A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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SCATTERGATE, a township, in the parish of Appleby St. Lawrence, East ward, county of Westmorland; containing 156 inhabitants. It adjoins the town of Appleby on the south, and within the township are the remains of Appleby Castle. Dr. Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle, was a native of the place.
Scawby (St. Hibald)
SCAWBY (St. Hibald), a parish, in the union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2½ miles (W. S. W.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing, with Sturton township, 1050 inhabitants. This place is of considerable antiquity, and has from a remote period belonged to the family of Nelthorpe. The parish comprises about 4000 acres, of which small portions are moorland and plantations; the soil is fertile, easily convertible, and the surface generally level. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £170; patron and impropriator, Sir John Nelthorpe, Bart.: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1770. The church contains a moument to John Nelthorpe, the first baronet, who died in 1669. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Calvinists, and Primitive Methodists; also a free school, founded in 1705 by Sir Henry Nelthorpe, who endowed it with land now producing £30 per annum. At Weston, a hamlet in the parish, are evident remains of a Roman station; and in the garden of Henry Grantham, Esq., are two tessellated pavements, one about 16 feet square, and the other 12 feet long and 8 wide, communicating by a narrow passage: the latter seems to have been used as a dressing-room, and at the south end is a semicircular bath. Several coins of Constantine have been found; and at a farmhouse about 300 yards distant, are vestiges of a fortified camp, where a religious house appears to have been erected. There is a mineral spring.
SCAWSBY, a hamlet, in the parish of Brodsworth, union of Doncaster, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Doncaster; containing 31 inhabitants. This was a place of some little importance in the Saxon times; and after the Conquest formed part of the honour of Tickhill, and was held under the lords of that district by a family who took their name from the spot. At a subsequent period here was a chapel, it being recorded in 1303 that the archbishop granted a licence to Walter de Harum for the celebration of divine service in his chapel or oratory at Scawsby. The hamlet is on the road from Doncaster to Marr, and comprises by computation 620 acres. The insurgents in the "Pilgrimage of Grace" encamped on Scawsby Lees.
Scawton (St. Mary)
SCAWTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Helmsley, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 4 miles (W.) from Helmsley; containing 139 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2768 acres, of which 985 are common or waste. It is situated upon Hambleton, in the midst of open moorland scenery; about two-thirds of its area are under tillage, and the remainder in pasture. Stone of good quality is quarried for building, and for burning into lime. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £2. 19. 2., and in the gift of Sir William Worsley, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £148, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. The church is in the early English style.
SCHOLES, a hamlet, in the parish of Barwick-inElmett, Lower division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 9 miles (E. N. E.) from Leeds. The population is principally employed in the making of cards for machinery. The substratum abounds with coal, but no mines are in operation. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a parochial school is supported by subscription.
SCILLY ISLANDS. These islands, which are 17 in number, besides 22 smaller islets and numerous naked rocks, form a cluster lying off the south-west coast, and annexed to the Western division of the county of Cornwall, about 17 leagues due west from the Lizard Point, and 10 nearly west-by-south from the Land's End. By the Greeks they were called Hesperides and Cassiterides; by the Romans, Sellinæ and Siluræ Insulæ. Their present name, anciently written Sully or Sulley, appears to be British, and they are said to take it from a small island, containing only one acre, which is called Scilly. Except what relates to their trading intercourse with the Phœnicians and the Romans, and the circumstance of their having been occasionally appropriated by the latter as a place of banishment for state criminals, the first mention we find of them in history is in the tenth century, when they were subdued by King Athelstan. From this period there is no record of any remarkable historical event, until the reign of Charles I., when the islands became of considerable importance as a military post, and formed one of the last rallying points for the royalists. In 1645, they afforded a temporary asylum to Prince Charles and his friends, Lords Hopton and Capel; and in 1649, Sir John Grenville being governor of the Scilly Islands, fortified and held them for Charles II. The parliament finding their trading vessels much annoyed by Sir John's frigates, fitted out an expedition for the reduction of the islands, under the command of Admiral Blake and Sir George Ascue; and they were delivered up to the parliament in the beginning of June of the same year.
