A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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GRAFTON, a township, in the parish of Tilston, union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of Cheshire, 4½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Malpas; containing 14 inhabitants. It comprises 376 acres of land, of a clayey soil.
GRAFTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Beckford, union of Winchcomb, hundred of Tibaldstone, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Tewkesbury. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1773. In 1764, in consequence, it is supposed, of incessant rain, a tract of 16 acres of land fell from the side of Breedon hill, and covered the fields at the base.
GRAFTON, a township, in the parish of Langford, union of Farringdon, hundred of Bampton, county of Oxford, 4½ miles (E. N. E.) from Lechlade; containing 73 inhabitants. It comprises 615 acres, of which 219 are or were common: an act for inclosing lands was passed in the year 1843. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £144, of which £115 are payable to the vicar of the parish.
Grafton, with Marton.—See Marton.
Grafton, East and West
GRAFTON, EAST and WEST, a tything, in the parish of Great Bedwin, union of Hungerford, hundred of Kinwardstone, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 7¾ miles (N.) from Ludgershall; containing 419 inhabitants. Here was anciently a chapel, dedicated to St. Nicholas; and a district church, to the same saint, was consecrated in April, 1844. It is a substantial edifice in the Norman style, of Bath stone, and was erected chiefly through the munificence of the Marquess of Ailesbury, who also largely contributed to the endowment fund. The living is in the gift of the Vicar.
Grafton, Flyford.—See Flyford-Grafton.
GRAFTON-MANOR, an extra-parochial liberty, in the Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Droitwich and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 1¾ mile (W. S. W.) from Bromsgrove; containing 55 inhabitants. This was originally a chapelry within the parish of Bromsgrove, and remained such until the reign of Henry III., when it was annexed to the cathedral of Worcester, and consequently became extra-parochial. It comprises 1353a. 1r. 24p., of which 786 acres are arable, 522 meadow, 41 wood, and nearly three water; the surface is rather undulated, and the soil generally heavy. The road from Birmingham to Worcester passes through, and at Bromsgrove is a station of the Birmingham and Gloucester railway. The ancient mansion of the earls of Shrewsbury, here, was nearly destroyed by fire in 1710; the only part now remaining entire is the banqueting-room, which is alone sufficient to attest its former splendour. A chapel shared the fate of the mansion-house, and continued a roofless ruin until 1808, when the late Earl of Shrewsbury restored it for Roman Catholic worship; the restoration, however, having been executed in a very inefficient manner, the edifice again underwent a thorough repair in 1819, at the joint expense of the earl, the incumbent, and the congregation. Benjamin Collett, Esq., has a lease of the mansion and manorial rights for a considerable time.
Grafton-Regis (St. Mary)
GRAFTON-REGIS (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Potters-Pury, hundred of Cleley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 4¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Towcester; containing 266 inhabitants, and comprising 1351 acres. This place was erected into an honour in the 23rd of Henry VIII., with jurisdiction, confirmed by act of parliament, over an extensive tract partly in this county and partly in Buckinghamshire. Edward IV. was here privately married to Elizabeth, relict of Sir John Grey, of Groby, and daughter of Sir Richard Woodville, of whose family mansion at Grafton there are still remains: Lady Crane resided in it during the parliamentary war, when it was garrisoned for the king. The making of lace has been introduced of late years, and is carried on to some extent. The parish lies on the right bank of the river Tow; and the Grand Junction canal, and the Stony-Stratford and Northampton road, pass through it. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Alderton annexed, valued in the king's books at £9. 9. 4½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £277. Grafton gives the title of Duke to the Fitzroy family.
Grafton, Temple (St. Andrew)
GRAFTON, TEMPLE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Stratford-upon-Avon, Stratford division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 3¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from Alcester; containing, with the hamlet of Arden, 401 inhabitants. This place was given at the Conquest by William to one of his adherents, and was possessed in the reign of Henry III. by the Knights Templars; hence the prefix "Temple" to the name. The property was purchased at the Dissolution by the Sheldon family. The parish comprises 1985 acres; the surface is hilly, the soil clay, and there are quarries of excellent limestone, producing also marble. At its eastern extremity it is intersected by the road from Stratford to Alcester. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £93; patron, F. F. Bullock, Esq.
