A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Boughton (All Saints)
BOUGHTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Downham, hundred of Clackclose, W. division of Norfolk, 1¼ mile (N.) from Stoke-Ferry; containing 209 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1323a. 1r. 27p., of which 721 acres are arable, 519 meadow and pasture, 24 woodland and plantations, and 43 common allotted to the poor at the inclosure. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10; patron, Sir W. J. H. B. Folkes, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £410, and the glebe comprises 30 acres, with a small house. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a square embattled tower.
Boughton, a hamlet, in the parish of Weekley, county of Northampton.—See Weekley.
Boughton (St. John the Baptist)
BOUGHTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Brixworth, hundred of Spelhoe, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3¾ miles (N.) from Northampton; containing 389 inhabitants. This parish, formerly called Buckton, is bounded on the west and north by the river Nene, and intersected by the road from Northampton to Leicester; and comprises by computation about 1400 acres: limestone is quarried, principally for the roads. A chartered fair for cattle and for manufactured wares is held on the 24th of June, and two following days. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 9. 7.; net income, £368; patron, Col. R. W. H. Howard Vyse: the tithes have been commuted for 184 acres of land; and a house has been lately built by Col. Vyse, in which the rector, the Rev. G. S. Howard Vyse, resides. The church, having been enlarged, was reconsecrated in March 1847. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Humphrey's charity, consisting of about 49 acres of land and three tenements, in Pitsford, the rent of which is £160 per annum, is applied by the feoffees, according to the will of the benefactor, in providing coal for the poor, apprenticing children, mending the highways, and repairing the church. Some slight remains still exist of an ancient family mansion, the residence of Lord Strafford.
BOUGHTON, a parish, in the union of Southwell, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 1¾ mile (N. E. by E.) from Ollerton; containing 309 inhabitants, and comprising 1750 acres. About 135 acres are common, and 50 wood. The parish is intersected by the river Maun, over which a bridge was erected by subscription in 1812, the ford that previously existed being often dangerous. On the bank of the river is a deep cavity, in the rock of red sandstone, called Robin Hood's Cave, near which is New England, a district of about 50 acres, inclosed from the forest land many years ago. The village is small and scattered, and is situated at the foot of Cockin Hill, a steep acclivity which forms the east side of the parish, and the boundary of the South Clay division. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Kneesall: the church is a plain building, with a belfry turret. The Baptists have a place of worship.
Boughton-Aluph (All Saints)
BOUGHTON-ALUPH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of East Ashford, hundred of Wye, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Ashford; containing 524 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the river Stour, and comprises 2418 acres, of which 400 are in wood; the soil is to a great extent chalky. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 5.; patrons, the Trustees of Dr. Breton; impropriator, the Rev. J. Billington: the tithes have been commuted for £600, and there are 28 acres of glebe. The church is a spacious cruciform structure, built of flint and ashlar-stone, with a low central tower.
BOUGHTON, GREAT, a township, and the head of a union, in the parish of St. Oswald, Chester, Lower division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester; containing 949 inhabitants. This place was given by Hugh Lupus to the convent of St. Werburgh; it came, in the reign of Edward VI., to Sir Richard Cotton, who parcelled it out among several fee farmers. The principal mansion, with its demesne, was for some generations vested in a younger branch of the Davenport family, from whom it passed by female heirs to the family of Currie. The township comprises 731 acres. It is intersected by two turnpike-roads to Chester, one from Whitchurch, and the other from Nantwich; and near their junction has been formed a considerable village, which unites with one of the streets of Chester. The Chester and Nantwich canal, and the Chester and Crewe railway, also pass through it; and the river Dee adjoins on the west. Across the middle of the township stretches a belt of deep rich loam, which, from its proximity to Chester, lets at a high rate for garden-ground; the rest is a clayey soil, held by milkmen, butchers, &c. The poor law union of Great Boughton comprises 99 parishes or places, of which 96 are in Cheshire, and 3 in the county of Flint, North Wales; and contains a population of 49,085.
