A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BORDESLEY, a hamlet and chapelry, in the parish and union of Aston, Birmingham division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, adjoining the town of Birmingham, and containing 10,754 inhabitants. In the civil war of the seventeenth century, this was the scene of a skirmish between the army of Prince Rupert, who, in 1643, was sent to open a communication between Oxford and York, and a party of the parliamentarians, who, assisted by the inhabitants of Birmingham, had intrenched themselves at a place since called Camp Hill, in order to intercept his progress. During the Birmingham riots in 1791, Bordesley Hall was burnt by the mob. The hamlet was originally inconsiderable, consisting only of a few scattered dwelling-houses, one of which, now remaining at Camp Hill, is of timber frame-work and plaster, with projecting upper stories; but, from its proximity to Birmingham, Bordesley has become an integral part of that town, and partakes largely in its trade, manufactures, and public institutions. It is pleasantly situated on the turnpike-roads to Coventry and Warwick, and contains some handsome continuous ranges of houses, and numerous detached mansions, inhabited by families of opulence connected with Birmingham. On the road leading to Coventry is an extensive establishment for staining, colouring, and marbling paper, in which the process, though facilitated by machinery worked by steam, affords employment to a considerable number of persons. The Birmingham canal, on the banks of which are various works, traverses the hamlet; and the Gloucester railway passes through it in its progress to join the London and Birmingham line.
A church dedicated to the Holy Trinity was built in 1822, at an expense of £14,235, raised by subscription of the inhabitants, aided by a grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is in the later English style, combining a rich variety of architectural details. The living is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Vicar of Aston. In 1846, a district, or ecclesiastical parish, was formed of part of the hamlet, under the act 6 and 7 Victoria, cap. 37, by the name of St. Andrew's, Bordesley; and a church was consecrated the same year. The edifice is in the decorated style, and is neat and substantial, consisting of a nave, chancel, and aisle, with an engaged tower surmounted by a spire; the cost was about £4000, and was defrayed by a Church Building Society. The patronage of the benefice is in the Bishop of Worcester and five Trustees, alternately; the income, £150, is a grant by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In the hamlet are twelve almshouses for aged persons, built by Mr. Dowell, whose widow appoints the inmates: one of the houses is appropriated as a chapel.
BORDESLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Tardebigg, union of Bromsgrove, Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Droitwich and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 5½ miles (E. S. E.) from Bromsgrove. A Cistercian abbey, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was built in 1138, by the Empress Matilda; and its revenue, a short time previously to the Dissolution, was estimated at £392. 8. 6.: the chapel, dedicated to St. Stephen, subsisted for some time afterwards. Bordesley Hall, surrounded by an extensive and well wooded park, is in this vicinity, but in the parish of Alvechurch, and about a mile and a half south-east of Alvechurch village: the mansion stands on rising ground, and is handsomely built.
Boreham (St. Andrew)
BOREHAM (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford, S. division of Essex, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Chelmsford; containing 1034 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the Saxon Bore, "a market," and Ham, "a village;" and is supposed to have been anciently a place of considerable importance. The land is generally elevated; the soil is fertile though varying in quality, and the general appearance is greatly enriched with wood, which seems to have been formerly more abundant than at present. New Hall, in the parish, is part of a much larger mansion greatly adorned by Henry VIII., who having obtained the manor in exchange for other property, raised it into an honour: his daughter, the Princess Mary, also resided here for several years. It is now occupied by a society of English nuns, who were driven from Liege by the fury of the French republicans, and who now superintend the education of about eighty young ladies. The village is pleasantly situated on the road to Colchester; and the Chelmer navigation bounds the parish on the south. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 3. 9., and in the patronage of the Bishop of London: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £680, and the vicarial for £440; there are 21 acres of glebe belonging to the impropriator, and 18 to the vicar. The church is a handsome edifice, consisting of a nave, with north and south aisles, and a chancel, between which and the nave rises a lofty square embattled tower; the south aisle was added by Sir Thomas Radcliffe, and contains an elegant monument with statues of Robert, first Earl of Sussex, his son, and grandson.
Boresford, with Pedwardine
BORESFORD, with Pedwardine, a township, in the parish of Brampton-Bryan, union of Knighton, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 3 miles (S. E.) from Knighton; containing 102 inhabitants. The hamlet of Boresford is situated in the northern part of the county, near the borders of Radnorshire; and both hamlets lie a short distance south of the village of Brampton-Bryan, and of Brampton-Bryan Park. The earls of Kinnoul enjoy a seat in the house of lords, as barons Hay, of Pedwardine: here was formerly a castle belonging to the family.