Grafton-Underwood (St. James)
GRAFTON-UNDERWOOD (St. James), a parish, in the union of Kettering, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Kettering; containing 281 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by the small river Ise, and comprises by estimation 1746a. 1r. 31p. The females are employed in making pillow-lace. There are some quarries of limestone, which is used for building and for repairing the roads. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 16. 3., and in the patronage of the Fitzpatrick family; net income, £241. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1777; there are 10 acres of glebe, and a house.
GRAIG, a hamlet, in the parish of Bassaleg, union and division of Newport, hundred of Wentlloog, county of Monmouth; containing 589 inhabitants. A school was endowed in 1676, and is further supported by small payments from the children.
Grain, Isle of (St. James)
GRAIN, ISLE OF (St. James), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hoo, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 1¾ mile (N. W. by W.) from Sheerness; containing 337 inhabitants. This island, which is about three miles and a half long, and two and a half broad, is formed by the Thames on the north, the Medway on the south, the junction of those two rivers on the east, and Yantlet creek on the west. It comprises 3105 acres, whereof 513 are common or waste land. There are salt pans on that side bordering upon the Medway. In the reign of Edward III., Yantlet creek, though now almost choked up, was the usual passage for vessels trading to and from London, which thus avoided a circuitous and dangerous route; at present it is navigable, at spring tides only, for barges. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 11. 8.; net income, £298; patron, the Rev. George Davies; impropriators, the family of Tonge. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Grainsby (St. Nicholas)
GRAINSBY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Louth, wapentake of Bradley-Haverstoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (S.) from Great Grimsby; containing 103 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1120 acres, of which 55 are waste land or common. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 18. 4., and in the gift of T. Sands, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £254. 10., and the glebe comprises nearly 58 acres.
Grainthorpe (St. Clement)
GRAINTHORPE (St. Clement), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Louth; containing, with the hamlets of Ludney and Wragholme, 556 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3961a. 2r. 35p.: the surface is flat, and the soil a rich strong clay; a large portion of the land was formerly a marshy waste, but it has been well drained and is under cultivation. The Louth canal passes along the western boundary of the parish, and joins the river Humber at Tetney Lock. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £115; patrons and impropriators, the President and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a lofty embattled tower, ornamented with eight pinnacles. There are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. A school was founded by Mr. George Lill, who in 1818 endowed it with the interest of £500.
Grampound, or Grand-Pont
GRAMPOUND, or Grand-Pont, a tything, in the parish of St. Aldate, Oxford, hundred of Hormer, union of Abingdon, county of Berks; containing 374 inhabitants, and comprising 208 acres. In the time of Edward I., the Crouched friars had a house here, given to them by Richard Cary, sometime mayor of Oxford, and which, about 1348, they quitted for a house and chapel near the church of St. Peter's in the East.
GRAMPOUND, an incorporated market-town, partly in the parish of Probus, but chiefly in that of Creed, union of St. Austell, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 40 miles (S. W.) from Launceston, and 247 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 607 inhabitants. This place is situated on the great road from London through Plymouth, to the Land's End, and on the declivity of a hill, at the foot of which runs the river Fal. John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, and brother of Edward III., in 1332 granted a guildmerchant to the burgesses, which included, besides other privileges, the right of holding a market and two fairs. The market, now inconsiderable, is on Saturday; and fairs are held on January 18th, June 11th, and the Tuesdays next after Lady-day and Michaelmas. The corporation, which exists by prescription, consisted until 1824 of a mayor, eight aldermen, a recorder, and town-clerk. The mayor was elected on the Sunday before Michaelmas, and he nominated two aldermen, styled Elizers, who had the power to choose eleven freemen, forming a jury, who made presentments, appointed persons to municipal offices, and possessed the right of introducing new freemen, whose number was indefinite. The manor is held by the corporation under the duchy of Cornwall, at a fee-farm rent of £12. 11. 4. per annum. Grampound sent two members to parliament from the reign of Edward VI. till 1824, when, in consequence of the discovery of corrupt practices among the electors, an act of parliament was passed for disfranchising it. The chapel, dedicated to St. Nunn, having fallen into ruins, was removed a few years since. In 1705, John Buller gave a sum of money, directing the interest to be applied in teaching boys.
Granborough (St. Peter)
GRANBOROUGH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Rugby, Southam division of the hundred of Knightlow, S. division of the county of Warwick, 3 miles (S.) from Dunchurch; containing, with the hamlet of Woolscott, 532 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the left bank of the river Leam, equidistant from Rugby, Daventry, and Southam, and comprises by computation 4389 acres; the surface is varied, the scenery generally of pleasing character, and the soil productive. Its south-eastern extremity is skirted by the Oxford canal. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; net income, £185; patron, Mrs. Halse; incumbent, the Rev. W. J. Wise. The tithes were commuted for land in 1765; there is a glebe of 65 acres, with a new glebe-house, in the Elizabethan style, built in 1844. The church is an ancient structure, in the decorated style.
