A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Bradford-Abbas (St. Mary)
BRADFORD-ABBAS (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Sherborne, Sherborne division of Dorset, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Sherborne; containing 652 inhabitants. It comprises 1139a. 1r. 30p., of which 774 acres are arable, 336 pasture, and 29 woodland: the soil is partly of a sandy and partly of a stony nature; the surface is generally hilly, and where flat subject to inundation. The river Ivel passes through. The living is a vicarage, with which the rectory of Clifton-Mabank was united in 1824, valued in the king's books at £7. 17. 11., and in the gift of the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College, who exchanged the living of Milbourne-Port for this in 1824. The Marquess of Anglesey has commuted his share of the great tithes for £193. 17. 11.; the Warden and Fellows receive £45, and the vicarial tithes of the parish have been commuted for £156: the glebe belonging to the impropriator comprises nearly nine acres, and that of the vicar nearly 9½. The church is an elegant structure in the later English style, with a lofty square embattled tower of graceful elevation. The Rev. William Preston, in 1738, gave an estate now worth £24 per annum; and in 1781, Mark West and William Read gave property producing £12. 5. per annum; for which sums children are educated on the national system.
Bradford, Great (Holy Trinity)
BRADFORD, GREAT (Holy Trinity), a markettown and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Bradford, N. and Westbury divisions, and Trowbridge and Bradford subdivisions, of Wilts, 8 miles (S. E.) from Bath, 31½ (N. W.) from Salisbury, and 102 (W. by S.) from London; comprising 11,272 acres, and including the ancient chapelries of Atworth, Holt, Limpley-Stoke, Winsley, and South Wraxall, and the tythings of Leigh with Woolley, and Trowle; the whole containing 10,563 inhabitants, of whom 3836 are in the town. This place, from a ford over the river Avon, was called by the Saxons Bradenford, of which its present name is a contraction. During the heptarchy, a battle took place here between Cenwalh, King of the West Saxons, and a formidable party of his own subjects, who had rebelled against him, under the command of his kinsman Cuthred; when the latter were defeated with great slaughter. In 706, Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne, founded an abbey at the place, which he dedicated to St. Lawrence, and which, after its destruction by the Danes, was rebuilt and converted into a nunnery by Ethelred, who annexed it to a larger establishment of the same kind at Shaftesbury, in 1001.
The town is beautifully situated on the acclivity of a steep hill forming part of a line of eminences on the northern side of the river Avon, over which here are an ancient bridge of four, and a modern bridge of nine, arches, both affording agreeable prospects. The view of the town, which consists of three regular streets ranged above each other at different elevations on the side of the hill, is strikingly picturesque: the houses, built of stone, are in general handsome, and many of them elegant; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water from springs. Various designs have been carried into effect for the improvement of the town: in 1839 an act was passed for paving, lighting, watching, and otherwise improving it; some of the streets have been widened, and considerable alterations made for the furtherance of business. A book society and a newsroom have been established. The principal branch of manufacture is that of woollen-cloth (said by Leland to have flourished in the reign of Henry VIII.), particularly of the cloth composed of the finer kind of Spanish and Saxony wool, for the dyeing of which the water of the river is highly favourable. There are numerous factories, affording employment to many men, women, and children, in the town and neighbourhood. Ladies' cloth, kerseymere, and fancy pieces, are also manufactured to a considerable extent. The Kennet and Avon canal, which provides an increased facility of conveyance to various parts of the kingdom, passes close to the town, and a commodious wharf has been formed on its bank. The act also for constructing the Wilts, Somerset, and Weymouth railway, passed in 1845, sanctions the formation of a branch to Bradford, 1¾ mile in length. The market is on Saturday: the fairs are on Trinity-Monday, and the day after St. Bartholomew's day; the latter held at Bradford-Leigh, a hamlet in the parish.
