A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Tenbury (St. Mary the Virgin)
TENBURY (St. Mary the Virgin), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Tenbury and W. divisions of the county of Worcester; containing, with the hamlets of Berrington, Sutton, and Tenbury-Foreign with Kyrewood, 1849 inhabitants, of whom 1177 are in the town, 22 miles (N. W. by W.) from Worcester, and 134 (N. W. by W.) from London. This place, originally called Temebury, derives its name from the Teme, which is here a considerable river, separating Worcestershire from Salop, and crossed by a bridge of six arches. The town consists of two streets, intersecting nearly at right angles, and partially paved; the houses in general are indifferently built, but some improvements have been effected, and a gas company has been established since 1841. Races are held in June, on a good course about a mile to the south. A mineral spring was discovered in July, 1839, by some workmen sinking a well on the premises of S. H. Godson, Esq., and it appears likely to raise Tenbury to a high rank among British watering-places. The water, which sprang up suddenly from a bed of limestone lying under a stratum of old red sandstone, was found about 32 feet below the surface, and exhibited a bright sparkling appearance. Several analyses of its contents have been made, differing in some respects from each other, but all exhibiting chloride of sodium and chloride of calcium (muriate of lime), as the principal ingredients. The proprietor built a pump-room over the spring, which was opened on the 1st of June, 1840; and baths on the most improved principles have been erected, which are visited by numerous families of respectability and distinction: a band attends on the promenade, and every attention is paid to the accommodation of visiters. Another well for mineral water has lately been sunk to the depth of 62 feet.
The surrounding country is rich and beautiful, and very productive of hops and apples; great quantities of cider and perry are made, forming a principal source of trade, and returning large profits to the farmers. There are also a considerable malting-trade and a tannery. A canal, commenced in 1794, and originally intended to extend from Leominster to the Severn near Stourport, but not carried through the whole distance, passes within half a mile of the town. The market, granted by Henry III. in 1249, is on Tuesday; the building for the corn-market is an ancient structure, but the butter-cross is more recent. Fairs are held on the Tuesday before the 25th of March, on April 22nd, May 1st, Sept. 26th, and Dec. 3rd; petty-sessions take place once in two months, and a court leet and court baron are held. The powers of the county debt-court of Tenbury, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Tenbury. The parish comprises 5179a. 2r. 9p. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £21, and endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes; net income, £900; patrons, the Misses Wilkinson; impropriators of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, R. Bagnall, Esq., and others. The church, erected in the 11th century, was rebuilt in 1777, the old structure having been swept away by a flood in November 1770; it is a spacious and neat edifice. A chantry anciently attached to it was valued at the suppression at £5. 0. 6. per annum. The church belonged to the monastery of Lyra, in Normandy, till the year 1414, when Henry V. transferred its rights and revenues to the monastery of Sheen, in Surrey, with which it was connected till the Dissolution. There is a place of worship for Baptists. The poor-law union of Tenbury comprises 19 parishes or places, 10 of which are in Worcestershire, 5 in Salop, and 4 in Hereford, the whole containing a population of 7066: the workhouse, situated in the town, was built in 1837, at a cost of £2000.
TENBURY-FOREIGN, a hamlet, in the parish of Tenbury, Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Tenbury and W. divisions of the county of Worcester; containing, with Kyrewood, 279 inhabitants. It comprises 1522 acres, of which 69 are common or waste land.
Tendring (St. Edmund)
TENDRING (St. Edmund), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Tendring, N. division of Essex, 10 miles (E. by S.) from Colchester; containing 925 inhabitants. The parish is in the centre of the hundred, and comprises 2767a. 2r. 33p., of which about 2619 acres are arable, 50 pasture, 78 in woods and groves, and 20 waste. The surface is elevated, and the soil generally a rich loam resting upon gravel. A fair is held on the 14th of September. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16, and in the gift of Balliol College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £840, and the glebe contains 108 acres. The church is an ancient edifice, with a belfry-turret of wood, and has some interesting monuments. The union of Tendring comprises 32 parishes or places, containing a population of 26,251: the work-house, situated on the heath in the parish, was erected in 1838, at an expense of £6500, including the purchase of the site.