Granby (All Saints)
GRANBY (All Saints), a parish, in the union, and N. division of the wapentake, of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Bingham; containing 516 inhabitants. This parish, including the hamlet of Sutton, comprises about 2000 acres; the soil is generally a strong clay, and the surface is hilly in some parts, and in others flat. There are quarries of gypsum, of which plaster for flooring is made for the use of the district; also abundance of clay for bricks and tiles. The Grantham and Nottingham canal passes within a mile of the village. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 3. 6½.; net income, £123; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Rutland: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1793; the glebe comprises 75 acres. The church is an ancient structure of various periods, and contains some interesting details in the early and later English styles. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Granby gives the title of Marquess to the Duke of Rutland.
Grandborough (St. John the Baptist)
GRANDBOROUGH (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Winslow, hundred of Ashendon, county of Buckingham, 1¾ mile (S.) from Winslow; containing 345 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the gift of the Crown, with a net income of £191: the tithes were commuted for land and a corn-rent in 1796. The church was formerly a chapel of ease to the vicarage of Winslow; it was pulled down in the civil war, by Cornelius Holland, the regicide, but rebuilt after the Restoration: a gallery was added in 1834.
Grange, with Claughton.—See Claughton.
Grange, with Adforton.—See Adforton.
Grange, or Grench
GRANGE, or Grench, a hamlet, and a member of the port of Hastings, in the parish of Gillingham, union of Medway, locally in the hundred of Chatham and Gillingham, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Chatham; containing 157 inhabitants. Here was anciently a chapel.
Gransden, Great (St. Bartholomew)
GRANSDEN, GREAT (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Toseland, county of Huntingdon, 7¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from St. Neot's; containing 622 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3360 acres, of which 515 are common, and the remainder arable; the soil in the lower lands is loam, resting on gravel or sand, and in other places clayey. Ironstone is found in some parts; and throughout the parish are scattered many diluvial remains, consisting of primitive and secondary rocks, numerous fossils, mineralized wood and vegetables, and the vertebræ of the ichthyosaurus. An inclosure act was passed in 1843. The village is situated on the declivity of a hill at the southern extremity of the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 7. 3½.; net income, £200; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Clare Hall, Cambridge. There is a place of worship for Baptists. A school was built by subscription in 1664, and endowed under the will of the Rev. B. Oley, then vicar, with £20 per annum.
Gransden, Little (St. Peter and St. Paul)
GRANSDEN, LITTLE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Longstow, county of Cambridge, 3 miles (S. W.) from Caxton; containing 273 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely, valued in the king's books at £18. 15. 2½.; net income, £201: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1813. The church has been lately rebuilt. A school in union with the National Society is endowed with £11 per annum.
GRANSMOOR, a township, in the parish of Burton-Agnes, union of Bridlington, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 7½ miles (E. by N.) from Driffield; containing 90 inhabitants. It comprises about 1400 acres, the property of W. D. Thornton Duesbery, Esq., of Skelton, near York, who is lord of the manor. The tithes have been commuted for £171 payable to the vicar, and £190 to the Archbishop of York. A schoolroom has been built at Mr. Duesbery's expense, in which the service of the Church of England is performed every Sunday.
Grantchester (St. Mary and St. Andrew)
GRANTCHESTER (St. Mary and St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Chesterton, hundred of Wetherley, county of Cambridge, 2¼ miles (S. S. W.) from Cambridge; containing 606 inhabitants. This is said to have been the Camboritum of Antonine, situated on the banks of the Granta, now the river Cam; the present Saxon name confirming the opinion of its having been the site of a Roman station. About the year 700, according to Bede, "Grantchester was a desolate little city, near the walls of which was found a beautiful coffin of white marble." Dr. Cay supposes the station to have extended not only as far as Cambridge, but northward, beyond the castle; and foundations of buildings have been frequently discovered between the village of Grantchester and the town of Cambridge, which latter is thought to have risen out of the ruins of the station. The parish comprises by measurement 1498 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 4½.; net income, £291; patrons, the President and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1799; the glebe comprises 105 acres. The church was erected early in the 15th century; a portion of the interior is remarkably light and elegant. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.