Boughton-Malherb (St. Nicholas)
BOUGHTON-MALHERB (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Hollingbourn, hundred of Eyhorne, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 1½ mile (S. W. by S.) from Lenham; containing 512 inhabitants, and comprising 2699 acres. This parish is divided by a ridge of hills into two districts, Boughton Upland and Boughton Weald, the latter so called from its situation within the Weald of Kent. The family of Wotton resided here for a considerable period, and this is the birthplace of its most accomplished member, Sir Henry Wotton, who was employed by James I. in several foreign embassies, and whose biography is written by Izaak Walton. The remains of the mansion, on a panel in which is inscribed the date 1579, have been converted into a farmhouse. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 15., and in the patronage of Earl Cornwallis: the tithes have been commuted for £300, and the glebe comprises six acres. The church is situated on the summit of the ridge of hills, and is a handsome edifice with a square tower at the west end; it contains several interesting monuments to members of the family of Wotton, and a mural tablet to Dr. Sharpe, chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, James I., and Prince Henry.
Boughton-Monchelsea (St. Peter)
BOUGHTON-MONCHELSEA (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Maidstone, hundred of Eyhorne, and extending into the hundred of Maidstone, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Maidstone; containing 1106 inhabitants. It comprises 2296 acres, and is intersected by a ridge of hills, the summit of which forms the northern boundary of the Weald of Kent, and on the southern declivity of which are several stone-quarries. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 4.; net income, £395; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Rochester. The church, a small edifice with a handsome tower, has been partly rebuilt, the body of it having been destroyed by fire in 1832; there are some remarkable monuments, especially one to the memory of Sir Christopher Powell.
Boughton-under-Blean (St. Peter and St. Paul)
BOUGHTON-under-Blean (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Faversham, hundred of Boughton-under-Blean, lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 3 miles (S. E. by E.) from Faversham; containing 1373 inhabitants. This place derives its distinguishing epithet from the adjacent forest of Blean, which was anciently the haunt of wild boars, wolves, and other beasts of chace; but the description applies more particularly to the situation of that part of the parish which is now called South-street. The parish comprises 2349a. 3r. 27p.; 1220 acres are arable, 274 meadow, 161 pasture, 109 wood, 262 in hops, 209 in orchards, 18 occupied by homesteads, and 45 in gardens. Boughton-street is on elevated ground, and was not built till after the formation of the present high road to Canterbury, through the king's forest of Blean, before which time the old Watling-street crossed the river Stour at Shalmsford bridge, and entered Canterbury near the castle. A fair for toys and pedlery is held on the Monday after St. Peter's day. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 9½.; net income, £300; patron, the Archbishop of Canterbury; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter. The church contains several ancient monuments, and its internal architecture is of a pleasing character; the spire fell down about the close of the sixteenth century. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. About 28 acres of land, and other considerable charities, have been bequeathed for the benefit of the poor. In 1716, a human skeleton, by the side of which lay a sword and a brass coin struck in the reign of Antoninus Pius, was dug up.
Boulge (St. Michael)
BOULGE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Wilford, E. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Woodbridge; containing 45 inhabitants, and comprising 545 acres by measurement. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Debach annexed, valued in the king's books at £3. 12. 1.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. O. S. Reynolds. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £133, and there are nearly 4 acres of glebe. The church is very small.
Boulmer, with Seaton-House
BOULMER, with Seaton-House, a township, in the parish of Long Houghton, union of Alnwick, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (E. by N.) from Alnwick; containing 153 inhabitants. The township comprises 363a. 1p., all arable land, with the exception of about 30 acres of grass. The village is situated on the sea-shore, and is chiefly inhabited by fishermen, whose boats are moored in Boulmer bay, a natural basin (environed by rocks) 800 yards long and 400 broad, and the entrance to which is 12 feet deep at low water. Here is a coastguard station. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £78. 19. 6., and the impropriate for £27. 12.
Boulsdon, with Killcot
Boultham (St. Helen)
BOULTHAM (St. Helen), a parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Boothby-Graffo, parts of Kesteven, union and county of Lincoln, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from Lincoln; containing 72 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 15. 2., and in the patronage of the Trustees of the late R. Ellison, Esq.; net income, £126. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1803.
