A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Boxworth (St. Peter)
BOXWORTH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of St. Ives, hundred of Papworth, county of Cambridge, 6½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Caxton; containing 326 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 12. 3½., and in the patronage of George Thornhill, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £490, and the glebe comprises 126 acres. The church contains a monumental bust of Dr. Saunderson, F.R.S., the blind professor of mathematics at the University of Cambridge; he died and was buried here, in 1759.
Boylestone (St. John The Baptist)
BOYLESTONE (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Uttoxeter, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 6 miles (E. by N.) from Uttoxeter; containing 343 inhabitants. The manor is described in the Domesday survey as one of the possessions of Henry de Ferrars. It was afterwards held in moieties, which became for a time separate manors; the Cotton family possessed it for many generations, and it subsequently came to the Fitzherberts, Venables, Grosvenors, and others. The parish comprises 1700 acres, mostly pasture and dairy-farms; the surface is undulated, and the soil marl. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 0. 2.; net income, £260; patron, the Rev. W. Hurst: an allotment of land, and money payments, were assigned in 1783 in lieu of tithes. The church is a neat structure in the early English style, with a square Flemish tower, and stands very picturesquely; it was restored in 1843–4, at a cost of £550. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have places of worship. An excellent school-house, with a residence for the master and mistress attached, was built in 1844, at a cost of £570; the site was purchased and presented by John Broadhurst, Esq., of Acton: the schools are on the national plan.
Boynton (St. Andrew)
BOYNTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Bridlington, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 2 miles (W. by N.) from Bridlington; containing 100 inhabitants. It is on the road from Bridlington to Malton, and comprises by computation 2100 acres, the property of Sir George Strickland, Bart.; the family were anciently seated at Strickland, in the county of Westmorland, but the principal branch has been settled here more than two centuries. Boynton Hall, the residence of the baronet, is a lofty and handsome mansion, beautifully situated upon an eminence in a richly wooded park; the acclivities present some fine plantations, and a large sheet of water ornaments the grounds. On an elevated ridge, south of the Hall, is a pavilion erected by the late Sir George, from which is obtained an extensive prospect both of sea and land, particularly of Bridlington bay and the eastern heights of the Wolds. The village is in the vale of a rivulet flowing in an eastern direction to the coast. The living is a discharged perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 2., and in the patronage of Sir George Strickland, the impropriator, with a net income of £141: land and a money payment were assigned in 1777, in lieu of tithes. The church, which was rebuilt in the early part of the last century, consists of a nave and chancel, with a handsome tower; in the chancel are several monuments to the Strickland family.
BOYTON, a parish, in the union of Launceston, partly in the hundred of Black Torrington, N. division of the county of Devon, but chiefly in that of Stratton, E. division of Cornwall, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Launceston; containing, with the hamlet of Northcott, in Devon, 600 inhabitants. It comprises between 4000 and 5000 acres: the soil is clay, and in general very shallow, the surface rather hilly; there is a considerable quantity of coppice. The Bude and Launceston, or Tamar, canal intersects the parish. A fair is held on August 5th. The living is a perpetual curacy, net income, £123; patron, the Rev. G. Prideaux; impropriator, H. Thompson, Esq. Between this place and North Tamerton is an ancient thatched building, called Hornacott Chapel, now occupied by a labourer.
Boyton (St. Andrew)
BOYTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Wilford, E. division of Suffolk, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Woodbridge; containing 239 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1650 acres; the soil is for the most part light and heathy, with some few acres of marsh, and the surface level. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 1., and in the gift of the Trustees of Mrs. Mary Warner: the tithes have been commuted for £388, and the glebe consists of 23 acres. An almshouse was built in 1743, and liberally endowed by Mrs. Warner.