Tenterden (St. Mildred)
TENTERDEN (St. Mildred), a market-town and parish, within the cinque-port liberties, having separate jurisdiction, and forming the head of a union, locally in the hundred of Tenterden, Lower division of ihe lathe of Scray, W. division of Kent, 18 miles (S. E. by S.) from Maidstone, and 53 (S. E. by E.) from London; containing 3620 inhabitants. This town, the name of which appears to be a corruption of Theinwarden, or the ward of Thanes, that is, "the guard in the valley," was one of the places where the woollen manufacture was established in the reign of Edward III. It became a scene of opposition to the Church of Rome, at a period prior to the Reformation, in the time of Archbishop Warham, when 48 inhabitants of the town and its vicinity were publicly accused of heresy, and five of them condemned to be burned. The town stands upon a pleasant eminence, surrounded by some fine plantations of hops; the houses are well built, and of respectable appearance. The streets are paved, and lighted with gas, under the provisions of a general act by which the place has been much improved; and the trade, consisting chiefly in supplying the grazing district of which it is the centre, has greatly increased. The present town-hall was built in 1792, the former having been destroyed by fire. The market, principally for corn, is held on Friday. There is a fair for horses, cattle, and pedlery, on the first Monday in May; and a stock-market, established on the 9.8th of June, 1839, takes place on the Fridays before the first and third Tuesdays in each month. The inhabitants were incorporated as "The Bayliffe and Commoualtie of the Town and Hundred of Tenterden," and the place annexed as a member to the port of Rye, by Henry VI. The corporation now consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, and the total number of magistrates is six. The powers of the county debt-court of Tenterden, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of Tenterden and Cranbrook. The recorder holds a court of quarter-sessions, with power to try for all offences not capital. The parish comprises 8300 acres, of which 1740 are in wood.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £33. 12. 11.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury: the great tithes have been commuted for £822, and the small for £450. The church is spacious and handsome, with a lofty tower at the west end, to which a beacon was formerly attached. At Smallhythe, in the parish, is a chapel, erected about 1509, and licensed by faculty from Archbishop Warham; it is maintained out of lands in this parish and that of Wittersham. It appears that, at the time of its erection, the sea came up to Smallhythe, power being then given to inter in the chapelyard the bodies of shipwrecked persons cast on shore. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. A free grammar school, founded at an early period by an ancestor of the late Sir Peter Hayman, was endowed in 1521, by William Marshall, with a rent-charge of £10, and in 1702, by John Mantel, with the sum of £200, which was laid out in land; the income is £52, and is now appropriated to a national school. Dr. Edward Curteis, in 1797, left property now producing £101 per annum, for the clothing and instruction of 10 girls, for the distribution of bread to the poor, and other charitable uses. The union of Tenterden comprises 11 parishes or places, and contains a population of 10,999. Hoole, the translator of Tasso, resided here. The place confers the title of Baron on the family of Abbot; Sir Charles, lord chief justice of the court of king's bench, having been raised to the peerage by that title, on the 30th of April, 1827.
Tentergate, with Scriven.—See Scriven.
Terling (All Saints)
TERLING (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Witham, N. division of Essex, 4½ miles (W.) from Witham; containing 921 inhabitants. The parish is situated at no great distance from the Roman stations of Colchester, Maldon, and Pleshey: on making a new road here, in 1824, about 300 gold and silver coins were dug up; and a jar was afterwards discovered, containing two large rings and 30 small pieces of gold, with some silver coins of the twelve Roman emperors, in regular succession, from Constantius to Honorius. In the 13th century, the Bishop of Norwich had a palace here, which eventually became the residence of Henry VIII.; the chapel attached to it possessed the privilege of sanctuary, and afforded shelter to the celebrated Hubert de Burgh, when under the indignation of Henry III. The parish comprises by admeasurement 3206 arres. A fair, chiefly for pleasure, is held on WhitMonday. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of Lord Rayleigh, of Terling Hall. The great tithes have been commuted for £101. 17. 8., and those of the vicar for £277. 17. 9. The church, a spacious edifice, with a tower of brick, replacing one of stone which fell down, has been elegantly restored. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Terrington (St. Clement)
TERRINGTON (St. Clement), a parish, in the union of Wisbech, hundred of Freebridge-Marshland, W. division of Norfolk, 5½ miles (W. by N.) from Lynn; containing 1675 inhabitants. Though not noticed in Domesday book, this was an extensive place, and had considerable salt-works, in the time of the Saxons, as appears from a grant made by Godric, brother to Ednoth, abbot of Ramsey, about 970. The parish is bounded on the north by the sea, and comprises 9395a. 19p., of which 5459 acres are arable, 1970 meadow and pasture, 15 woodland, 830 common, and 800 salt-marsh. The village is spacious and well built, and in the immediate vicinity are several handsome villas: Orange Lodge, near the village, was purchased in 1816 from Baron Feagle, a German refugee, who entertained the Prince of Orange here during the invasion of Holland by the French. Petty-sessions are held on the first and third Monday in every month. The living is a vicarage, with the vicarage of Terrington St. John annexed, valued jointly in the king's books at £23. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown: the rectory, with that of St. John, is annexed to the Margaret professorship at Cambridge. The whole rectorial tithes have been commuted for £2402; the vicarial produce £660, and the glebe comprises 8 acres. The church is a handsome cruciform structure in the later English style, with a lofty square embattled tower at the north-west angle; the font is elaborately sculptured, and there are several interesting monuments. A chapel here dedicated to St. James was washed away by the sea. The Wesleyans have a place of worship; and a national school is supported by subscription, and a small endowment. A dispensary and lying-in charity are maintained, and about 50 acres of land are let in small portions to the poor, at a nominal rent. The learned Walter Terrington, LL.D., and Dr. John Colton, Archbishop of Armagh, were natives of the place. Edward Gonville, who, with Dr. Caius, founded Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge; Dr. John Pearson, Bishop of Chester; and the late Dr. Marsh, Bishop of Peterborough, were rectors of the parish.