The total surface of the islands is about 4700 acres, and the number of inhabitants 2582. The extent of St. Mary's Island, the largest, including the garrison, which is joined to it by an isthmus, is 1640 acres, and the population amounts to 1545. Its principal village, called Hugh or Heugh Town, was much damaged by inundation during the great storm in 1744; the pier was finished in 1750, at the expense of Lord Godolphin, and vessels of 150 tons' burthen may ride here in safety. Near this place are the ruins of an old fortress, with a mount and the remains of several block-houses and batteries, supposed to have been constructed in the civil war. Two furlongs eastward is a bay called Pomellin or Porthmellin, where a fine white sand, composed of crystals and talc, much esteemed as a writing sand and for other purposes, is procured in abundance. About a mile from Hugh-town is Church-town, consisting of a few houses and the church. In the chancel of the church are interred Sir John Narborough, Bart., son of the celebrated Admiral Narborough; Henry Trelawney, son of a bishop of Winchester; and Captain Edmund Loades, of the Association man-of-war; all of whom shared the fate of Rear-Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovel, who was lost on the Gilston rock, October 22nd, 1707. A quarter of a mile further, bordering on the sea, is Old-town, formerly the most important place of the island. On a promontory called the Giant's Castle, are traces of a fortress, thought to be of remote origin. On the west side of the island are St. Mary's garrison, with the barracks and several batteries, and Star Castle, the latter built by Sir Francis Godolphin, in 1593.
The island next in magnitude is Trescoe, anciently called Iniscaw, and St. Nicholas, which contains 430 inhabitants, and comprises 880 acres. In it are some remains of the conventual church of St. Nicholas, the ruins of Old-castle, and Oliver's Battery. Old-castle, which appears to have been built in or about the reign of Henry VIII., is spoken of by Leland as "a little pile, or fortress;" but seems to have been afterwards enlarged, as its ruins show it to have been a considerable building. Oliver's Castle, as it is called, from its having been built by the parliamentarians, was repaired in 1740; but is described by Borlase, in 1756, as being then already much decayed. St. Martins Island, though next in size to St. Mary's and Trescoe, containing 214 inhabitants, and comprising 720 acres, was uninhabited until the reign of Charles II.: in 1683 Mr. Ekins built a tower on it as a landmark, 20 feet high, surmounted with a spire of the same height. On St. Agnes' Island, which has 243 inhabitants, is a lighthouse. Bryer, or Brehar, contains 121 persons, and consists of 330 acres; Sampson has a population of 29.
The principal employment and trade of the islanders consist in fishing and in making kelp: the quantity of kelp anually made varies from 100 to 200 tons. The number of vessels of above 50 tons' burthen, registered at the port, is 37, and the aggregate tonnage 3751; about 100 boats are used for fishing, piloting, &c. Tin is found in several of the islands, and in some lead and copper; but no mines are now worked. Barley, peas, and oats, with a small portion of wheat, are produced: a few acres are sown with the pillas, or naked oat; and potatoes are cultivated in great quantities in St. Mary's. Cattle are fed on most of the isles, and though not very numerous, are sometimes sold to masters of vessels. Samphire, for pickling, is collected in abundance in the isle of Trescoe. The tamarisk and lavatera arborea grow plentifully in that of St. Mary.
