A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Grantham (St. Wulfran)
GRANTHAM (St. Wulfran), a borough, markettown, and parish, and the head of a union, in the wapentake of Loveden, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln; containing, with the three townships of Manthorpe with Little Gonerby, Harrowby, and Spittlegate with Houghton and Walton, 8691 inhabitants, of whom 4683 are in the town, 24 miles (S. by W.) from Lincoln, and 111 (N. by W.) from London. This place, from its situation on the Ermin-street, is supposed to have been a Roman station, but there is no evidence of its having ever been occupied by that people; and of the origin of an ancient castle to the east of the church, and near the river Witham, of which the foundations are said to have been dug up, no authentic information is recorded. The manor was held by Editha, queen of Edward the Confessor, and continued in the crown till the reign of Henry III. About the year 1290, a house of Franciscan or Grey friars was founded on the west side of the town, the site of which was granted by Henry VIII. to Robert Bocher and David Vincent: this place, called the Grange, is extraparochial, is now used as a garden, and comprises many acres adjoining the market-place. There was also a commandery of Knights Hospitallers in the town, the remains of which form part of the Angel inn. During the civil war of the 17th century, Grantham was an object of interest with the contending parties; and the neighbourhood was the scene of the first advantage gained over the royalists by Cromwell.
The town is pleasantly situated on the river Witham, near the vale of Belvoir, and on the great road to York. It consists principally of four spacious streets, and is well paved; it was first lighted with gas in 1833, by a company established with a capital of £6000, and is amply supplied with water. The houses are in general of respectable appearance, and in the town and the several approaches to it many substantial houses have been recently erected, among which is a savings' bank, a handsome structure of stone, in the Elizabethan style, forming a conspicuous ornament. The theatre, a neat brick building, is opened during the winter season; and assemblies are held at the guildhall. The environs abound with pleasing scenery, and are ornamented with several seats and villas. The trade is chiefly in corn, malt, and coal, of which large quantities are sent to the adjoining counties. A navigable canal, commencing within a quarter of a mile of the town, and joining the Trent at Nottingham, was constructed under an act of parliament passed in 1793. The great railway from London to York will run by the town; and an act was obtained in 1846 for a railway from Ambergate and Nottingham, by Grantham, to Boston and Spalding. The market, which is extensively supplied with corn, is on Saturday, and every alternate week there is a large mart for live-stock; the fairs are on the fifth Monday in Lent, Holy-Thursday, July 10th, October 26th, and December 17th, for horses and cattle.
Charters were granted to the town by Edward IV., Richard III., Henry VIII., Edward VI., Philip and Mary, Elizabeth, James I., Charles I. and II., and James II. Under these the corporation consisted of an alderman, recorder, deputy-recorder, 13 com-burgesses (including the alderman), and 12 second burgesses, assisted by a town-clerk, coroner, and other officers: the jurisdiction extended over the borough and liberties, which latter comprised certain parishes or townships called the Soke. By the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the government is now vested in four aldermen and twelve councillors, one of whom is mayor; the justices of the peace consist of the mayor, late mayor, and 4 others nominated by the crown. The freedom is inherited by birth, and acquired by servitude. The elective franchise was conferred in the 7th of Edward IV., since which time the borough has returned two members to parliament: the right of election was formerly in the freemen not receiving alms, whether resident or not, in number upwards of 800; but by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, the non-resident freemen, except within seven miles, were disfranchised, and the privilege was extended to the £10 householders, of an enlarged district. The ancient borough comprised 408 acres; the present electoral limits comprehend 5310. The borough magistrates hold petty-sessions in the guildhall weekly, or oftener if required; and under the charter of James I. there is a court of record for debts not exceeding £40. The justices for the parts of Kesteven, although otherwise unconnected with the town, hold petty-sessions in it by virtue of an act of parliament: the powers of the county debt-court of Grantham, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistrict of Grantham, and part of that of Newark. The guildhall, a neat and commodious edifice, was built in 1787, and, in addition to the rooms for the transaction of public business, contains a spacious assembly-room. The common gaol and house of correction is adapted to the classification of prisoners.