Terrington (St. John)
TERRTNGTON (St. John), a parish, in the union of Wisbech, hundred of Freebridge-Marshland, W. division of Norfolk, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Lynn; containing 682 inhabitants. It comprises 2396a. 2r., of which 1581 acres are arable, 728 meadow and pasture, and the remainder homesteads, roads, and waste land. The living is a perpetual curacy, created in 1843: the old vicarage is united to that of Terrington St. Clement. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower at the west end of the south aisle; in the churchyard is an ancient cross. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. £80 per annum, the produce of land, are appropriated to the repair of the church; and 16 acres, worth £40 a year, belong to the poor.
Terrington (All Saints)
TERRINGTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Malton, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York; containing, with the township of Ganthorpe, 732 inhabitants, of whom 614 are in the township of Terrington with Wiginthorpe, 8 miles (W. by S.) from Malton. The parish comprises about 3630 acres of land, chiefly the property of the Earl of Carlisle, who is lord of the manor: the village is pleasantly situated about a mile and a half westward of Castle Howard demesne. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23. 18. 6½.; net income, £571; patron and incumbent, the Rev. C. Hall; the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1772. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists.
TERWICK, a parish, in the union of Midhurst, hundred of Dumpford, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 5 miles (E.) from Petersfield; containing 108 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Midhurst to Petersfield, and bounded on the south by the river Rother; and comprises 715a. 1r. 13p., of which about 454 acres are arable, 106 meadow and pasture, 50 wood, and 105 common. Sandstone is everywhere abundant. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 0. 5., and in the gift of T. A. Richards, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a yearly rent-charge of £173, and the glebe comprises about 10 acres.
Testerton (St. Remigius)
TESTERTON (St. Remigius), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 2¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Fakenham; containing 23 inhabitants. The parish comprises 674a. 2r. 39p. of land, for more than two centuries the property of the Case family, whose mansion of Testerton House, a handsome modern residence, is beautifully situated on the estate. About 511 acres are arable, and 163 meadow and pasture, with some woodland and ornamental plantations. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5; net income, £13; patron, T. Wythe, Esq. The church is in ruins, with the exception of the tower, which forms a picturesque feature in the grounds of Testerton House.
Teston (St. Peter and St. Paul)
TESTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Maidstone, hundred of Twyford, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Maidstone; containing 268 inhabitants. It comprises 491 acres, of which 52 are in wood. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 10.; net income, £233; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Gainsborough. The tithes were commuted for land in 1805. The church, which was a remarkably small structure, has been repaired, considerably enlarged, and beautified, by subscription: it stands on the bank of the Medway, over which is a fine bridge here of seven arches.
Tetbury (St. Mary)
TETBURY (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Longtree, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 20 miles (S. by E.) from Gloucester, and 99 (W. by N.) from London; containing 2982 inhabitants. The town is pleasantly situated on an eminence at the southern verge of the county, bordering on Wiltshire, and near the source of the river Avon, over which is a long bridge or causeway, leading into the main road to Malmesbury. It consists principally of a long street, crossed at right angles by two shorter ones, with a spacious markethouse near one of the intersections. An act was obtained in 1817, for paving and lighting the town, the expense of which was defrayed out of funds in the hands of trustees appointed in 1814 under an act for inclosing waste grounds; £1000 were appropriated from the same source for the repair of the market-house. The poor are chiefly employed by woolstaplers, and the market was formerly noted for the sale of woollen-yarn, but the introduction of machinery has put an end to the trade. The market is on Wednesday; and fairs are held on Ash-Wednesday, July 22nd, and November 10th, for corn, cheese, horses, and cattle. A bailiff and a constable are elected annually at the court leet of the manor; and petty-sessions for the town and hundred take place here. The parish comprises 4384a. 1r. 7p.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £36. 13. 4.; patron, T. Staunton, Esq.; appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The great tithes have been commuted for £240, and the vicarial for £800; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains about 50 acres. The church, having been undermined by a flood in 1770, was, with the exception of the tower, which is surmounted by a fine modern spire, rebuilt in 1781, in the early English style, at an expense of £6000. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. A grammar school was endowed by Sir William Romney, a native of Tetbury, and sheriff of London in the reign of James I., who bequeathed a lease for years of the weights of wool and yarn, tolls, and other profits within the town, with the proceeds of which certain lands have been purchased. Another school is partly supported by an endowment of £30 per annum bequeathed by Elizabeth Hodges in 1723, and partly by subscription. The poor-law union of Tetbury comprises 13 parishes or places, of which 11 are in the county of Gloucester, and 2 in Wilts; the population amounts to 5891. In Maudlin meadow, which belongs to Magdalen College, Oxford, and is situated north of the town, is a petrifying spring, impregnated with calcareous earth. A fort is said to have been built here before the invasion of Britain by the Romans; and ancient British coins, and fragments of weapons, have been found within the area of a camp in the vicinity, of which all traces are now obliterated.
