A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BRADNOP, a township, in the parish and union of Leek, N. division of the hundred of Totmonslow and of the county of Stafford, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from Leek; containing 442 inhabitants, many of whom are employed in copper-mines. This place lies on the road from Leek to Ashbourn, and belongs to a number of owners.
Bradon, North and South (St. Mary Magdalene)
BRADON, NORTH and SOUTH (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Langport, hundred of Abdick and Bulstone, W. division of Somerset, 3¾ miles (N. by E.) from Ilminster; containing 41 inhabitants. The living is a sinecure rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 4. 4½., and in the patronage of the Wyndham family: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £55, and the vicarial for £50. The church is in ruins. Adjoining this parish was one called Gouze-Bradon, now depopulated, and the church and other buildings entirely destroyed.
Bradpole (Holy Trinity)
BRADPOLE (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Bridport, hundred of Beaminster-Forum and Redhone, Bridport division of Dorset, 1 mile (N. N. E.) from Bridport; containing 1357 inhabitants. It comprises 998a. 2r. 16p., of which 566 acres are arable, 182 meadow, 100 pasture, and 18 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 1½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £199. A new church was consecrated in August 1846, containing 400 sittings, mostly free. The inhabitants formerly interred their dead at Bridport; but by a composition made in 1527, they were allowed to inter in their own churchyard, on paying annually a small acknowledgment to the rector of Bridport.
BRADSHAW, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Bolton, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 2 miles (N. E.) from Bolton; containing 827 inhabitants. The family of Bradshaw were seated here in the 16th century, and of this family was John Bradshaw, who presided at the trial of Charles I., and was subsequently chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. The township is situated on the east bank of the Bradshaw brook, which separates it from Turton and Harwood; and on the road from Bolton to Burnley. It comprises 1380 acres; the surface is undulated, and the scenery picturesque, and enriched with several good plantations: the land is chiefly in pasture. A colliery and a stone-quarry are in operation. The bleach and print works of Messrs. Callender, Bickham, and Company, employ 500 hands; and there are also two cotton-mills at work. Bradshaw Hall, an irregular building embosomed in trees, affords a beautiful specimen of the style of architecture that prevailed in the early part of the seventeenth century; and the arms of the Bradshaws are still to be seen, both in the stained glass of the window, and cut on stone over the hall-door. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patron, the Vicar of Bolton. The chapel was rebuilt in 1847. There is a small Baptist place of worship; and a school-house is let rent-free to a master. President Bradshaw was the son of Henry Bradshaw, and of Catherine, daughter and coheiress of Ralph Winnington, of Offerton. He was baptized at Stockport, December 10th, 1602; married Mary, the daughter of Thomas Marbury, of Marbury, in the county of Chester; and died (without issue) December 16th, 1659, just before the Restoration, thus escaping the fate of other members of the "High Court of Justice" which condemned the unfortunate Charles to the scaffold.
BRADSHAW, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Halifax, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (W.) from Halifax; containing 3499 inhabitants. This district was formed subsequently to the erection of a church here in 1838; the scenery is strikingly diversified, and from the summit of Soil-hill is a very extensive view, embracing the cathedral and city of York, with the adjacent country for 40 miles around. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the various worsted-mills, in wool-combing and handloom weaving, and in collieries and quarries. The church, dedicated to St. John, was erected at an expense of £1200, of which £800 were given by the late Mrs. Elizabeth Wadsworth, and the remainder by the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a neat structure in the early English style, with a square tower, and contains 350 sittings, of which 125 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax, with a net income of £150. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, and Methodists of the New Connexion. A national school was erected by Mrs. Wadsworth, who endowed it with £20 per annum; and that lady also bequeathed funds for the erection and endowment of six almshouses for aged females; the buildings were completed in 1841, and form a neat range in the Elizabethan style.
BRADSHAW-EDGE, a township, in the parish and union of Chapel-en-le-Frith, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby; containing 1850 inhabitants. It includes a principal part of the town of Chapel-en-le-Frith. The Hall, which is now a farmhouse, was the seat of the ancient family of Bradshaw.