The living comprises the united vicarages of North and South Grantham; the former, with the vicarage of Londonthorpe, valued in the king's books at £19. 4. 7.; and the latter, with the vicarage of Braceby, at £17. 15. 7½.; net income, £1006; patrons, alternately, the Prebendaries of North and South Grantham in the Cathedral of Salisbury. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1795. The church is a magnificent structure, partly in the early and partly in the decorated English style, with a lofty tower engaged in the lower stages, and surmounted by a richly crocketed spire. The tower communicates with the nave and aisles by three finely pointed arches, and the interior of the church displays great variety in the piers and arches which support the roof; the chancel has a range of small clerestory windows, and a stone screen of exquisite design. Among the numerous monuments, the most elegant are those to Sir Thomas Bury, chief baron of the exchequer in the reign of George I.; Sir Dudley Ryder, chief justice of the court of king's bench; and Captain Cust, R.N., who fell in the action at Port Louis, in 1747. A lecture in the church on Wednesday morning is endowed with a stipend of £90 per annum; the right of presentation belongs to the Drapers' Company, London. A district church, dedicated to St. John, has been completed at Spittlegate. There are places of worship for Huntingtonians, Independents, and Weslevans, and a Roman Catholic chapel.
The free grammar school was founded in 1528, by Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester, who endowed it with £6. 13. 4. per annum for the master, which sum, and others for repairs of the house, are charged upon estates belonging to Corpus Christi College, Oxford. It was further endowed by charter of Edward VI., with the revenues of two dissolved charities, called the Holy Trinity and the Blessed Mary, and certain obits, and was ordered to be called the "Free Grammar School of King Edward VI." The annual income now exceeds £700, the surplus of which is appropriated to the foundation of exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge. Sir Isaac Newton, who was born at Woolsthorpe, about eight miles from Grantham, received the rudiments of his education in this school. Various charitable bequests have been left for the poor. The union, of Grantham comprises 52 parishes or places, of which 46 are in the county of Lincoln, and 6 in that of Leicester; and contains 25,619 inhabitants. Near the town is a chalybeate spring, but the water is not much used. Bishop Fox and Dr. John Still, Bishop of Bath and Wells in the reign of Elizabeth, the supposed author of Gammer Gurton's Needle, the earliest comedy extant in the English language, were natives of the town. Grantham gives the inferior title of Baron to Earl de Grey.
GRANTLEY, a township, in the parish and liberty of Ripon, W. riding of York, 5½ miles (W. by S.) from Ripon; containing 246 inhabitants. The township includes the hamlets of Redmires and Low Grantley, and comprises about 900 acres, mostly the property of Lord Grantley. Grantley Hall, a seat of his lordship's, is a handsome mansion in pleasant grounds. A school is endowed with land producing £10 per annum.
Grappenhall (St. Wilfrid)
GRAPPENHALL (St. Wilfrid), a parish, in the union of Warrington, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester; containing, with the chapelry of Latchford, 2948 inhabitants, of whom 587 are in the township of Grappenhall, 2¾ miles (S. E.) from Warrington. This parish is bounded on the north by the river Mersey. The township comprises 1548a. 2r. 31p., whereof about two-thirds are arable, and one-third pasture, with a very small portion of woodland; the soil is various, in some parts a stiff clay, and in others a light sandy loam, and the surface is generally level. There are three tan-yards, and the cotton manufacture is carried on at Latchford. The Duke of Bridgewater's and the Old Quay Company's canals pass through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 11. 10½.; net income, £542; patron, Thomas Greenall, Esq. The church is an ancient structure, in the Norman and early English styles, with additions; it is a handsome erection of stone, and consists of a nave, chancel, aisles, and a tower. At Latchford is a district church. A school was built at the expense of the parish in 1712, and is endowed with land producing £10 per annum.
Grasmere (St. Oswald)
GRASMERE (St. Oswald), a parish, in Kendal ward and union, county of Westmorland; comprising the townships of Grasmere, and Rydal with Loughrigg, the chapelry of Langdale, and part of Ambleside; and containing 1681 inhabitants, of whom 345 are in the township of Grasmere, 4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Ambleside. This place anciently formed part of the extensive parish of Kendal, in which it was a chapelry; it is beautifully situated on the road from Kendal to Whitehaven, and is watered by the small stream Rothay, which unites the lakes of Grasmere and Windermere. The lake of Grasmere, which elicited the praise of Gray at a time when the lake-district was almost unknown, is of an oval shape, about a mile in length, and something less than half a mile in breadth, and is wholly surrounded by mountains. The parish comprises 6900 acres, of which 5000 are waste land or common. Slate is quarried in several parts, and also the stone provincially called ragstone, which is used for all kinds of buildings: lead-mines were formerly worked. At the back of the village is Helm Crag, composed of huge and lofty masses of rock. There are three bobbin-mills in the parish, employing about 150 hands; and in the chapelry of Langdale are powder-works. A fair for sheep is held on the first Tuesday in September. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28. 11. 5½., and in the gift of the family of Le Fleming: the tithes have been commuted for £160, and the glebe contains 6 acres. The church, a very ancient edifice, lately repaired by subscription at an expense of £330, belonged to the Abbey of St. Mary, York; near it is a well which never freezes, consecrated to Oswald, who was Bishop of York in the twelfth century. There are chapels at Ambleside, Langdale, and Rydal; also a place of worship for Independents; and a grammar school, founded in 1723 by John Kelswick, and endowed by him with lands now producing about £160 per annum.