Tetcott (Holy Cross)
TETCOTT (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Holsworthy; containing 300 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Barnstaple, through Bideford, to Launceston; and comprises 2160 acres, of which 351 are common or waste. The river Tamar forms its western boundary, and the Bude canal passes within a mile and a half. Tetcott House, the beautiful seat of Sir William Molesworth, Bart., was destroyed by fire in May, 1841. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the gift of Sir W. Molesworth: the tithes have been commuted for £145; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 59 acres. The church contains some interesting monuments to the Arscott family.
Tetford (St. Mary)
TETFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, hundred of Hill, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Horncastle; containing 778 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1750 acres. Here are some quarries, the material of which is used for burning into lime, and for repairing the roads. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 0. 10., and in the patronage of Miss Harrison; the tithes were commuted for land in 1765; the glebe altogether consists of 350 acres. The Wesleyans have a place of worship; and a national school is partly supported by the proceeds of a cottage and seven acres of land, left in 1714 by Edward Richardson.
Tetney (St. Peter and St. Paul)
TETNEY (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Louth, wapentake of Bradley-Haverstoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8 miles (S. S. E.) from Great Grimsby; containing 819 inhabitants. The parish comprises by admeasurement 5200 acres, and the Louth navigation runs through it. Weaving, formerly carried on to a considerable extent, is now nearly discontinued; and a fair, held in July, has degenerated from a mart for cattle and hardware into a mere festival. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 4.; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Lincoln. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1774; there are 140 acres of glebe land, and a glebe-house, together valued at £300 per annum, and the vicar receives £12 a year from the lessees of the great tithes. The church is distinguished by a very fine tower. Here are places of worship for Wesleyan and Primitive Methodists. Several pits of beautifully clear water in the parish, called "blow-wells," contain excellent pike and eels; the water is continually running, and never freezes: it is said that Sir Joseph Banks spent a fortnight in examining the wells. Some remains are to be seen of an ancient monastery, the last tower of which was lately taken down.
Tetsworth (St. Giles)
TETSWORTH (St. Giles), a parish, in the union and hundred of Thame, county of Oxford, 11½ miles (E. S. E.) from Oxford; containing 523 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 1261 acres, of which 56 are arable, 1111 pasture, 49 common, and 45 waste, &c. The living is a vicarage, in the gift of the Slater family: the great tithes have been commuted for £210, and the small tithes for £115. The church is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, separated by a Norman arch: above the south entrance is a circular moulding, under which are a mitred figure having a crosier in the left hand, and the figure of a priest with a book in the left hand, and the right hand pointing above to the paschal lamb. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Tettenhall-Regis (St. Michael)
TETTENHALL-REGIS (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Seisdon, partly in the N. and partly in the S. division of the hundred of Seisdon, S. division of the county of Stafford, 1¾ mile (N. W.) from Wolverhampton; containing, with the prebends of Bovenhill, Pendeford, Pirton with Trescott, and Wrottesley, 3143 inhabitants, of whom 2207 are in the township of Tettenhall Regis and Clericorum. The parish comprises 7551a. 1r. 27p.; the surface is undulated, and the scenery very picturesque. Part of the population is engaged in the manufacture of locks of all descriptions, hinges, bolts, spectacle-frames, &c. Of the several excellent residences, the largest is Wrottesley Hall, the seat of Lord Wrottesley, surrounded with good land and wood. The village stands nearly in the centre of the parish, at the foot and on the declivities of a lofty eminence; the Worcestershire and Staffordshire canal passes through it, and is joined here by the Liverpool and Birmingham canal. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £196; patron and impropriator, Lord Wrottesley. The church, which was made collegiate before the Conquest for a dean and four prebendaries, is in the early, decorated, and later English styles; it was enlarged in 1825, and thoroughly repaired in 1841. The eastern window contains an ancient painting on glass, representing the Archangel trampling on a Dragon; the font was restored in 1844, and is curiously ornamented with sculpture. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
TETTON, a township, in the parish of Warmington, union of Congleton, hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Sandbach; containing 182 inhabitants. It comprises 984 acres; the prevailing soil is clay. The tithes have been commuted for £110. 12.