Bradford sent members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I., but since that time it has made no return. Petty-sessions are held here alternately with Trowbridge: the powers of the county debt-court of Bradford, established in 1847, extend over nearly the whole of the registration-district of Bradford. A small oratory, on the south-western side of the bridge, formerly belonging to the monastery of St. Lawrence, has been converted into a place of confinement for offenders previously to their committal to the county gaol. The Living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Westwood annexed, valued in the king's books at £10. 1. 3.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Bristol. The great tithes of Bradford have been commuted for £1485, and the small for £1000; the appropriate glebe consists of 260 acres, and the vicarial of 3. The church, a spacious handsome structure, suffered greatly from fire in 1742, and has undergone extensive repair; the windows contain some modern stained glass, the altar is embellished with a good painting of the Last Supper, and there are several stately monuments of marble. A district church dedicated to Christ has been erected, the incumbent of which, appointed by the Vicar, has a net income of £150; and there are five chapels attached to the three perpetual curacies of Holt, Atworth with South Wraxall, and Winsley with Limpley-Stoke. There are also places of worship for Baptists, Independents, the Society of Friends, the Connexion of the Countess of Huntingdon, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. A free school is endowed with land producing £40 per annum. Two almshouses here, one founded by Mr. John Hall for aged men, the other for aged women, are supposed to have been an appendage to the monastery, of which, and of other religious establishments formerly existing, there are still some slight remains. The poor law union of Bradford comprises eight parishes or places, seven of them in Wilts, and one in Somerset; and contains a population of 13,379. Many curious fossils have been found in the quarries adjoining the town.
Bradford-Peverell (St. Mary)
BRADFORD-PEVERELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Dorchester, hundred of George, Dorchester division of Dorset, 3¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Dorchester; containing, with the hamlet of Muckleford, 355 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises by measurement 2180 acres, is situated on the river Frome, and bounded on the north by the main road from Dorchester to Yeovil, and on the south by the road to Bridport. There is an old Roman way in a straight line from the village to Dorchester; and in the vicinity are several tumuli, some of which, on being opened, were found to contain urns, burnt bones, coins, and various other relics of the Romans. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 2. 11.; net income, £229; patrons, the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College: corn-rents were assigned in lieu of tithes in 1798, and there are about 50 acres of glebe, with an excellent house. The church is a plain edifice: a good arch divides off the chancel; and on stained glass in one of the windows is the coat of arms of William of Wykeham.
BRADFORD, WEST, a township, in the parish of Mitton, union of Clitheroe, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 2 miles (N.) from Clitheroe; containing 366 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1700 acres, chiefly in pasture; it is intersected by the road from Grindleton to Waddington, and the river Ribble passes on the south-east, at a very short distance from the village.
Brading (St. Mary)
BRADING (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the liberty of East Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 4 miles (S.) from Ryde, and 95 (S. W.) from London; containing 2701 inhabitants. The parish comprises 9555 acres, of which 8156 are arable, pasture, and ground occupied by cottages and gardens; the remainder being the cliff, the harbour of Brading, and roads and waste. The town, which was formerly of considerable importance, as appears from its being styled "the King's Town of Brading" in the legend of its common seal, is situated to the south of the harbour, and may be approached by vessels of small burthen. Repeated attempts have been made to exclude the sea by an embankment; the last was by Sir Hugh Myddelton, the projector of the New River, who had effected this, when, during a wet season, the whole of the works, which had been raised at an expense of £7000, were destroyed by a spring tide. In the parish is Sandown fort, a quadrangular fortification, flanked by four bastions, and encompassed by a ditch; it was constructed in the reign of Henry VIII., on a level with the beach, and, having been greatly neglected after the rise of the English navy, was repaired during the late war, and made the most considerable fortress in the island.