BORLEY, a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 2¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Sudbury; containing 188 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises 776a. 3r. 9p., and is bounded on the east by the river Stour, derives its name from the Saxon words signifying "Boar's Pasture." The manor, at the time of the Norman survey, belonged to Adeliza, Countess of Albemarle, half sister to William I.; and descended to many illustrious families closely allied to the crown: it afterwards passed to the Waldegrave family, whose descendants are the present proprietors. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9, and in the gift of Earl Waldegrave: the tithes have been commuted for £276. 10., and there are 10½ acres of glebe. The church, which stands on an eminence commanding an extensive prospect, is a small ancient edifice, containing an elegant monument to the Waldegraves.
BORLEY, a village, in the parish of Ombersley, union of Droitwich, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 8 miles (N. by W.) from Worcester. It lies on the east side of the Severn, and about a mile and a half north-west from the village of Ombersley.
BOROUGHBRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parishes of Ling, Othery, and Weston-Zoyland, partly in the hundred of Andersfield, and partly in that of Whitley, union of Bridgwater, W. division of Somerset; containing 93 inhabitants. Collinson, the county historian, states the name to be derived from "a large borough or mount, very high and steep," and a stone bridge of three lofty arches, which here crosses the navigable river Parret: this mount is situated within an inclosure, on the eastern side of the river, and has generally been considered as formed by nature; but the same author supposes it to be a work of art, raised for a tumulus. It is crowned with the ruins of an ancient cruciform chapel, which was dedicated to St. Michael, and dependent on the abbey of Athelney. Though previously in a dilapidated state, it was greatly damaged during the parliamentary war, when it was occupied as a military post by a small party of royalists, who, after having successfully resisted various assaults, were compelled to surrender to a body of parliamentarians, detached against them by General Fairfax.
BOROUGHBRIDGE, a market-town and chapelry, in the parish of Aldborough, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 17½ miles (N. W. by W.) from York, and 206 (N. N. W.) from London; containing 1024 inhabitants. This place, which has risen into importance since the decline of Aldborough, within half a mile of which it is situated, derives its name from a bridge erected here over the river Ure, soon after the Conquest, when the road was diverted from Aldborough, and brought through this town. In 1318, it was burnt by Earl Douglas, at the head of a band of Scots, who ravaged the northern parts of England. In 1322, a battle was fought near the bridge, between the forces of Edward II. and those of the celebrated Earl of Lancaster; the latter were defeated, and the earl, having taken refuge in the town, which was assaulted on the following day, was made prisoner and conveyed to Pontefract, where he was soon afterwards beheaded. Of this battle, a memorial was exhibited in the number of human bones, swords, fragments of armour, and other military relics, which, in raising the bank of the Ure in 1792, were found near the spot.
The town has been greatly improved, and is pleasantly situated on the southern bank of the river, over which is a handsome stone bridge on the site of a former one of wood: the streets are partially paved, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water from springs and from the river. A court-house was built in 1836. The trade of the town is principally derived from its situation on the high road to Edinburgh. In 1846 an act was passed, enabling the York and Newcastle Railway Company to make a branch to Boroughbridge, 5¾ miles long. The market is on Saturday; and large fairs are held on April 27th, June 22nd, Aug. 16th, Oct. 23rd, and Dec. 13th, each for two days: the fair in June, which continues for a week, is chiefly celebrated for horses and hardware, and the others are for cattle and sheep. In the market-place, which is in the centre of the town, is a handsome fluted column of the Doric order, twelve feet high. The constables and other officers are chosen annually at the court leet of the lord of the manor. The elective franchise was conferred in the reign of Mary, from which time the borough returned two members to parliament, until disfranchised by the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., cap. 45.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £83; patron, the Vicar of Aldborough. Besides the chapel, there are places of worship for Particular Baptists and Wesleyans. To the west of the town are three large pyramidal stones, ranged in a straight line, in a direction from north to south; the central one, which is the largest, is 30½ feet in height: they are vulgarly called the Devil's Arrows, and were originally four in number. The purpose of their erection is involved in obscurity: some suppose them to have been raised in memory of a reconciliation effected between Caracalla and Geta, sons of the Emperor Severus who died at York. Camden considers them to have been Roman trophies; but though they may probably have been used by that people as metæ in the celebration of their chariot races, their origin appears to be more remote. Stukeley refers them to the earliest times of the Britons, and is of opinion that here was the great Panegyre of the Druids, where the inhabitants of the neighbouring district assembled to offer the sacrifices. From its proximity to Aldborough, a celebrated Roman station, the town has become the depository of numerous relics, consisting of tessellated pavements and coins, several of which have been found here; and in the immediate vicinity, the remains of a Roman wall are still discernible.