TETWORTH, a parish, in the union of St. Neot's, hundred of Toseland, county of Huntingdon, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Potton 5 containing 235 inhabitants. The living is annexed to that of Everton: the appropriate tithes have been commuted for £205, and the vicarial for £70. The church has been repewed.
Teversal (St. Catherine)
TEVERSAL (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union of Mansfield, N. division of the hundred of Broxtow and of the county of Nottingham, 4½ miles (W. by N.) from Mansfield; containing 423 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 2500 acres, of which 1050 are arable, 1343 pasture, and 155 wood: the population is entirely agricultural, with the exception of a few persons employed ill stocking-frame weaving. Part of Hardwick Park, the property of the Duke of Devonshire, extends into the parish. The Earl of Carnarvon is lord of the manor. Coal and limestone abound, but neither is now worked. The village is situated on a lofty eminence, near the source of the river Meden; and there are three hamlets, Fackley, Stanley, and Whiteborrow. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 19. 2., and in the gift of the Earl of Carnarvon: the tithes have been commuted for £522. 8.; the glebe contains nearly 42 acres. The church is in the Norman style, and has several old monuments of the Greenhalghe, Babington, and Molyneux families: over the chief entrance is a curious and beautiful Norman arch with symbolical representations of religious subjects. South of the church are the extensive ruins of the ancient mansion-house, built by Gilbert Greenhalghe in the reign of Henry VII., and the remains of a hanging garden on a magnificent scale: part of the mansion is now converted into a farmhouse.
Teversham (All Saints)
TEVERSHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Chesterton, hundred of Flendish, county of Cambridge, 3½ miles (E.) from Cambridge; containing 220 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Cambridge to Newmarket, and comprises 1187 acres. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely, valued in the king's books at £19. 16. 0½.; net income, £352. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1810; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe altogether contains 226 acres. Lady Joan Jermy bequeathed a cottage and 17 acres of land for charitable uses, in lieu of the latter of which two parcels of land were set out at the inclosure of the parish, comprising respectively 21p. and 11a. 2p.; the cottage and land now produce about £30 per annum, applied to educating young children and relieving the poor.
Tew, Great (St. Michael)
TEW, GREAT (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Norton, hundred of Wootton, county of Oxford, 3¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Neat-Enstone; containing 459 inhabitants. A classical association attaches to this place as having been the residence of the illustrious Lucius, Viscount Falkland, who, before entering upon his stormy political career in the time of Charles I., here devoted himself to the study of literature and philosophy, in which he was deeply versed. His house was unreservedly open to all the eminent men of the university; and Sheldon, Hammond, Chillingworth, the poets Waller and Cowley, and, more especially, his friend Edward Hyde, afterwards Earl of Clarendon, were his constant guests. The parish comprises 2993 acres, of which rather more than half are arable; the greater part of the soil consists of the red loam common in the north of Oxfordshire, but to the south it partakes of stone brash. The scenery is richly diversified with fine timber-trees, amongst which the village is beautifully secluded. Tew Park is now the residence of M. P. W. Boulton, Esq.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £134; patron and impropriator, Mr. Boulton. The tithes were commuted for land in 1766. The church is a handsome building, chiefly in the decorated English style, with a good Norman doorway: it contains some brasses of the Raynsfords, to whom the manor formerly belonged; two recumbent stone effigies of a crusader and a lady, whose names are unknown; and an elegant monument by Chantrey. Lord Falkland was buried here, according to the register, on the 23rd of September, 1643, three days after his untimely death on the field of Newbury; but there is no tablet to his memory, nor is it known in what part of the church his remains were deposited, secrecy probably having been desirable, lest, owing to the violence of the times, his body might be disturbed. T. E. Freeman, in 1781, gave an estate now producing £31 per annum, for education; the school is on the national plan. A convent supposed to have been connected with that at Godstow, stood adjacent to the church, and some traces thought to belong to it are still visible. Dr. Plot, in his work on Oxfordshire, speaks of a tessellated pavement ploughed up near the village; and more recently, in 1810, a complete Roman burial-vault was discovered at a farm called Beaconsfield, as well as a bath, with remains of pavemeut, urns, coins, &c. In 1827, another bath was found, with similar remains.