BOULTON, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Peter, Derby, union of Shardlow, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 3½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Derby; containing 171 inhabitants. It comprises 791a. 3r. 4p., and is intersected by the Derby canal: the village has several neat houses. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Proprietors of land in the chapelry; net income, £120. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1802; the incumbent then received 29 acres, besides which he has 37 acres in other places. The chapel was enlarged and repaired in 1840, at a cost of £480.
Bourn (St. Mary)
BOURN (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Longstow, county of Cambridge, 1¾ mile (S. E. by E.) from Caxton; containing 909 inhabitants. Here was a castle, which was destroyed during the war with the barons in the reign of Henry III. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 15. 10., and in the gift of Christ's College, Cambridge: the great tithes, belonging to the college, have been commuted for £593, with a glebe of 219 acres, and the incumbent's tithes for £188. 13., with a glebe of 4 acres. A school, established in 1819, is endowed by the Countess De la Warr with £20 per annum. A mineral spring here was formerly in high repute.
Bourn, Surrey.—See Wrecklesham.
BOURN-MOOR, a township, in the parish of Houghton-le-Spring, union of Chester-le-Street, N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham; containing 891 inhabitants. This township, which is bounded by Bidick on the north, was separated from that district about eighty years since, probably on account of the population attached to the collieries: the name appears to have been derived from the stream called Moors-burn, which falls into the river Wear in Lumley Park. It comprises 500 acres, of which 375 are arable, 100 grass land, and 25 waste. At New Lambton, in the township, is a brine well 97 fathoms deep, where salt-works were established in 1815. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Bourne (St. Peter and St. Paul)
BOURNE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, and the head of a union, in the wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 36 miles (S.) from Lincoln, and 97 (N.) from London; containing, with the hamlets of Cawthorpe and Dyke, 3361 inhabitants. This place takes its name from a stream of remarkably pure water, issuing from a copious spring contiguous to the town, near the Castle Hill, and called the Bourn-Eau; bourn being the Saxon term for brook or torrent. Though little of its early history is known, the town is supposed, from the discovery of Roman coins and tessellated pavements, to have been anciently of some importance. When the Danes invaded England in the ninth century, Marcot, the Saxon lord of Bourne, with a few of his own vassals and a detachment from Croyland Abbey, after an obstinate engagement, defeated a party of them who had made an inroad into this part of Lincolnshire. Prior to the time of Edward the Confessor a castle was erected here, of which the trenches and mounds are still discernible: it appears to have included an area of more than eight acres. In 1138, Baldwin, a descendant of Walter Fitz-Gilbert, to whom the town was given by William Rufus, founded a priory for canons of the order of St. Augustine, the site alone of which, now called the Trenches, is visible: the revenue, at the Dissolution, was £197. 17. 5. In the seventeenth century, Bourne was twice nearly destroyed by fire.