The property and temporal jurisdiction of the islands were anciently attached to the earldom, as they now are to the duchy, of Cornwall, excepting those of St. Nicholas (now Trescoe), St. Sampson, St. Elid, St. Teon, and Nullo, and some lands in other islands, which were given, in or before the reign of Edward the Confessor, to certain monks or hermits in St. Nicholas, and were subsequently granted by Henry I. to the abbot of Tavistock. The present lessee of the whole is the Duke of Leeds, representative of the Godolphin family, to whom they appear to have been first leased in the 13th of Elizabeth. The lord proprietor appoints a court, or council of twelve, consisting of some of the principal inhabitants, which generally sits monthly, for the trial of plaints, suits, &c, between the islanders, excepting such causes as affect life and limb, and such as are cognizable by the court of admiralty. The islands are under the spiritual jurisdiction of the Bishop of Exeter, and form part of the archdeaconry of Cornwall. In early times the abbot of Tavistock held the tithes of the whole, and certain lands, by the title of finding two monks to reside here, and to provide for the spiritual wants of the inhabitants; but since the Reformation the tithes have been vested in the lord proprietor, who is patron of the donative, and pays the minister an optional salary. Until of late years the minister of St. Mary's was the only clergyman, officiating constantly at St. Mary's, at Trescoe on the Sunday after Easter, and at St. Martin's on Trinity-Sunday. There are chapels at Trescoe, St. Martin's, St. Agnes', Bryer, and St. Sampson's, for the most part built by the Godolphin family. The Wesleyans have four places of worship. On St. Helen's Island, now uninhabited, are the ruins of houses, and of an ancient chapel.
SCISSETT, an ecclesiastical district, in the parishes of High Hoyland and Emley, wapentake of Staincross and Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 9 miles (S. E. by E.) from Huddersfield; containing 2000 inhabitants. This district comprises about 2000 acres of land, in a fertile valley; and abounds with coal and freestone, which are sold at a low price. The inhabitants are mostly employed in the woollen and worsted manufactures, chiefly of fancy goods. The river Dearne flows through the district, in a direction parallel with the Wakefield and Manchester road, usually called the Denby-Dale road. The church, dedicated to St. Augustine, was erected in 1839, at an expense of £2000, raised by subscription, to which Wentworth Beaumont, Esq., largely contributed; the site was given by the late Joseph Kaye, Esq. The structure is in the early English style, with a square embattled tower. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Mr. Beaumont, who endowed it with £1300 three per cents., and built a parsonage-house. A national school is supported by subscription.
Scole, or Osmondiston (St. Andrew)
SCOLE, or Osmondiston (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Depwade, hundred of Diss, E. division of Norfolk, 19½ miles (S. S. W.) from Norwich; containing 685 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the river Waveney, and comprises about 800 acres. The village is a great thoroughfare, on the road from Ipswich to Norwich and Yarmouth; and contains a very good inn, built in the seventeenth century. There is a fair on Easter-Monday for cattle. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9, and in the gift of Sir E. Kerrison, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £250, and the glebe contains 25 acres. The church is in the early and decorated English styles, with a square embattled tower.
Scopwick (Holy Cross)
SCOPWICK (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, Second division of the wapentake of Langoe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 8¼ miles (N.) from Sleaford; containing 388 inhabitants. It lies on the road from Lincoln to Sleaford. The soil is principally sandy, with a substratum of limestone, which is quarried for buildings of every kind. The village is situated in a pleasing valley watered by a clear rivulet, and to the west of it is an extensive and elevated heath, sheltered by some oak woods. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £185; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Lincoln: the glebe comprises 16 acres. The church, with the exception of the tower, is of comparatively modern date. There are several tumuli, which are fast disappearing under the progress of cultivation.
Scorbrough (St. Leonard)
SCORBROUGH (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Beverley, Hunsley-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 4½ miles (N. N. W.) from Beverley; containing 81 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1310 acres, of a level surface, and very rich alluvial soil, principally in pasture for fattening stock, with a portion of wood, and much ornamental fence. Scorbrough Hall is a modern mansion in the cottage style, round which are the remains of a moat that inclosed the ancient residence of the Hothams. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7, and in the gift of the Wyndham family; the tithes have been commuted for £306. 6. The church is an ancient edifice, with oak stalls.
Scoreby.—See Stamford-Bridge, West.