TEW, LITTLE, a parish, in the union of ChippingNorton, hundred of Wootton, county of Oxford, 2½ miles (N. by E.) from Neat-Enstone; containing 215 inhabitants. It is situated south-east of the road from Chipping-Norton to Banbury; and is bounded on the east by the parish of Great Tew, and on the south by the river Glyme. This river rises in the immediate vicinity, and, after a course of several miles, falls into the Evenload near the town of Woodstock. The living is annexed to that of Great Tew.
Tewin (St. Peter)
TEWIN (St. Peter), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Hertford, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Welwyn; containing 522 inhabitants. It comprises 2412 acres, of which 20 are common or waste land. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14, and in the gift of Jesus College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £460; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe consists of 40 acres. The church has a square embattled tower, with a low spire: in the churchyard is a curious tombstone to the memory of Lady Anne Grimstone, which attracts many visiters.
Tewkesbury (St. Mary)
TEWKESBURY (St. Mary), a borough, markettown, and parish, having separate jurisdiction, and the head of a union, locally in the Lower division of the hundred of Tewkesbury, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Gloucester, and 103 (W. N. W.) from London; containing, with the township of Mythe, and that of Southwkk with Park, 5862 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, is supposed to have derived its name from Theot, a Saxon recluse, who, during the latter period of the heptarchy, founded a hermitage here, where he lived in solitude and devotion, and after whom it was called Theotisberg, from which its present appellation is deduced. In 1015, a monastery was founded here by the two brothers Odo and Dodo, dukes of Mercia, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary; which, after having experienced great injury during the Danish wars, became a cell to the abbey of Cranborne in Dorsetshire. After the Conquest, Robert Fitz-Hamon, who had attended William in his expedition to Britain, enlarged the buildings of the monastery, and so amply augmented its possessions, that the monks of Cranborne removed in 1101 to Tewkesbury, which they made their principal seat. It was subsequently raised into an abbey of Benedictine monks, and continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was estimated at £1598. 1. 3. The last decisive battle between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians took place within half a mile of Tewkesbury, in 1471; on which memorable occasion, many of the principal nobility were slain on both sides, and not less than 3000 of the Lancastrian troops. Queen Margaret, who headed her own forces, was intrenched on the summit of an eminence called the Home Ground, at the distance of a mile from the town, east of the Gloucester road; while the troops of Edward IV., who had advanced by way of Tredington, occupied the sloping ground to the south, called the Red Piece. The victory was decisive in favour of the Yorkists, the defeat of the Lancastrians being ascribed to the treacherous inactivity of Lord Wenlock, one of their generals, whom the chief commander, the Duke of Somerset, struck dead on the field with his battle-axe. After their defeat, the Duke of Somerset, with about 20 other distinguished persons, took shelter in the church, from which they were dragged with violence, and immediately beheaded. At the commencement of the great civil war in the reign of Charles I., Tewkesbury was occupied by the parliamentarians, who were afterwards driven out by the royalists, by whom it was afterwards lost and retaken; in 1644 it was surprised and captured by Col. Massie, governor of Gloucester, for the parliamentarians, in whose possession it remained till the conclusion of the war.
The town is pleasantly situated in the northern part of the luxuriant vale of Gloucester, and on the eastern bank of the river Avon, near its confluence with the Severn. It is nearly surrounded by the small rivers Carron and Swilgate, both which fall into the Avon; and is handsome and well built, consisting principally of three streets, lighted with gas, and well paved: the houses are in general of brick, occasionally interspersed with ancient timber-and-brick buildings; aud the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. Considerable improvements have taken place, among which may be noticed the ranges of building erected to the east of the High-street, on a tract of land called Oldbury; and the formation of a new street. An elegant cast-iron bridge, opening a direct communication between London and Hereford, was constructed over the Severn in 1826, near the beautiful hamlet of Mythe, within half a mile of the town, at an expense of £36,000; it consists of one noble arch, 172 feet in span, with a light iron balustrade. Near the division of the Worcester and Pershore roads is an ancient bridge of several arches over the Avon, which was widened and improved in 1836, and from which a level causeway has been formed to the iron bridge. A mechanics' institution was established in 1838.