The parish comprises about 10,000 acres. The town is intersected by the Hull, Lincoln, and London road, and consists principally of one very long street, the houses in which are in general modern and well built. A considerable trade in leather was formerly carried on, and several extensive tan-yards were at work; but this branch of industry has altogether declined. A canal has been constructed to Spalding and Boston, by which means the town is supplied with coal, timber, and other commodities. The market is on Saturday; the fairs are on April 7th, May 7th, and October 29th. The county magistrates hold a meeting every Saturday; and courts of session for the parts of Kesteven are held quarterly: the powers of the county debt-court of Bourne, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Bourne. The town-hall, erected at an expense of £2500, on the site of a former one built by William Cecil, lord treasurer in the reign of Elizabeth, is a spacious handsome edifice, under which is the market-place.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; patron, the Rev. J. Dodsworth. An allotment of 232 acres of land made to the vicar in lieu of tithes, in 1768, is let on lease, producing £320 per annum. The church, though spacious, appears to be only part of a larger structure; it is very ancient, and principally Norman, but contains several portions in the early and later styles of English architecture, and has two towers of mixed character, of which the southern is considerably higher than the other, and is crowned with pinnacles. There were formerly two towers at the west front, one of which was taken down about 140 years since. The interior, which has lately been repewed, and greatly beautified and repaired, consists of a nave, north and south aisles, and chancel; on each side of the nave are some massive round pillars and arches. The western entrance is a fine specimen of the later style, and over it is a large window of good composition. Within are some interesting monuments, a finely enriched font of the later style, and a stoup under a crocketed canopy; also a slab to the memory of the Rev. W. Dodd, vicar, and Elizabeth his wife, parents of the Rev. Dr. Dodd, who was born here in 1729, and was executed at Tyburn for forgery, in June, 1777. There are places of worship for Presbyterians and Wesleyans. A grammar school for 30 children was founded in 1653, and endowed with £30 per annum and a school-house by William Trollope, Esq., who also endowed an hospital for six aged men; and William Fisher, by will, in 1627, endowed with land then let at £30 per annum, an almshouse for the same number of women: a national school, established in 1830, is endowed with £42 per annum. The poor law union of Bourne comprises 37 parishes or places, and contains a population of 19,832. There is a mineral spring in the town, formerly of great repute. William Cecil, created Baron Burleigh by Queen Elizabeth, was born here in 1521.
Bourne (St. Mary)
BOURNE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Whitchurch, hundred of Evingar, Kingsclere and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Whitchurch; containing, with the tythings of Binley, Egbury, Stoke, Swampton, and Week, 1152 inhabitants, of whom 384 are in Bourne tything. The parish comprises 6727 acres, whereof 21 are common or waste. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Hurstbourn-Priors: the tithes have been commuted for £110, and the glebe comprises 63 acres. The estate of the Earl of Portsmouth is charged with the annual payment of £16. 16. to a mistress for teaching 18 children; the school-building has been lately enlarged, and 130 children are taught by a master and mistress, to the former of whom his lordship allows £21, the remainder of the expenses being raised by subscription.
Bourne, East.—See Eastbourne.
Bourne, West (St. John the Baptist)
BOURNE, WEST (St. John the Baptist), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Westbourne and Singleton, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 7¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Chichester; containing, with the tythings of Aldsworth, Hermitage, Nutbourne, Prinsted, and Woodmancot, 2093 inhabitants. It comprises 3714 acres, whereof 220 are common or waste. The village, which was formerly a trading town of some importance, is pleasantly situated on a small stream, which is crossed by a bridge uniting Hermitage (through which passes the road from Chichester to Portsmouth) with the small brisk sea-port of Emsworth, in the county of Southampton. On the south is Thorney Channel, passable at low water for carriages to and from Thorney Island. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 10. 5., and in the gift of the Rector, with a net income of £280: the rectory is a sinecure, valued at £24. 13. 4.; net income, £870; patrons, the family of Newland. The church is a neat commodious structure in the later English style, with a well-proportioned spire of oak: the principal entrance is approached by an avenue of eight yew-trees, remarkable for their size; and on the arch of the doorway are carved the heraldic bearings of Lord Maltravers, with an inscription almost illegible, of about the time of Edward IV. Henry Smith bequeathed land in 1642, now producing £60 per annum, for the apprenticing of children, and for the poor. The union of West Bourne comprises 12 parishes, and contains a population of 6668.
BOURNEMOUTH, a village, in the parish, union, and hundred of Christchurch, Ringwood and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, about 6 miles (W. by S.) from Christchurch. This village, which is situated on the sea-shore, has become a place of fashionable resort for bathing, and, from a secluded and unfrequented spot, has been tastefully laid out in a series of villas of pleasing character, in various styles of architecture. A spacious hotel, commanding an extensive view of the sea, with the Isles of Wight and Purbeck, was built by the late Sir G. Jervis, the proprietor of the lands, for the reception of visiters; and a range of commodious baths has been erected on the beach; forming together a handsome suite of buildings, from the centre of which rises a tower of picturesque character, into which the flues of the various chimneys are conveyed. A church has been very recently built by the Jervis family.