BORROWASH, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Ockbrook, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, and partly in the parish of Spondon, hundred of Appletree, union of Shardlow, S. division of the county of Derby, 4½ miles (E. by S.) from Derby; containing about 650 inhabitants. This hamlet lies on the high road from Derby to Nottingham; and is watered by the river Derwent, on which are the mills of Messrs. Towle, where the manufacture of lace-thread is carried on, giving employment to about 250 hands. The Derby canal runs near the place; and it has a station on the Midland railway. The Wesleyans have a place of worship; there are also a day, and an infants', school.
BORROWBY, a township, in the parish of Leake, union of Northallerton, wapentake of Allertonshire, N. riding of York, 5 miles (N.) from Thirsk; containing 401 inhabitants. It is situated on the road between Thirsk and Stokesley, and comprises by computation 1280 acres, including Gueldable, in which are 500 acres. The Bishop of Ripon is lord of the manor of Borrowby. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
BORROWBY, a township, in the parish of Lythe, union of Thirsk, E. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 11¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Whitby; containing 81 inhabitants. This place was formerly styled Bergebi, as it appears written in Domesday survey; and was the property of the Mauleys, of Mulgrave, with which barony the estate has descended to the present lord: at the time of the Conqueror's survey it had been laid waste. The township comprises about 650 acres, in the western part of the parish. The village is on the acclivities of a narrow dale, and north of the road between Whitby and Guisborough.
BORROWDALE, a chapelry, in the parish of Crosthwaite, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 6 miles (S. by W.) from Keswick; containing 369 inhabitants. The romantic scenery of this district has elicited deserved eulogy from numerous tourists. The Bowder stone, situated in the vale, is esteemed the largest detached piece of rock, entitled to the denomination of a single stone, in England; it is 62 feet in length, and 84 in circumference, and contains about 23,090 feet of solid stone, weighing upwards of 1771 tons: the upper part projects considerably over the small base on which it rests, and it is not unusual for parties of pleasure to regale under it. The celebrated black-lead, or wad, mine of Borrowdale, is about nine miles from Keswick, near the head of the valley, in the steep side of a mountain facing the south-east. The lead is found in lumps or nodules, varying in weight from 1oz. to 50lb., imbedded in the matrix; and the finer sort is packed in barrels, sent to London, and deposited in the warehouse belonging to the proprietors of the mine, where it is exposed for sale to the pencil-makers on the first Monday in every month: that of an inferior description is chiefly used in the composition of crucibles, in giving a black polish to articles of cast-iron, and in various anti-attrition compositions. Black-lead is found in various parts of the world, but in none to so great an extent, and of the same degree of purity, as here: an inferior kind has been discovered in the shires of Ayr and Inverness, in Scotland, but it is unfit for pencils. Here are also several quarries of blue slate: a copper-mine was formerly worked; and lead-ore exists to a limited extent in the mountain. A soft paleish substance, commonly called Borrowdale soap, is found, which, having undergone a chymical process, similar to that by which the black-lead is hardened, is used for slate pencils. A fair for sheep is held on the first Wednesday in September. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £80; patron, the Vicar of Crosthwaite. The chapel was rebuilt a few years since. On the summit of Castle Crag, a conical hill covered with wood, are vestiges of a military work. Near a lake at the lower extremity of the dale is a salt-spring, the water of which is of a quality somewhat similar to that of Cheltenham.
BORROWDON, a township, in the parish of Allenton, union of Rothbury, W. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland; containing 165 inhabitants. It is situated about a mile south-west from Netherton, from which it is separated by a small stream; and belongs to various proprietors. About a mile and a half to the south-west stands Charity Hall, which was left to the poor of Rothbury parish, and from that circumstance derives its name. Several British axe-heads of flint have been found.
Borwick, or Berewic
BORWICK, or Berewic, a township, and formerly a chapelry, in the parish of Walton, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 2½ miles (S.) from Burton-in-Kendal; containing 214 inhabitants. The Whyttyngtons and Brearleys were early possessed of Berewic, the name of which denotes a subordinate manor; it afterwards passed, by marriage, to the Standishes and Townleys, and more recently to the family of Strickland, a branch of which took the name of Standish. One of the bedrooms of the Hall was the ancient domestic chapel; and adjoining was the priests' closet, beneath which still remains a secret place, into which the persecuted ecclesiastics, on pressing part of the floor, suddenly descended, eluding for the time all search. When Charles II. was here in August, 1651, "he was little aware," says Dr. Whittaker, "in how few days he was to be indebted for his crown and life to a similar contrivance:" the king lodged for one night at the Hall, on his way to Worcester, and his army encamped a short distance from it.