The town consists principally of one long street, the houses in which are irregularly built; the inhabitants are plentifully supplied with water from public wells. The market, which is amply supplied with corn, is on Monday; and fairs are held on the 12th of May and 2nd of October. The government, by charter of incorporation granted prior to the reign of Edward VI., is vested in a senior and junior bailiff, two justices (who are the bailiffs of the preceding year), two constables, a steward, and other officers; the bailiffs are appointed at the court leet of the town. The town-hall is now partly used as a schoolroom; the lower portion contains a prison, and is also used for the market. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20, and in the gift of Trinity College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £1645, of which £1285 are payable to the college, £330 to the incumbent, and £30 to an impropriator; the glebe attached to the living consists of 3½ acres, and that belonging to the college of 16½ acres. The church is said to have been built in 704 by Wilfred, Bishop of Chichester, who here baptized his first converts to Christianity; it is a spacious structure with a tower, and some probable remains of Saxon architecture are preserved in the nave, though the building has undergone many alterations in other parts. A church was built at Bembridge in 1827; and in 1846 an additional church was erected, which occupies a lofty and conspicuous position, at Sandown. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.—See Bembridge.
BRADLEY, a township, in the parish of Malpas, union of Wrexham, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 2 miles (S. E. by E.) from Malpas; containing 99 inhabitants. In this township are 820 acres, of a clayey soil. The tithes have been commuted for £72.
Bradley (All Saints)
BRADLEY (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Appletree, union of Burton-upon-Trent, S. division of the county of Derby, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Ashbourn; containing 271 inhabitants. At the time of the Domesday survey, the manor belonged to Henry de Ferrers; and at a very early period it became the property and seat of the ancient family of Kniveton: Sir Andrew Kniveton, in 1655, sold the estate to the Meynells. Bradley comprises 2374a. 3r. 23p., the soil of which is, in nearly equal portions, strong and light. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 19. 9½., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Lichfield: the tithes have been commuted for £262, and the glebe comprises 55 acres. The church is a small ancient structure. There is a chalybeate spring, but not much used.
Bradley, with Sinwell.—See Sinwell.
Bradley (St. George)
BRADLEY (St. George), a parish, in the union of Caistor, wapentake of Bradley Haverstoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3 miles (S. W.) from Grimsby; containing 106 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 10. 10., and in the patronage of Sir John Nelthorpe, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £245, and there are nearly 7 acres of glebe.
Bradley (All Saints)
BRADLEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Basingstoke, hundred of Overton, Basingstoke and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 8¼ miles (S.) from Basingstoke; containing 125 inhabitants. It comprises about 1100 acres, of which 850 are arable, 23 meadow, and 220 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 4., and in the patronage of C. E. Rumbold, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £185, and there are 21 acres of glebe. The church is a small plain edifice, with 80 sittings.
BRADLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of Fladbury, union of Droitwich, Middle division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Droitwich and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 6¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Droitwich; containing, with the hamlet of Stock, 251 inhabitants, of whom 160 are in Bradley. It comprises 1096 acres of land, of rather level surface, and lies on the road from Droitwich to Stratford. The chapel has lately been put into excellent repair, at the joint expense of the congregation and the rector.
BRADLEY, BOTH, a township, in the parish of Kildwick, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 2½ miles (S. S. E.) from Skipton; containing 557 inhabitants. This township, which consists of the two hamlets of Upper and Lower Bradley, comprises 1576 acres, whereof 209 are common or waste, the whole the property of the Earl of Burlington; the soil is fertile, and stone is quarried. The tithes have been commuted for £43. 15. payable to the Dean and Chapter of ChristChurch, Oxford, and £23 to the vicar of the parish. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans, and a burial-place belonging to the Society of Friends.
Bradley, Great (St. Mary)
BRADLEY, GREAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Risbridge, W. division of Suffolk, 6½ miles (N. by E.) from Haverhill; containing 544 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 2306 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 1. 5½., and in the patronage of the Trustees of the Rev. W. S. Parr Wilder, the present incumbent: the tithes produce £650 per annum, and the glebe comprises about 50 acres. The church is an ancient structure.