Grassby (All Saints)
GRASSBY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Caistor, S. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Caistor; containing 374 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the slope of a range of hills, forming a portion of the North Wolds, comprises about 1200 acres; the soil is generally chalky, in some parts of a clayey nature. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 17. 8½.; patron, S. Turner, Esq.; impropriator, M. Barkinshaw, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 1815; the glebe comprises 151a. 2r. 4p., valued at £256 per annum. The church is an ancient structure. A place of worship for Wesleyans was built in 1840.
GRASSINGTON, a township, in the parish of Linton, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 10 miles (N.) from Skipton; containing 1056 inhabitants. This township, which is on the eastern side of Wharfdale, comprises by computation 4960 acres, chiefly a high moor affording tolerable pasturage: the population is partly employed in mines, worsted-mills, and other works. The lead-mines and smelting-works are scattered over a district nearly three miles in extent, and are drained by a level which was commenced in 1796, and completed in 1830, at an expense of more than £35,000; the mines produce annually about 900 tons of lead, and afford constant occupation to about 300 persons. The village is situated on the acclivities of the valley; fairs are held in it on the 4th of March, 24th of April, 29th of June, and 26th of September. There are places of worship for Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans.
GRASSTHORPE, a township, in the parish of Marnham, union of Southwell, N. division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 4½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Tuxford; containing 94 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1799. An ancient chapel, dedicated to St. James, has been converted into a dwelling-house.
Grately (St. Leonard)
GRATELY (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union and hundred of Andover, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 6½ miles (W. S. W.) from Andover; containing 141 inhabitants. This place was of some importance at an early period, and the residence of Athelstan, King of the West Saxons, who held his court here, at which time it had five churches. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 9. 2., and in the gift of the Rev. J. Constable: the tithes have been commuted for £263. 5., and the glebe comprises 40 acres. Benson Earle in 1790 bequeathed £5 per annum for a schoolmistress, and the interest of £200 to the poor.
GRATTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Youlgrave, union of Bakewell, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 5½ miles (S. by W.) from Bakewell; containing 35 inhabitants.
Gratwich (St. Mary)
GRATWICH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Uttoxeter, S. division of the hundred of Totmonslow, N. division of the county of Stafford, 4¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Uttoxeter; containing 119 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the river Blythe, and comprises 852a. 2r. 1p., of which 230 acres are arable, 568 pasture, and the remainder woodland; the surface is undulated, the scenery picturesque, and the soil of fertile quality. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 7. 6., and in the gift of Earl Talbot: the tithes have been commuted for £100. 3., and the glebe comprises 23 acres, with a house. The church is a small brick edifice, with a tower of wood.
Graveley (St. Botolph)
GRAVELEY (St. Botolph), a parish, in the union of St. Neot's, hundred of Papworth, county of Cambridge, 6 miles (S.) from Huntingdon; containing 294 inhabitants, and comprising 1558a. 1r. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 3. 4.; net income, £312; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Jesus College, Cambridge. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1802; the land comprises 577 acres. The church is an ancient structure, in the decorated English style. A school was founded in 1763, by the Rev. Henry Trotter, then rector.
Graveley (St. Mary)
GRAVELEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hitchin, hundred of Broadwater, county of Hertford, 2 miles (N.) from Stevenage; containing, with the merged parish of Chivesfield, 403 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1817a. 1r. 13p.; the soil is a black loam, resting on chalk. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 0. 10., and in the gift of the Rev. T. Fordham Green: the tithes have been commuted for £430, and the glebe comprises 32 acres, with a house. The church has a square embattled tower at the west end, surmounted by a spire covered with lead. There are some remains of Chivesfield church. The Roman road from Verulam to Chesterfield passes through the parish.
Graveney (All Saints)
GRAVENEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Faversham, hundred of Boughton-under-Blean, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Faversham; containing 214 inhabitants. It comprises 2002 acres, of which 19 are in wood. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to the rectory of Goodneston, and valued in the king's books at £12. The church is principally in the early English style, and contains several ancient memorials, including two to Judge Martyn and his wife.