The township is separated from Capernwray and Carnforth by the river Keer, and comprises 836 acres, whereof two-thirds are arable, and the remainder pasture, with about ten acres of woodland. The surface is undulated; the soil good, a little light and gravelly upon a limestone substratum in parts, and in other parts grit: the scenery is picturesque, with a view of Warton Cragg and Morecambe bay. There is good limestone; it carries a fine polish, and also produces excellent lime for manure. The Lancaster and Kendal canal runs through the township. The Hall is now the property of Walter Strickland, Esq.; Linden Hall is the seat of William Sharp, Esq., and is picturesquely situated. The great tithes have been commuted for £111. The chapel of the township has fallen into neglect.
Bosbury (Holy Trinity)
BOSBURY (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Ledbury, hundred of Radlow, county of Hereford, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Ledbury; containing 1137 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the Ledbury and Worcester road, and comprises by computation 4500 acres, of which the soil is a stiff red clay saturated with moisture, and the surface varied hill and dale. The Gloucester and Ledbury canal wharf is a mile distant. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with onefourth of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £10. 3. 8.; patron, the Bishop of Hereford: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £420, and the vicarial for £399. 18. The church, which is in various styles, is an ancient edifice, containing some interesting monuments. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a grammar school, endowed by Sir Rowland Morton, has an income of about £135. The bishops of Hereford had a palace here, the remains of which have been converted into farm-offices.
BOSCASTLE, a small sea-port, and formerly a market-town, in the parishes of Forrabury and Minster, hundred of Lesnewth, E. division of Cornwall, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Camelford, and 230 (W. by S.) from London; containing 807 inhabitants. This place takes its name from a castle erected by some of the family of Bottereaux, who settled here in the reign of Henry II.; only the site remains. The town is romantically situated on the northern coast of the county, and contains several respectable houses. A pilchard-fishery, established a few years since, but soon afterwards relinquished, contributed greatly to the improvement of the quay, which is accessible to ships of 300 tons' burthen. The port is a member of the port of Padstow; and a considerable trade is carried on in corn, Delabole slate, and manganese, of which last there is a mine in the neighbourhood. The fairs are on August 5th, for lambs, and November 22nd, for ewes and cattle. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and some remains of an ancient chapel dedicated to St. John, are visible.
BOSCOBEL, an extra-parochial district, in the union of Shiffnall, hundred of Brimstree, S. division of Salop, 7½ miles (E.) from Shiffnall; containing 18 inhabitants. It comprises 549 acres of land. Boscobel House is celebrated in history as the place where Charles II. concealed himself, in Sept. 1651, after the disastrous battle of Worcester, secure in the incorruptible integrity of five brothers, in humble life, named Penderell. The house has been considerably modernised; but the place of concealment, called the Sacred Hole, is carefully preserved, and in front of the house is a Latin inscription, traced with white pebbles in the pavement, recording the circumstance. The Royal Oak, thought to have sprung from an acorn of the tree to which the unfortunate monarch retired for greater security when his pursuers were searching the house and out-buildings, stands near the middle of a large field, adjoining the garden; it is surrounded by an iron-railing, and has an inscribed brass plate affixed to it.
Boscomb (St. Andrew)
BOSCOMB (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Amesbury, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 3¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Amesbury, and on the road between Salisbury and Marlborough; containing 156 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 17. 1.; net income, £330; patron, the Bishop of Salisbury. Four almshouses were endowed with a rent-charge of £24, by John Kent, Esq., by will proved in 1710. This was once the residence of the celebrated Richard Hooker, who held the living, and here wrote some part of his Ecclesiastical Polity.
Bosden, county of Chester.—See Handforth.