Bradley-in-the-Moors (All Saints)
BRADLEY-in-the-Moors (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Cheadle, S. division of the hundred of Totmonslow, N. division of the county of Stafford, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Cheadle; containing 72 inhabitants. It lies near the road from Cheadle to Rocester, and comprises about 650 acres of land: the Earl of Shrewsbury is lord of the manor and principal owner of the soil. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £58; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Shrewsbury, whose rectory is valued in the king's books at £17. 11. 8. The church is a small edifice.
Bradley-Juxta-Stafford (All Saints)
BRADLEY-juxta-Stafford (All Saints), a parish, in the W. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, union, and S. division of the county, of Stafford, 3¾ miles (N. W.) from Penkridge; containing, with the liberties of Billington and Woollaston, 649 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement nearly 6000 acres of fertile land, the greater part arable, the rest pasture and meadow; and is situated near the Liverpool and Birmingham railway, and the Grand Trunk canal. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £75; patron, the Duke of Sutherland; impropriators, the Earl of Lichfield, Lord Willoughby de Broke, and other landowners. The church is a neat and substantial structure, lately new-pewed and thoroughly repaired. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The free grammar school is of early and obscure foundation; the endowment arises from land producing about £130 per annum. At Billington are traces of an old encampment, said to have been a British station and afterwards possessed by the Saxons.
Bradley, Little (All Saints)
BRADLEY, LITTLE (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Risbridge, W. division of Suffolk, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Haverhill; containing 33 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 976 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 0. 10., and in the patronage of W. and C. Lamprell, Esqrs.: the tithes have been commuted for £250. The church, though small, is of very considerable antiquity, with a round tower; in it lies buried John Day, the celebrated printer, and it contains also some ancient and curious monuments.
Bradley, Maiden (All Saints)
BRADLEY, MAIDEN (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Mere, partly in the hundred of NortonFerris, E. division of the county of Somerset, but chiefly in the hundred of Mere, Warminster and S. divisions of Wilts, 5¾ miles (N. by W.) from Mere; containing, with the tything of Yarnfield, 700 inhabitants. The parish is the property of the Duke of Somerset, who has a seat here; and comprises 4208 acres, of which 1400 are arable, 1860 pasture, 506 down, and 362 wood: the soil is various, and for the most part good rich land. The district abounds with romantic and interesting scenery; there are two singular knolls of chalk, separated from each other by the turnpike-road leading to Wincanton. Fairs, formerly of importance, are held on April 25th and September 21st. About three-quarters of a mile to the north-east of the village, and now forming part of the buildings of a farm called Priory Farm, are the remains of an hospital founded by Manasser Biset, about the close of the reign of Stephen or the beginning of that of Henry II., and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. It was for leprous women, under the care of some secular brethren, who were afterwards changed by Herbert, Bishop of Sarum, into a prior and canons of the Augustine order; and at the Dissolution, the revenue was £197. 18. 8. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £111; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The church contains a monument, finely executed, to the memory of Sir Edward Seymour, Bart., of political celebrity in the reigns of Charles II., William and Mary, and Anne.
Bradley, North (St. Nicholas)
BRADLEY, NORTH (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Westbury and Whorwelsdown, hundred of Whorwelsdown, Whorwelsdown and N. divisions of Wilts, 2 miles (S.) from Trowbridge; containing, with the chapelry of Southwick, 2427 inhabitants, of whom 1043 are in North Bradley tything. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Frome, and comprises by measurement 3978 acres, of which 2764 are pasture, 927 arable, and 287 woodland; the soil is for the most part a strong clay, and the surface hilly, except to the north, where a small portion is level. Bradley stream enters from the south, and, pursuing a northern course, empties itself into the Trow. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11; net income, £398; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College. In the tything of Southwick, at the extremity of the parish, is an additional church, called Christ Church, erected under the auspices of the late Dr. Daubeny, Archdeacon of Sarum, and incumbent of the parish. At a short distance from the parish church is a neat edifice of Bath freestone, erected and endowed in 1808, by the archdeacon, as an asylum for aged persons of respectable character, reduced to poverty; and attached to the asylum is a school. The endowment consists of property invested in the funds, producing about £120 per annum. A building called the Vicar's poor-house was erected by the same munificent benefactor, for the reception of twelve poor persons. There is one place of worship for Wesleyans, and two for Particular Baptists.