GRAVENHANGER, a township, in the parish of Muckleston, union of Drayton, Drayton division of the hundred of North Bradford, N. division of Salop, 6½ miles (N. E.) from the town of Drayton; containing 148 inhabitants.
Gravenhurst, Lower (St. Mary)
GRAVENHURST, LOWER (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Ampthill, hundred of Flitt, county of Bedford, 3 miles (E.) from Silsoe; containing 50 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1200 acres, of which 800 are arable, 300 pasture, and 100 meadow, all in one freehold farm; about 100 acres are a rich alluvial soil, and the remainder a fertile clay. A few of the inhabitants are employed in the straw-plat manufacture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 12. 11.; net income, £243; patron, the Lord Chancellor. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1820; the land consists of about 40 acres, and a good glebe-house has been lately built. The Countess de Grey, and Trinity College, Cambridge, are entitled to a portion of the tithes. The church was erected by Robert de Bilhemore, whose armorial bearings are displayed on the porch, and to whose memory there is a tomb.
Gravenhurst, Upper (St. Giles)
GRAVENHURST, UPPER (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Ampthill, hundred of Flitt, county of Bedford, 4 miles (E. by N.) from Silsoe; containing 373 inhabitants. The manufacture of straw-plat is carried on to a considerable extent. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £50; patrons, the Parishioners; impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1820. There are 4 acres of glebe in the parish, and 5 at Wootton.
Gravesend (St. George)
GRAVESEND (St. George), a market-town and parish, having separate jurisdiction, in the union of Gravesend and Milton, locally in the hundred of Toltingtrough, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 15½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Maidstone, and 22½ (E. by S.) from London; containing, with the parish of Milton, 15,670 inhabitants, of whom 6414 are in Gravesend. This place, called in Domesday book Graves-ham, and in the Textus Roffensis Græves-ænd, appears to have derived those names from the Saxon gerefa, a greeve or reeve; implying either the habitation of the portreeve, or the limit of his jurisdiction: by some antiquaries the name is derived from græf, a coppice, denoting the situation of the place at the extremity of a wood towards the sea. In the reign of Richard II., the French laid waste many of the adjacent villages, plundered and burnt the town, and carried off several of the inhabitants prisoners. It was soon afterwards rebuilt, and to indemnify the inhabitants for the loss they sustained upon that occasion, Richard II. granted them the exclusive privilege of conveying passengers to and from London, which right is still exercised under regulations adapted to the present times. In the reign of Henry VIII., two platforms were raised for the protection of the town, and a blockhouse was erected at Tilbury, on the opposite bank of the Thames, for the defence of the river. In 1727 the greater part of the town was destroyed by a fire that broke out near the church, which edifice, with more than 100 houses, was burnt down. George I. landed here on his first arrival from Germany, and Gravesend has been frequently distinguished by crowned heads landing and embarking at the pier.
The town is in the two parishes of Gravesend and Milton, which are separated by the High-street. It is pleasantly situated on an acclivity rising from the south bank of the Thames, and is paved and lighted under the provisions of an act which was extended by another passed in 1840; in 1846 an act was obtained for better supplying the town with water. It has been much improved within the last few years, principally owing to the introduction of steam navigation on the river; and there are now several piers or landing-places, one of which, erected under an act obtained in 1833, was opened on July 29th, 1834: it is composed of iron and timber, is 160 feet in length, and has two flights of stairs for landing. The Terrace pier, situated in front of the Terrace gardens, and in a line with Harmer-street, is wholly of cast-iron, and was completed in the spring of 1845, from the designs of Mr. Redman; it is 250 feet in length, and supported on Doric columns. The salubrity of the air, the beauty of the surrounding scenery, the short distance from the metropolis, and the facility of conveyance by steam-boats, have, within the last few years, greatly contributed to render Gravesend a place of resort; and in proportion to the increase of visiters, preparations have been made for their accommodation. At the east and west ends of the town are convenient bathing-houses, fitted up with warm, cold, vapour, and shower baths; and bathing-machines are kept at the water-side. Adjoining the bathing-house at the west end, Mr. Palliser, the proprietor of the Falcon tavern, has built a splendid hotel, called the Clifton, at a cost of upwards of £10,000. An elegant building, erected for a literary institution and as assembly-rooms, was opened in March, 1842, at the north end of Harmerstreet; it is in the Grecian style, with a portico supported by columns of the Ionic order, and contains a fine organ presented by Mr. Harmer. A theatre is occasionally used. In the 35th of Henry VIII., a blockhouse was erected at Milton, upon ground conveyed to that monarch by William Burston: it remained in the possession of the crown till 1835, when the board of ordnance sold the land adjoining it to four of the inhabitants, who afterwards disposed of the same to a company; and some gardens, called the Terrace Gardens, have been laid out there under the able direction of Mr. Loudon. Milton, within the last few years, has undergone great changes, and is now the best part of the town; the new street called Harmer-street opens an approach to the Terrace Gardens from the new London road. At the eastern extremity is the parsonage-house of Milton; and near it New-Tavern Fort, mounting 16 pieces of ordnance, with accommodations for a commandant and some veterans of the artillery: of late, however, the commandant's house has been leased to the town-clerk of Gravesend, under a covenant that he shall quit in the event of a war. A company was formed some years ago, with a capital of £30,000, and took about 17 acres of ground in the vicinity, which they laid out at a great expense, as botanic and zoological gardens, and in which they erected a handsome banqueting-room, capable of accommodating 600 persons; the place is called the Rosherville Gardens, and is now only resorted to for purposes of amusement.