SCORTON, a hamlet, in the township of Nether Wyersdale, parish and union of Garstang, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 2 miles (N. by E.) from Garstang; containing about 500 inhabitants. This is a neat village, picturesquely situated at the base of the Wyersdale mountains, in a luxuriant valley. The population is employed in agriculture, and in a cotton-mill propelled by the river Wyre. The great north road, and the Preston canal, are within a mile; and the Lancaster railway, on which is a convenient station, passes close by. A savings' bank was established in 1846. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. The Roman Catholic chapel here, dedicated to St. James, is of ancient date; it was rebuilt in 1806, and restored in 1839 by the Rev. Robert Turpin, the resident priest: the interior is chaste, and has a neat altar, with figures and a painting over it. The priest's house and an acre of land are held at a nominal rent under the Duke of Hamilton.
SCORTON, a township, in the parish of Catterick, union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York, 2½ miles (N. N. E.) from Catterick; containing 477 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 2610 acres of land, chiefly the property of the Earl of Tyrconnel. The Richmond branch of the York and Newcastle railway has a station here. The village is round a spacious green, and the buildings on the east side are occupied by a community of thirty nuns, of the order of St. Clair, who arrived in this country from Normandy, in 1795; there is a neat chapel belonging to the establishment. On the north side is a free grammar school, erected in 1760, and endowed with £200 a year, the bequest of Leonard Robinson, Esq. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £242. 15., and the vicarial for £114. Within the township is St. Cuthbert's well, the water of which is efficacious in cutaneous and rheumatic disorders.
SCOSTHORPE, a township, in the parish of Kirkby-in-Malham-Dale, union of Settle, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 6 miles (S. E. by E.) from Settle; containing 48 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1350 acres, held by various proprietors, of whom the Earl of Thanet is lord of the manor; the soil is rich, and altogether in grass.
SCOTBY, a township, in the parish of Wetheral, Cumberland ward, E. division of Cumberland, 3½ miles (E. by S.) from Carlisle; containing 383 inhabitants. The railroad from Carlisle to Newcastle has a station in the village. Here is a meeting-house, with a burial-ground, for the Society of Friends; and a school is endowed with land producing £16 a year.
SCOTFORTH, a township, in the parish and union of Lancaster, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 1½ mile (S.) from Lancaster; containing 643 inhabitants. This place has passed through the families of Lancaster, Gynes or Courcy, Coupeland, Lawrence, and Gerard, to the Duke of Hamilton: a fourth part of the manor was held by John, Duke of Bedford, in the reign of Henry VI. A number of the Scottish rebels in 1745 were quartered in the village, but they did not molest the inhabitants. The township comprises 2720 acres, and is intersected by the Lancaster canal, and the road from Lancaster to Garstang. An act for inclosing lands here was passed in 1806. Burrow or Burrough is a small hamlet in the township, the name of which indicates antiquity.
Scothern (St. German)
SCOTHERN (St. German), a parish, in the wapentake of Lawress, parts of Lindsey, union and county of Lincoln, 5¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Lincoln; containing 611 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 5. 2½.; net income, £102; patron, the Earl of Scarborough, who, with the rector of Sudbrook, is impropriator.
SCOTSWOOD, a manufacturing village, in the townships of East Denton and Benwell, chapelry of Benwell, union of Newcastle, W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 3½ miles (W.) from Newcastle. This place, which derives its name from the encampment of a Scottish army in its vicinity at the period of the rebellion, is pleasantly situated on the north bank of the Tyne, and on the road from Newcastle to Ryton and Hexham. The adjacent lands are mostly held by small occupants, and produce tolerably good crops of corn and hay; the scenery is beautiful, especially in Scotswood dene, which runs from Denton burn to the Tyne, studded all along with hanging woods, and affording charming walks. On one side is a rich bed of very superior fire-clay, leased to Messrs. Robert Lister and Sons, who have formed a tramroad for conveying the clay to their works, where it is formed into fire-bricks for blast and other furnaces, and into crucibles, gas-retorts, copings, gas-mains, pipes for heating churches, vases, pedestals, &c. The Scotswood firebrick works were established in 1827, and employ about 50 hands in making bricks used in blast furnaces for smelting. Mr. Nathaniel Grace, in 1805, erected an extensive mill for brown and other papers; there are also some lamp-black works, a second large paper-mill, and a coal-tar manufactory. The place is convenient for the shipment of its various produce. The river is here crossed by a magnificent suspension-bridge, and an excellent inn overlooking the Tyne is a favourite resort for fishing parties. About ten years since, a chapel of ease was erected at Bell's Close, where divine service is performed every Sunday afternoon. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Traces of ancient military works are still visible; cannon-balls, swords, &c, have been found, and immediately above the village are the remains of an encampment in the form of a crescent, where it is supposed the Scottish army took up its bold position.