BRADLEY, WEST, a parish, in the union of Wells, hundred of Glaston-Twelve-Hides, E. division of Somerset, 4¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Glastonbury; containing 116 inhabitants. The living is annexed to the vicarage of East Pennard: the appropriate tithes, payable to the Bishop of Bath and Wells, have been commuted for £30, and those belonging to the incumbent for £50; there is a glebe of 12½ acres.
BRADMORE, a parish, in the union of Basford, N. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 6¼ miles (S.) from Nottingham; containing, with the hamlet of Parbrook, 416 inhabitants. The parish is on the Nottingham and London road, through Loughborough; and comprises by computation 1560 acres. It is of oblong form, extending from east to west; and is bounded on the north by the parish of Ruddington, on the north-east by the parish of Plumtree, on the south-east by that of Keyworth, on the south by Bunny parish, and on the west by Gotham. The village stands on an eminence, close to the high road, and about a mile distant from the village of Bunny. The living is a vicarage, annexed to that of Bunny: the church, with the exception of the steeple, was destroyed by fire, and has not been rebuilt. A place of worship for a congregation of Wesleyans was erected in 1830.
Bradninch (St. Disen)
BRADNINCH (St. Disen), a town and parish, having separate jurisdiction, in the union of Tiverton, locally in the hundred of Hayridge, N. division of Devon, 8 miles (N. E.) from Exeter, and 170 (W.) from London; containing 1714 inhabitants. This place, anciently called Braineis, was of some importance in the time of the Saxons: in the reign of John it received many privileges, which were increased by Henry III.; and in the reign of Edward III. it was annexed to the duchy of Cornwall. In this and in the preceding reign it sent representatives to parliament, from which, on account of its poverty, it was excused in the time of Henry VII., on the payment of a fine of five marks. During the civil war the town suffered considerably, from its proximity to Exeter, and was alternately in the possession of the royalists and the parliamentarians; in the year 1665 it was almost destroyed by fire. The parish comprises 4351a. 27p., of which 4184 acres are arable, meadow, pasture, and orchard. The town is pleasantly situated on an eminence, environed by hills on all sides except the south and south-west, and consists principally of neatly thatched and white-washed cottages. The woollentrade was formerly carried on, but little now remains; the chief branch of manufacture at present is that of paper, for which there are three mills, affording employment to sixty or seventy of the inhabitants. Ironore has been found in the neighbourhood, but works have not been established. The Bristol and Exeter railway passes by the town. The market has been discontinued; fairs are held on May 6th and Oct. 2nd.
The first charter of incorporation was granted by Reginald, Earl of Cornwall, and others were bestowed by King John and James I.; the latter of these, as enlarged in 1667, is the governing charter, under which the corporate body consists of a mayor, twelve masters, and an indefinite number of free burgesses, with a recorder, town-clerk, two serjeants-at-mace, and constables. The mayor, late mayor, and recorder, are justices of the peace for the borough. The corporation holds a court of session quarterly: a mayor's court for the recovery of debts under 40s. is held monthly; and petty-sessions are also held monthly, and frequently every Monday. The guildhall is a small building. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £102; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Windsor, whose tithes have been commuted for £584, and who have 120 acres of glebe. The church is an ancient structure, with a tower and other portions of later date; the chancel is separated from the nave by a richly carved oak-screen: the whole was repaired in 1842, and with such skill and success that the original character of the venerable structure has been preserved in all its pristine beauty. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists. Bradninch gives the title of Baron to the dukes of Cornwall, who are styled barons of Braines.