Boyton (St. Mary)
BOYTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Warminster, hundred of Heytesbury, Warminster and S. divisions of Wilts, 1 mile (W. by S.) from Codford; containing, with the township of Corton, 360 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated near the road from Bath to Salisbury, and intersected by the river Willey, comprises by measurement 3720 acres. The mansion-house of the Lamberts, adjoining the church, is an ancient edifice in the Elizabethan style, the grounds of which retain their original character; the terrace, walks, and hedges of yew-trees still remain as they probably appeared in 1660. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £27. 17. 3½., and in the patronage of Magdalene College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £560, and the glebe comprises 20 acres. The church is an ancient and picturesque structure, in the early and decorated English styles, with a porch of elegant design; the interior is embellished with a beautiful circular window, and in the south aisle is a sepulchral chapel, now belonging to the Lambert family, but originally built by the Giffards, of whom Sir Alexander Giffard, the friend of the younger Long Espée, was interred here. There is a place of worship for Baptists. Aylmer Bourke Lambert, the celebrated botanist, was born in the parish.
Bozeat (St. Mary)
BOZEAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wellingborough, hundred of Higham-Ferrers, N. division of the county of Northampton, 5¾ miles (N.) from Olney; containing 845 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the border of Bedfordshire, and comprises 2537a. 3r. 8p., of which above 120 acres are woodland; the surface is in some parts hilly, especially at the north end, and in others level; the soil is a cold clay. Limestone is quarried. The road from Wellingborough to Olney passes through the village. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the rectory of Strixton consolidated, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £183; patron, Earl Spencer; impropriators, the representatives of the late Dr. Laurence, Archbishop of Cashel: the glebe comprises 120 acres. Land and annual money payments were assigned in 1798, in lieu of tithes. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Brabourne (St. Mary)
BRABOURNE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of East Ashford, franchise and barony of Bircholt, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 7 miles (E. by S.) from Ashford; containing 889 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 3504 acres, and is crossed by the railway from London to Dovor: there are 227 acres of wood. Extensive cavalry and infantry barracks were erected a few years since. A fair for toys and pedlery is held on the last day in May. The living is a vicarage, with the rectory of Monk's-Horton consolidated, valued in the king's books at £11. 12. 6., and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The great tithes of Brabourne, belonging to his Grace, have been commuted for £613, with a glebe of 82 acres; and those of the incumbent for £270, with a glebe of one acre, and a residence. The church is very ancient, and contains numerous interesting monuments. There is a chapel for Calvinistic Baptists.
Braceborough, or Braceburgh (St. Margaret)
BRACEBOROUGH, or Braceburgh (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Stamford, wapentake of Ness, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (N. E.) from Stamford; containing, with the hamlet of Shillingthorpe, 231 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £195: corn-rents were assigned in the 39th and 40th of George III. in lieu of tithes. There is a fine spring called the Spa, with convenience for bathing; its waters are beneficial in cases of scurvy.
Bracebridge (All Saints)
BRACEBRIDGE (All Saints), a parish, in the wapentake of Boothby-Graffo, parts of Kesteven, union and county of Lincoln, 2¼ miles (S. by W.) from Lincoln; containing 127 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 9. 9½., and in the patronage of the family of Bromehead; net income, £203; impropriators, Edward Gibbeson, Esq., of Red Hall, and William Colegrave, Esq. The church is ancient, and consists of a nave, chancel, and south aisle, with a tower.
Braceby (St. Margaret)
BRACEBY (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Grantham, wapentake of Winnibriggs and Threo, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 4½ miles (W. by N.) from Falkingham, and 7 (E.) from Grantham; containing 155 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, united to that of South Grantham: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £132. 17. 6., and the vicarial for £55. The church is a small structure, without a tower; the exterior cornice is curiously wrought with the heads of men, foxes, roses, &c.
Brace-Meole (All Saints)
BRACE-MEOLE (All Saints), a parish, in the union, and partly within the borough, of Shrewsbury, N. division of Salop, 1½ mile (S.) from Shrewsbury; containing 1195 inhabitants. It comprises 2487a. 3r. 3p., of which 1079 acres are arable, 1382 meadow, pasture, and homesteads, and 25 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; patron, the Ven. Edward Bather, Archdeacon of Salop; impropriators, the landowners. The great tithes have been commuted for £119, and the vicarial for £391: there are 11 acres of glebe. The Shrewsbury house of industry, a noble building, stands in the parish.