Gravesend being within the jurisdiction of the port of London, all outward-bound ships, until recently, were here obliged to undergo a second clearing; but this practice has been disused. Outward-bound vessels take in their pilots at Gravesend, and also all vessels entering the port of London, for the navigation of the river. The outward-bound Indiamen, likewise, receive their supplies of fresh provisions, vegetables, liquors, ammunition, and stores, at the place. A considerable number of vessels is employed in the cod and turbot fisheries; and fine shrimps are caught here in great abundance. There are extensive lime and brick works, and a manufactory for ropes and twine; and shipbuilding has been carried on largely in a yard to the north-west of the town, where several men-of-war and frigates, exclusively of smaller vessels, have been built. The principal trade arises from the supply of the numerous ships which, on their passage outward, stop to take in stores, &c., and from the number of seamen who furnish themselves with slops, for the sale of which there are numerous shops in the town. A considerable quantity of ground in the neighbourhood is appropriated to the cultivation of vegetables for the use of the shipping, and of asparagus of superior quality for the London market, for the conveyance of which, and for the promotion of the general trade, great advantages are afforded by the Thames. The Gravesend and Rochester single-track railway, formed for the most part along the bank of the Thames and Medway canal, was opened in February, 1845; it was subsequently sold to the SouthEastern Company, who filled up the canal, and laid down a second line of rails. This latter company obtained an act in 1846 for a railway from Gravesend to Greenwich, 22½ miles in length. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, the former for corn; the fairs are on May 4th and October 24th, for horses, cloth, and various sorts of merchandise. Between Gravesend and Tilbury Fort, is a ferry.
The inhabitants, with those of the parish of Milton, were incorporated by charter of Queen Elizabeth, under the designation of the "Portreeve, Jurats, and Inhabitants of Gravesend and Milton;" and this charter was ratified and extended by Charles I., who enjoined that the mayor and jurats should attend all foreign ambassadors, and other illustrious visiters who landed at the place, and conduct them in their barges to London; or, if they preferred proceeding by land, escort them to Blackheath. By the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the corporation now consists of a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors, and the borough is divided into two wards; the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, and the total number of magistrates is eight. The corporation hold a court of record, under the charter of Charles, every third Tuesday, for the recovery of debts to any amount, the mayor and three of the aldermen presiding; and petty-sessions are held three times a week. The powers of the county debt-court of Gravesend, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Gravesend, and part of the districts of North Aylesford and Orsett. The corporation of London, as conservators of the rivers Thames and Medway, hold courts for the county of Kent twice in the year. The town-hall, rebuilt by the corporation in 1836, is a handsome edifice, supported on four columns in front, and having underneath it, and at the back, a spacious and convenient market.