About the beginning of the 15th century, this place seems to have had a considerable trade upon the Severn. A petition was forwarded to the house of peers, in the 8th of Henry VI., stating that the inhabitants had been accustomed "to ship all manner of merchandise down the Severn to Bristol," and complaining of the disorderly conduct of the people in the Forest of Dean, who are reported to have stopped and plundered their ships as they passed by the coasts near the forest. For the redress of these grievances an act was passed in the same year; and in 1580, Queen Elizabeth made Tewkesbury an independent port, which grant, however, was afterwards revoked, on a petition from the inhabitants of Bristol. The town formerly enjoyed a large trade in woollen-cloth, and was celebrated for the manufacture of mustard of superior quality. A principal branch of trade at present is stocking frame-work knitting. The manufacture of cotton-thread lace was established at Oldbury in 1825; a good trade is carried on in malt, and some in leather, and there is a factory for nails. An extensive distillery and a rectifying establishment were opened in 1770; the former has been abandoned, but the latter is still conducted advantageously. A very considerable carrying-trade centres here, in connexion with the Avon and the Severn, and goods are conveyed by land and water to all parts of the kingdom: on the bank of the Avon are large corn-mills, formerly belonging to the abbey. There is a branch railway, 2 miles and 10 chains in length, from the centre of the High-street to the Birmingham and Bristol railway at Ashchurch; the station has an elegant front. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, the former for corn, sheep, and pigs, and the latter for poultry and provisions. Fairs take place on the second Monday in March, the second Wednesday in April, May 14th, the first Wednesday after September 4th, and on October 10th, for cattle, leather, and pedlery: statute-fairs are held on the Wednesday before, and the Wednesday after. Old Michaelmas-day; and great cattle-markets on the second Wednesday in June, August, and December. The market-house is a handsome building, with Doric columns and pilasters.
Tewkesbury, which is a borough by prescription, was first incorporated in 1574, by Queen Elizabeth, whose charter was confirmed by James I. in the third year of his reign; from which time, other charters were bestowed by various monarchs. By the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the corporation now consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors; the number of magistrates is eight. Several trading companies were incorporated under the charter, but the only one now in existence is the Cordwainers'. The town first received the elective franchise in the 7th of James I., since which it has continued to return two members to parliament: the right of election was extended in 1832, to the £10 householders of the entire parish: the mayor is returning officer. The recorder holds quarterly courts of session, for all offences not capital; a court of petty-sessions occurs every Friday; and there is a court of record for the recovery of debts not exceeding £50. The townhall is a handsome building, erected in 1788 by Sir William Codrington, Bart., at an expense of £1200; the lower part is appropriated to the courts, and the upper contains a hall for the meetings of the corporation, and an assembly-room. At the northern extremity of the High-street is the common gaol, house of correction, and penitentiary for the borough, built in 1816, at a cost of £3420, and since enlarged and improved; it has four wards for the classification of prisoners. The powers of the county debt-court of Tewkesbury, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Tewkesbury. The county magistrates hold a petty-session for the division every alternate Wednesday.
The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £313. The church, situated in the south-western part of the town, and formerly the collegiate church of the monastery, is a cruciform structure principally in the Norman style, with a noble and richlyornamented tower rising from the centre. The nave and choir, of which the latter was repaired in 1796, at an expense of £2000, are separated from the aisles by a range of cylindrical columns and circular arches, highly enriched with mouldings and other ornaments employed in the Norman style. The nave is lighted by clerestory windows in the later English style, inserted in the Norman arches of the triforium, and the chancel by an elegant range of windows in the decorated style, with rich tracery, and adorned with considerable portions of ancient stained glass. In the aisles and transepts the windows are of the decorated and later styles; and the large west window, in the later style, is inserted in a very lofty Norman arch of great depth, with shafts and mouldings richly ornamented. The roof is finely groined, and at the intersections of the ribs is embellished with figures of angels playing on musical instruments. The east end of the choir is hexagonal, and contains several beautiful chantry chapels, in the decorated style. The Lady chapel and the cloisters have been destroyed, but the arches which led to them may be traced outside the building, and on the north side are the remains of the chapterhouse, now used for a school. The church contains a fine series of monuments, from the earliest period of the decorated to the most recent period of the later style, among which are several to early patrons of the abbey, and to those who fell in the battle of Tewkesbury. In a light and elegant chapel on the north side of the choir, erected by Abbot Parker in 1397, is the tomb of Robert Fitz-Hamon, the founder, who was killed at Falaise, in Normandy, in 1107, and whose remains, after having been interred in the chapter-house, were removed into the church in 1241. An altar-tomb, inclosed with arches surmounted by an embattled cornice, on which are the figures of a knight and his lady, is supposed to have been erected for Hugh le Despenser and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William Montacute, Earl of Salisbury. Near this is a beautiful sepulchral chapel, built by Isabel, Countess of Warwick, for her first husband Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Worcester, who was killed at the siege of Meaux, in 1421; it is profusely ornamented, and the roof, which is embellished with tracery, was supported on six pillars of blue marble, two of which are still remaining. Trinity church was erected in 1837, of red brick with stone dressings: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of Trustees. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyaus; and a Roman Catholic chapel.