Bosham (Holy Trinity)
BOSHAM (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of West Bourne, hundred of Bosham, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Chichester; containing, with the tythings of Broadbridge, Creed, Fishbourne, Gosport, and Walton, 1091 inhabitants. This place, called by the Saxons Bosenham, probably from the woods by which it was surrounded, was anciently of great importance, and, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, was the occasional residence of Earl Godwin, whose son Harold, afterwards King of England, sailing from Bosham on an excursion of pleasure, in 1056, was driven by a storm on the Norman coast, and made prisoner by Count Ponthieu. In the time of Henry II. the place was constituted the head of a hundred and manor, and endowed with various immunities, which were fully confirmed by James I., and of which several are still recognised. The parish is bounded on the east and south by the harbour of Chichester, and comprises 3194 acres, whereof 94 are common or waste. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the oyster-fishery: the village is pleasantly situated at the upper extremity of the creek to which it gives name, and is neatly built. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 11. 3.; net income, £120; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Chichester, whose tithes have been commuted for £1318. 13., and who possess a glebe of 88 acres. The church, built about the year 1120, by William Warlewast, Bishop of Exeter, was made collegiate for a dean and five secular canons or prebendaries, and was a royal free chapel, exempt from ecclesiastical jurisdiction, till the Dissolution, when it was made parochial. It is a stately edifice, chiefly early English, with some Norman details, and later additions: the south aisle was restored, and other improvements effected, in 1845. There is a place of worship for Independents A small monastery for five or six brethren was founded in 681, by Adelwach, and placed under the superintendence of Dicul, an Irish monk. Herbert, secretary to Thomas à Becket, and afterwards made cardinal by Pope Alexander III., was a native of the place.
BOSLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of Prestbury, union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 4¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Congleton; containing 552 inhabitants. The manor passed in 1327 to Isabel, mother of Edward III., and from Henry VI. came by grant to the Stanleys in 1454: it was afterwards held by Lord Monteagle, the hero of Flodden; passed to the Fittons about 1540; and is now vested in their successor, the Earl of Harrington. The chapelry is situated on the road from Manchester to Derby, and comprises about 2500 acres; it is skirted by the river Daine, and intersected by the Macclesfield canal. There are a silk-spinning factory and a cottonmill, in which upwards of 100 people are employed. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £82; patron, the Vicar of Prestbury: the glebe comprises about 30 acres.
Bossall (St. Botolph)
BOSSALL (St. Botolph), a parish, partly in the wapentake of Birdforth, but chiefly in that of Bulmer, N. riding of York; consisting of the chapelries of Butter-Crambe, Claxton, and Sand-Hutton, and the townships of Bossall, Harton, and part of Flaxton-on-theMoor; and containing 1184 inhabitants, of whom 77 are in the township of Bossall, 4 miles (S.) from Whitwell. The parish comprises 9820 acres; and is bounded by the river Derwent on the south and east, and intersected by the road from York to Scarborough. The village was formerly large, but at present consists of only three or four houses: foundations of buildings have been discovered in an adjoining field, thence called "Old Bossall." Courts leet are held for the several manors in the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12; net income, £445; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The church is a handsome cruciform structure, with a steeple rising from the centre. There are chapels at Sand-Hutton, Claxton, and Butter-Crambe.
Bossiney with Trevena
BOSSINEY with TREVENA, in the parish of Tintagell, union of Camelford, hundred of Lesnewth, E. division of Cornwall, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Camelford; containing 296 inhabitants, of whom 219 are in Trevena. Bossiney and Trevena are two villages, about a quarter of a mile distant from each other, situated on a bleak and rugged part of the northern coast. A fair is held at the latter on the first Monday after Oct. 19th. Bossiney was made a free borough in the reign of Henry III., by Richard Earl of Cornwall, brother to that monarch; and a mayor, whose office is merely nominal, is chosen annually by a jury of burgesses empannelled by his predecessor, at the court leet held in October, when constables and other inferior officers are likewise appointed. The elective franchise was conferred in the 7th of Edward VI., from which time the borough returned two members to parliament, until it was disfranchised by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45. The town-hall, a small building, is appropriated also to the use of a charity school, which is chiefly supported by the mayor and burgesses, who appoint the master, and allow him a salary of £20 per annum. There are some remains of King Arthur's Castle, on the top of a stupendous rock, formerly part of the main land, but now connected with it only by a narrow isthmus: the summit comprises an area of thirty acres of pasture; but the acclivities are so steep that it is almost inaccessible to the sheep that graze on it.
Bossington (St. James)
BOSSINGTON (St. James), a parish, in the union of Stockbridge, hundred of Thorngate, Romsey and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Stockbridge; containing 60 inhabitants. The Roman road from Salisbury to Winchester passes through. The living is annexed to that of Broughton: the church was built in 1840, by Mr. Elwes.
BOSTOCK, a township, in the parish of Davenham, union and hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 2¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Middlewich; containing 190 inhabitants. This place gave name to a family descended from Osmerus, lord of Bostock in the reign of William the Conqueror: the heiress of the elder branch brought the manor in the latter part of the 15th century to the Savages. In 1755 it was sold by Sir Thomas Whitmore to the Tomkinsons. The township comprises 1523 acres; the soil is sand and clay. The Liverpool and Birmingham railway passes about a mile to the west of the village. The tithes have been commuted for £75. 11.