Scotter (St. Peter)
SCOTTER (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Corringham, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 9¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Gainsborough; containing 1172 inhabitants. It comprises 5000 acres. The soil varies from a light sand to gravel, loam, and clay; the surface is generally flat, with some alternation of hilly ground. The river Eau runs through the parish, and falls into the Trent, which forms its north-west boundary. A charter for a market on Thursday and a fair on July 10th, was granted by Richard I.; the former has been discontinued, but a fair for horses and cattle is still held on July 6th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22.4.2.; net income, £814; patron, the Bishop of Peterborough. The tithes were commuted for land under an act of inclosure in 1808; when, also, 57 acres were allotted for the repairs of the church. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Scotton (St. Genewys)
SCOTTON (St. Genewys), a parish, in the union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Corringham, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8¾ miles (N. E.) from Gainsborough; containing, with part of the hamlet of East Ferry, 490 inhabitants, of whom 363 are in Scotton township. The parish is bounded on the west by the Trent, and comprises 4358 acres, of which 2030 are uninclosed common, chiefly moor and peat; the soil of the cultivated lands is a rich loam. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23, and in the gift of Sir Richard Frederick, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £650, and the glebe comprises 71 acres. At East Ferry is a chapel of ease. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
SCOTTON, a township, partly in the parish of Catterick, and partly in that of Brompton-Patrick, union of Richmond, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 3 miles (W.) from Catterick; comprising 1166 acres, and containing 139 inhabitants.
SCOTTON, a township, in the parish of Farnham, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 2¼ miles (N. W.) from Knaresborough; containing 298 inhabitants. This place is situated in a vale of the same name, watered by the small river Nidd, and was formerly the residence of the Percy and Pulleyn families, whose ancient mansions have been converted into farmhouses. The township comprises by computation 1083 acres of rich land, about half of which is arable, and half pasture. There are some quarries of good building-stone, and some bleach-works. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1828. In the township are a place of worship for Wesleyans, and a burial-ground belonging to the Society of Friends.
Scottow (All Saints)
SCOTTOW (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of South Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 10 miles (N. by E.) from Norwich; containing 539 inhabitants. The parish is on the road from Norwich to North Walsham; and comprises 2120a. 3r., of which 1785 acres are arable, 201 pasture and meadow, and 115 woodland and plantations. Scottow Hall, the seat of Sir T. H. E. Durrant, Bart., is beautifully situated. A fair is held on Easter-Tuesday. The living is a vicarage, annexed to the rectory of Belaugh, and valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 6½.; appropriator, the Bishop of Norwich. The appropriate tithes have been commuted for £492.10., and the vicarial for £228: the appropriate glebe contains 27 acres, and the vicarial 19. The church is in the decorated English style, with a lofty square embattled tower, and has some monuments to the Durrant family; it was repewed and beautified in 1833, at the expense of Sir T. H. E. Durrant. The poor have 21 acres of land, allotted on the inclosure of the parish in 1829.
Scott-Willoughby in the county of Lincoln.—See Willoughby, Scott.
Scoulton (All Saints)
SCOULTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wayland, W. division of Norfolk, 3¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Hingham; containing 360 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Norwich to Watton; and comprises 2193a. 36p., of which 1488 acres are arable, 494 meadow and pasture, 29 water, and 153 woodland and plantations. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 4. 2., and in the gift of John Weyland, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £450, and the glebe comprises 53 acres. The church has a low tower, of which the upper story is octangular.