The rural district of the parish comprises by computation 496 acres, of which about 300 are arable, 100 pasture, and 80 garden-ground. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £284. 10. 6., and the glebe comprises 22 acres. The church, built under an act passed in the 4th of George II., by which the sum of £5000 was granted to defray the expense, is a neat and spacious structure of brick, with quoins and cornices of stone. A proprietary chapel for Gravesend and Milton, erected at a cost of £7500, was completed in 1834; it is dedicated to St. John, and is a handsome edifice of grey brick. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; and a cemetery has been formed by a company, under an act of the 1st of Victoria, for the convenience of all denominations, at a short distance from the town: it comprises six acres of land ornamentally laid out, and substantially walled in, with catacombs, chapels, a board-room for the directors, and other buildings. The free school was founded by the corporation, and in 1703 Mr. David Varchell, one of the body, endowed it with tenements producing at present about £70 per annum: the endowment, in 1710, was augmented by Mr. James Fry, with a rent-charge of £14. 10. On the enlargement of the market-place, provision was made for the erection of a more commodious free school, which was completed in 1835, and is now united with a national school. The almshouses of the charity estate of Henry Pinnock and James Fry, also, have been rebuilt in the Elizabethan style, corresponding with the free school opposite, by aid of the Commissioners of Pavements, and by subscription. The poor law union of Gravesend and Milton is limited to these two parishes, and is superintended by eight guardians.
GRAVESHIP, NETHER, a township, in the parish, union, and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 1 mile (S.) from Kendal; containing 334 inhabitants. Collinfield House, in the township, exhibits some beautiful geometrical windows, fine specimens of the style prevailing in the reign of Elizabeth. At a place called Stone-Cross Barn, an ancient cross has been standing from time immemorial.
Grayingham (St. Radegund)
GRAYINGHAM (St. Radegund), a parish, in the union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Cottingham, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 1½ mile (S.) from Kirton; containing 157 inhabitants, and comprising 1642a. 2r. 37p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 17. 6.; net income, £450; patron, Sir J. C. Thorold, Bart. The glebe comprises 18a. 2r. 8p.; the glebe-house was lately built by the Rev. W. Verelst, rector. The church, originally in the early English style, has been much disfigured by additions and alterations; in the lower portions of the tower are some of the most perfect of the original details.
GRAYRIGG, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Kendal, partly in Lonsdale ward, but chiefly in Kendal ward, county of Westmorland, 5½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Kendal; comprising the townships of Dillicar, Docker, Grayrigg, Lambrigg, Whinfell, and part of Patton; and containing 801 inhabitants, of whom 264 are in Grayrigg township. The chapelry consists by computation of 17,000 acres, of which one-third is arable, one-third pasture, and the remainder common and waste; the surface is undulated and partly mountainous, and the soil generally productive. The Lancaster and Carlisle railway intersects the chapelry, passing amidst scenery of the most romantic character. Between the townships of Docker and Lambrigg it is carried over a deep gill by a noble viaduct, justly admired for its proportions, and light yet substantial appearance; near this viaduct is the Grayrigg station, and there is another station at a place called Low Gill, in Dillicar. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £100; patron, the Vicar of Kendal. The chapel, dedicated to St. John, was rebuilt at the expense of the inhabitants, in 1708, and again, on an enlarged plan, in 1837, at a cost of £1017, raised by subscription, aided by a grant of £100 from the Incorporated Society; it is a neat edifice, in the later English style. The Society of Friends have a meeting-house (which has not been used, however, for the last few years), with a burial-ground attached. A boys' school has an endowment of £30 per annum; and a girls' school has been lately built. At Grayrigg are the remains of a Roman camp.
GRAYSOUTHEN, a township, in the parish of Brigham, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Cockermouth; containing 584 inhabitants. There are two collieries, a sickle-manufactory, and a flax-mill in which linen-thread is spun. The tithes were commuted for land under several inclosure acts, the last of which was in 1819. A school is endowed with £15 per annum.
GREASBOROUGH, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Rotherham, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Rotherham; containing 1623 inhabitants. This district comprises by computation 2270 acres, the whole of which, with the exception of about 280 acres, is the property of the Earl Fitzwilliam. The surface is finely varied, rising into eminences of considerable elevation, and diversified by extensive woods; the substratum is rich in mineral produce, coal of excellent quality is extensively worked, and a productive ironstone-mine is in operation. The village is situated on a delightful eminence near Wentworth Park, part of which is in the township: the Greasborough canal and Midland railway pass through the township, and there is a branch line from the Sheffield and Rotherham railway to this place, opened in 1839. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, was built in 1828, at an expense of £6000, towards which the Parliamentary Commissioners granted £2000, and the Earl Fitzwilliam the remainder, together with the site; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains 1000 sittings, of which 400 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Earl Fitzwilliam, with a net income of £182; impropriator, the Earl of Effingham. The Independents and Wesleyans have places of worship. In various parts of the township the remains of a Roman road are distinctly visible; it crosses the village, and passes along the head of a fine piece of water intersected with islands, and covering 20 acres of land.