Bracewell (St. Michael)
BRACEWELL (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 9 miles (W. by S.) from Skipton; containing 153 inhabitants. This place is called in ancient documents Breiswell and Brais-well, signifying "the well on the bray" or "brow." The parish comprises by computation 1920 acres: the surface is beautifully undulated, and the hills are covered with luxuriant verdure; the lands are chiefly in pasture. The ancient manor-house, now a ruin, consisted of a centre with two boldly projecting wings, built of brick in the reign of Henry VIII.; and to the north of it are the remains of a former house of stone, in which an apartment called "King Henry's parlour" was the retreat of Henry VI. There are some quarries of excellent limestone, which is used both for building and for burning into lime. The village is pleasantly situated and neatly built: on the north the parish adjoins the turnpike-road between Gisburn and Skipton; and the Leeds and Liverpool canal passes about two miles east of the church. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £2. 2. 9½., net income, £123; patron and impropriator, Earl de Grey. The church, nearly adjoining the manor-house, and probably founded by the Tempest family, is an ancient structure chiefly in the Norman style, enlarged by the addition of a north aisle in the reign of Henry VII.: it has a plain Norman doorway on the south, and a similar arch divides the chancel from the nave; it contains the family-vault of the Tempests, whose armorial bearings embellish several of the windows. On the summit of two hills, called Howber and Gildersber, are remains of military works, said to have been thrown up by the army of Prince Rupert, on its march through Craven, in 1664.
BRACKEN, a township, in the chapelry of Kilnwick, union of Driffield, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 6¾ miles (S. W. by S.) from Driffield; containing 33 inhabitants. It is on the road from Beverley to Malton, and comprises about 600 acres. The village was formerly populous; and contained a chapel, the cemetery belonging to which remains undisturbed.
BRACKENFIELD, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Morton, union of Chesterfield, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 4 miles (N. W.) from Alfreton; containing 459 inhabitants. The family of Heriz possessed Brackenfield, then called Brackenthwayte, in the reign of King John; it afterwards became the property of the Willoughbys, and in later times of the Turbutt family. The district comprises 1557a. 24p., whereof 452 acres are arable, 905 pasture, and 63 wood: it is skirted by the Midland railway. Framework knitting is carried on. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of Morton; net income, £32, derived from the interest of £1000, Queen Anne's Bounty. A rent-charge of £176. 15. has been awarded as a commutation of the tithes. The chapel, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was rebuilt in 1846. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists; and a national school, for which a house was built in 1844, is supported by subscription.
BRACKENHILL, a township, in the parish of Arthuret, union of Longtown, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 4¼ miles (E. by N.) from Longtown; containing 373 inhabitants. In this township is the small hamlet of Easton, which anciently gave name to a parish, long since included within the parishes of Arthuret and Kirk-Andrews-upon-Esk.
Brackenholme, with Woodhall
BRACKENHOLME, with Woodhall, a township, in the parish of Hemingbrough, union of Howden, wapentake of Ouse and Derwent, E. riding of York, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Howden; containing 77 inhabitants. It is situated in the vale of the Derwent, and comprises about 1200 acres: the village is on the road from Howden to Hemingbrough.
BRACKENTHWAITE, a township, in the parish of Lorton, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 8½ miles (W. by S.) from Keswick; containing 116 inhabitants. The neighbourhood abounds with beautiful and picturesque scenery.
