living is annexed to the rectory of Faccombe: the tithes have been commuted for £329. 12., and the glebe comprises 1½ acre. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Tangmere (St. Andrew)
TANGMERE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of West Hampnett, hundred of Aldwick, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 3 miles (E. by N.) from Chichester; containing 225 inhabitants. It comprises 728a. 1r., of which about two thirds are arable, and the remainder meadow. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 5., and in the gift of the Duke of Richmond: the tithes have been commuted for £274; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 17 acres. The church is in the early English style, with a spire, and contains a Norman font: in the churchyard is a venerable yew-tree, 20 feet in girth at the height of a yard from the ground.
Tankersley (St. Peter)
TANKERSLEY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Wortley, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Wortley, 1802 inhabitants, of whom 812 are in Tankersley township, 5¼ miles (S.) from Barnsley. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Don, and comprises about 8500 acres, of which 2500 are in the township of Tankersley, and chiefly the property of Earl Fitzwilliam, who is lord of the manor. The soil is generally fertile, and in good cultivation. The surface is beautifully diversified with hill and dale, and the scenery abounds with pleasing features, of which the most interesting is the ruined Hall, consisting of a portion of one of the wings, situated in a spacious park well stocked with deer, and containing some of the most ancient and stately oak-timber in the county. On an eminence in the grounds, which are still preserved as an appendage to Wentworth, the principal seat of Earl Fitzwilliam, is a building in the Grecian style, commanding extensive prospects; and near it is the source of a rivulet which flows through the demesne. Ironstone and coal are abundant in the parish and vicinity, and a considerable number of the population are employed in mines. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 0. 2½.; patron, the Earl: the tithes have been commuted for £500, and the glebe consists of 90 acres. The church is a handsome structure, with a square embattled tower, and contains some work in the early English style. At Wortley is a separate incumbency. The poor have an estate producing £29 per annum.
Tannington (St. Ethelbert)
TANNINGTON (St. Ethelbert), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hoxne, E. division of Suffolk, 4¾ miles (N. W.) from Framlingham; containing 252 inhabitants. It comprises 1602 acres, of which 88 are common or waste. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Brundish annexed, valued in the king's books at £12. 10. 2½.; net income, £196; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Rochester. The vicarial tithes of Tannington have been commuted for £83. 10., and the appropriate for £320.; the bishop has a glebe of 4½ acres. The rent of the town lands, £60 per annum, is applied to the repair of the church, and to general purposes.
TANSHELF, a township, in the parish of Pontefract, Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, ¼of a mile (W. by S.) from Pontefract; containing 502 inhabitants. This township comprises 275 acres, and consists chiefly of neat, houses and villas, occupied by families connected with Pontefract, to which it forms a pleasing appendage.
TANSLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Crich, union of Bakewell, hundred of Wirksworth, S. division of the county of Derby, 1½ mile (E.) from Matlock; containing 549 inhabitants. A district church has been erected, the living of which is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Vicar, with a net income of £100. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Tansor (St. Mary)
TANSOR (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Oundle, hundred of Willybrook, N. division of the county of Northampton, 2¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Oundle; containing 303 inhabitants. This parish, which lies on the right bank of the river Nene, comprises 1414a. 1r. 27p.; the soil is generally light and gravelly, and the lands are chiefly arable, with a portion of meadow and pasture. The village is pleasantly situated, and the surrounding scenery is enlivened with the graceful windings of the Nene, which in some parts is beautifully picturesque. From the higher grounds is obtained an interesting view of Oundle, Cotterstock, and the adjacent country, with the spire of Nassington and the massive tower of Wood-Newton in the distance. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 12. 11.; net income, £283; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln: the tithes were commuted for land in 1777, and the glebe altogether comprises 233 acres. The church is an ancient structure, partly in the Norman and partly in the early and later English styles, with a low tower; it has twelve stalls of rich tabernacle work, removed from the collegiate church of Fotheringhay, and some fine specimens of screen-work. Among the several monuments are, a brass tablet with the effigies of John Colt, rector of the parish, of the date 1440; and a tablet of black marble to John Johnson, master of the free school of Fotheringhay, and rector of Tansor, who died in 1620. The principal charities are, the Town-land charity, consisting of 16 acres of land, the rent of which, payable half yearly, is distributed in coal and shoes by the rector and churchwardens; and three acres of land bequeathed by Mr. John Cave, the rent of which is distributed in food and clothing. Some lands in the parish of Cotterstock, producing a rental of £20, were bequeathed by Mr. Bellamy in 1819 for apprenticing poor boys of the parishes of Oundle, Tansor, Cotterstock, and Glapthorn.
TANTOBY, a hamlet, in the chapelry of Tanfield, parish of Chester-le-Street, union of Lanchester, Middle division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 9 miles (S. W.) from Gateshead. The village is situated in an extensive coal district, and on the southern acclivity of a hill whence a fine prospect is obtained of the surrounding country.
Tanworth (St. Mary Magdalene)
TANWORTH (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Solihull, Henley division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Henley-in-Arden; containing 1925 inhabitants. This parish, which is near the road and the canal from Birmingham to Stratford, comprises, with the liberty of Monks-Ridings, 9400 acres of land, divided among several freeholders, of whom Edward Bolton King, Esq., is lord of the manor. There are 4663 acres of arable, and 3890 of pasture; the remainder of the area is composed of wood and waste grounds. The soil on one side of the parish is chiefly clay, and the lands are under good cultivation. Umberslade Hall, here, the seat of Mr. King, and formerly the residence of the Lords Archer, is a handsome mansion built in 1720 with stone from the quarry in the parish. The village is pleasantly situated; the manufacture of wick-yarn was once carried on in it to a considerable extent. A fair for cattle and sheep is held on the 23rd of April, and one at the end of September for hiring servants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the patronage of Viscount Holmesdale, who, with Mr. King, is impropriator: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £500, and the impropriate for £1223. An excellent Vicarage-house has been built by the incumbent, the Rev. Dr. Saunders, master of the Charter-House school, London: the glebe comprises 40 acres. The church was originally a handsome structure in the decorated English style, but has been greatly impaired by injudicious alterations made within the last fifty years. A church has been erected at Salters-Street, which see; and two schools for boys, and two for girls, are supported out of bequests producing £150 per annum, the remainder of which is distributed to the poor. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Taplow (St. Nicholas)
TAPLOW (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Eton, hundred of Burnham, county of Buckingham, 1 mile (E. N. E.) from Maidenhead; containing 744 inhabitants. The parish is separated from the county of Berks by the river Thames, on which is a large papermill; and the Great Western railway passes within half a mile of the church. Cleifden, here, was the residence of the Prince and Princess of Wales, during the infancy of their son, afterwards George III. The mansion at one time belonged to a member of the Hamilton family, who fought under the Duke of Marlborough, and who, on his return from the continent, indulged the fancy of figuring the battle of Blenheim, by plantations of trees, now in full vigour. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 18. 9., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £329. The church is a neat structure of brick, lately erected at some distance from the site of the old edifice, which was taken down, with the exception of part of the chancel and part of the west end of the nave, now forming a picturesque and interesting ruin.