The free grammar school was founded in 1576, and endowed with £20 per annum, by Mr. Ferrers, and has some land purchased with money left by Sir Dudley Digges. The Blue-coat school is endowed with onetwelfth part of the rents of a farm in Kent, devised for charitable uses by Lady Capel, in 1721: the national school, under the superintendence of the same master, was established in 1813; and a building for the two schools was erected adjoining the churchyard, in 1817, at an expense of £1345. There are various charitable bequests for the poor; the late Samuel Barnes, Esq., erected a large almshouse in the Oldbury for 24 parishioners, which he endowed with land for their support. Near the entrance into the town from Gloucester is the old house of industry, a large brick building, now used for the poor-law union of Tewkesbury, which comprises 23 parishes or places, 16 in the county of Gloucester and 7 in that of Worcester, the whole containing a population of 14,957.
Of the monastic buildings, with the exception of the church, there are few remains: the principal is the gateway, which appears to have been erected in the 15th century, and is surmounted with an embattled parapet rising above the cornice. Roman coins have been frequently dug up in the vicinity of the town: in 1828, several were found near the church. One of the most beautiful and perfect specimens of the Ichthyosaurus, or fish lizard, was found on Brockridge Common in August 1841, measuring 6 feet 10 inches in length. At Walton is a mineral spring, whose properties resemble those of the waters at Cheltenham. On the south-west side of the town is a tumulus, from which the descent to the Severn is precipitous and abrupt, and which, from a visit of George III. in 1788, has obtained the name of Royal Hill. Alan of Tewkesbury, an inmate of the abbey, and the friend and biographer of Thomas a Becket, was a native of the town. Tewkesbury gave the title of Baron to George I., previously to his accession to the throne.
Tey, Great (St. Barnabas)
TEY, GREAT (St. Barnabas), a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, N. division of Essex, 7 miles (S. E.) from Halstead; containing 733 inhabitants. It comprises 2478a. 3r. 3p., of which 2222 acres are arable, 93 meadow and pasture, 123 wood, and about 40 garden-ground: there is a great variety of soil. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7, and in the gift of the Sinecure Rector; the rectory is valued at £18, and is in the gift of the Rev. J. B. Storry. The rectorial tithes have been commuted for £547. 14., and the vicarial for £232; the vicarial glebe comprises 18 acres, and the rectorial 7. The church is a very ancient edifice, originally cruciform, with a central tower supported on four arches. In 1829, the tower was found to have pressed the pillars of the nave so much out of the perpendicular, that it became necessary to take down all the building to the west of it; since which, divine service has been performed in the chancel and transept, and a small erection has been raised on the site of the nave, forming the vestry-room and organgallery.
Tey, Little (St. James)
TEY, LITTLE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, Witham division of the hundred of Lexden, N. division of Essex, 2¾ miles (E. by N.) from Great Coggeshall; containing 59 inhabitants. This parish is one of the smallest in the county, comprising only 448 acres; the soil, though heavy, is fertile. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4, and in the gift of the Bishop of London: the tithes have been commuted for £146, and the glebe comprises 20 acres. The church is a small edifice, with the belfry-turret of wood.
Tey, Marks (All Saints)
TEY, MARKS (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, Witham division of the hundred of Lexden, N. division of Essex, 5 miles (W.) from Colchester; containing 397 inhabitants. The parish takes the present adjunct to its name from the family of Marks, or Merks, to whom it anciently belonged. In some documents it is called Tey ad ulmos, from the number of elm-trees with which it formerly abounded, and for the growth of which the soil is peculiarly favourable. It comprises 1180a. 35p.; 1157 acres are arable, 21 pasture, and about 2 in wood. Here is a station of the Eastern Counties railway. The living is a rectory not in charge, in the patronage of Balliol College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £235, and there are 42½ acres of glebe. In the chancel of the church is a window containing the arms of Dr. Compton, Bishop of London, in painted glass.
Teynham (St. Mary)
TEYNHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Faversham, hundred of Teynham, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 3½ miles (E.) from Sittingbourne; containing 845 inhabitants. It is situated on the London and Dovor road, and comprises 2439a. 33p., of which the soil in many places is rich and fertile, and marshy in the direction of the Swale, to which the boundaries extend. An accession has lately been made to the parish, by the embankment of the island of Fowley. Conyer creek, an inlet of the sea, is terminated by a quay, to which vessels of 250 tons' burthen come up with their cargoes of coal for the supply of the inhabitants, taking in return the produce of the neighbourhood for the London and other markets. The district abounds with cherry-orchards, and there are a few plantations of hops. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £179; patron, the Archdeacon of Canterbury. The church is a handsome cruciform structure, principally in the early English style, and contains many brasses and other ancient memorials, with some fragments of stained glass. Here are vestiges of a Roman encampment, and the ruins of a palace that belonged to the archbishops of Canterbury. Teynham confers the title of Baron on the family of Curzon.