BRACKLEY, an incorporated market-town, a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of King'sSutton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 20 miles (S. W. by S.) from Northampton, and 64 (N. W. by W.) from London; containing 2121 inhabitants, of whom 887 are in the parish of St. James, and 1234 in that of St. Peter, which includes the hamlet of Halse. This place derives its name from the Anglo-Saxon Bracken, signifying fern, with which the neighbourhood formerly abounded: it was a Saxon burgh of considerable importance, but was greatly injured by the Danes. In the reign of John, Saher de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, joined the confederate barons at Stamford, and marched with them to Brackley, whence they sent a remonstrance setting forth their grievances to the king, who was then at Oxford. In the reign of Henry III. two splendid tournaments were held on a plain called Bayard's Green, near the town. Edward II., who conferred many privileges upon Brackley, made it a staple town for wool; and in the reign of Edward III., having become famous for its trade, it sent three representatives, as "Merchant Staplers," to a grand council held at Westminster. In the time of Henry VIII., the plague raging violently at Oxford, the fellows and scholars of Magdalen College removed to this town, and resided in an hospital founded by Robert le Bossu, Earl of Leicester, about the middle of the twelfth century, and of which there are considerable remains; the chapel, with a broad low tower on the north-west side, being still entire.
The town, which was formerly of much greater extent, is on the border of Buckinghamshire, and is situated on the declivity of a hill, near a branch of the river Ouse, whose source is in the immediate vicinity: it is divided into two portions, New and Old; the latter, which is the smaller, is without the limits of the borough. The principal street, nearly a mile in length, extends from the bridge up the acclivity of the hill, and contains many good houses, mostly built of stone; there is an abundant supply of water. The inhabitants are chiefly occupied in the making of bobbin-lace, and boots and shoes. The market is on Wednesday; the fairs are principally for horses, horned-cattle, and sheep, and are on the Wednesday after Feb. 25th, the second Wednesday in April, the Wednesday after June 22nd, the Wednesday after Oct. 11th (a statute-fair), and Dec. 11th, which is a great fair for cattle and wearing-apparel. The inhabitants are supposed to have received their first charter of incorporation in the reign of Edward II., and subsequent charters were granted in the 2nd and 4th of James II., by which the government is vested in a mayor, six aldermen, and twenty-six burgesses. The elective franchise was conferred in the 1st of Edward VI., the borough from that time returned two members to parliament, but was disfranchised by the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45. The powers of the county debt-court of Brackley, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Brackley. The town-hall, a handsome building in the centre of the town, supported on arches, under which the market is held, was erected in 1706, by Scroop, Duke of Bridgewater, at a cost of £2000.
Brackley comprises the parishes of St. Peter and St. James, which, though ecclesiastically united, are distinct as regards civil affairs; the former consists of 3716 acres, and the latter of 430a. 3r. 36p. The living is a consolidated vicarage, valued in the king's books at £19. 1. 6.; net income, £359; patron, the Earl of Ellesmere. Under an inclosure act, in 1829, land and a money payment were assigned in lieu of tithes; and under the recent act, impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £167. 10., and vicarial for one of £238. 6. 10. The church of St. Peter is an ancient building, with a low embattled tower, and contains a Norman font of curious design: St. James', formerly a parochial church, is now a chapel of ease. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The free grammar school was founded about the year 1447, by William of Wainfleet, who endowed it for ten boys, with £13. 6. 8. per annum, which sum is paid by the society of Magdalen College, Oxford, to whom the site of the ancient hospital was granted at the time of its dissolution. A national school is supported by subscription; and a school-house, of Bath stone, for an infants' school, has been built by the Earl of Ellesmere, at a cost of £400. Almshouses for six aged widows were founded by Sir Thomas Crewe, in 1633, and endowed with a rent-charge of £24, which was increased, in 1721, by his descendant, Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, to £36. The poor law union of Brackley comprises 30 parishes or places, of which 25 are in the county of Northampton, 3 in that of Buckingham, and 2 in that of Oxford; and contains a population of 13,508. The site of a castle built by one of the Norman barons, is still called the Castle Hill. Samuel Clarke, an eminent orientalist, and one of the coadjutors of Walton in publishing the Polyglot Bible, was born here, in 1623; and Dr. Bathurst, Bishop of Norwich, who died in 1837, was also a native. Brackley gives the title of Viscount to the Earl of Ellesmere.