Bradstone (St. Nun)
BRADSTONE (St. Nun), a parish, in the union of Tavistock, hundred of Lifton, Lifton and S. divisions of Devon, 4¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from Launceston; containing 166 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 7. 2., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter: the tithes have been commuted for £210, and there are 50 acres of glebe.
BRADWALL, a township, in the parish of Sandbach, union of Congleton, hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Sandbach; containing 344 inhabitants. In this township are 2037 acres, of a clayey and sandy soil. The tithes have been commuted for £159. 7. 7. payable to the impropriator, £158. 11. 8. to the vicar of the parish, and £5. 1. to the rector of Brereton.
Bradwell (St. Lawrence)
BRADWELL (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 3½ miles (E. by S.) from StoneyStratford; containing 381 inhabitants. It is situated near the Wolverton station of the London and Birmingham railway, and comprises 1671a. 2r. 27p., of which 161 acres are woodland. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the great tithes, valued in the king's books at £5. 11. 0½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £250, and there are six acres of glebe. The sum of £13. 13. is applied annually in relieving the poor, and towards instructing children.
BRADWELL, a township, in the parish of Hope, union of Bakewell, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 4½ miles (N. N. E.) from Tideswell; containing 1273 inhabitants. The population are chiefly engaged in the lead and calamine works in the vicinity, the manufacture of these articles being carried on to a considerable extent. About the year 1807, a huge natural excavation, called the Crystallized Cavern, was discovered: it is approached by a narrow entrance, leading to a spacious area, the sides of which are lined with crystallizations of singular beauty; and its separate parts are recognised by different names, such as the Grotto of Paradise, the Grotto of Calypso, Music Chamber, &c. The tithes have been commuted for £84 payable to the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, £12 payable to the impropriator, and £7 to the vicar. There are meeting-houses for Wesleyans and Unitarians.
Bradwell (St. Nicholas)
BRADWELL (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Mutford and Lothingland, E. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (S. W.) from Yarmouth; containing 270 inhabitants. Breydon Water bounds the parish on the north. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28, and in the patronage of Lord G. Osborne: the tithes have been commuted for £630. The church contains a monument to the ancient family of Vesey, and an octagonal font on an ascent of two steps.
BRADWELL-ABBEY, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 3¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Stoney-Stratford; containing 21 inhabitants. It comprises 425 acres of land. A priory of Black monks, dedicated to St. Mary, was founded about the time of Stephen, by Meinfelin, Baron of Wolverton, originally as a cell to the monastery at Luffield; the revenue, in the 23rd of Henry VIII., was £53. 11. 2. The site is now occupied by a farmhouse.
Bradwell-juxta-Coggeshall (Holy Trinity)
BRADWELL-juxta-Coggeshall (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Braintree, hundred of Witham, N. division of Essex, 2 miles (W. by S.) from Coggeshall; containing 293 inhabitants. It derives its name, originally Broadwell, from a copious spring to the north of the Hall: the river Pant, or Black-water, flows through a small hamlet in the parish, to which it gives its name. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12, and in the gift of M. P. C. Brunwin, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £345, and the glebe consists of 31 acres. The church is a small edifice with a tower, and contains several ancient and handsome alabaster monuments.
Bradwell-near-the-Sea (St. Thomas the Apostle)
BRADWELL-near-the-Sea (St. Thomas the Apostle), a parish, in the union of Maldon, hundred of Dengie, S. division of Essex, 12 miles (E.) from Maldon; containing 1034 inhabitants. The parish is situated at the mouth of the river Black-water, and is bounded on the east by the North Sea; it comprises 4733a. 3r. 18p., of which 3156 acres are arable, 972 pasture, 60 wood, and 134 common or waste. Camden places the Saxon city of Æthancestre at or near this place, which he also identifies with the Roman station Othona, where the Numerus Fortensium was posted under a commander styled Count of the Saxon Shore, at the decline of the Roman empire in Britain. A fair is held on the 24th of June. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £48, and in the gift of the Rev. T. Schreiber: the tithes have been commuted for £1300, and there are nearly 254 acres of glebe, with a house built by Sir H. Bate Dudley between 1781 and 1786. The church, rebuilt in 1706, is a handsome edifice, with a stone tower surmounted by a lofty spire, and is situated on elevated ground commanding fine prospects. An ancient chapel, called Capella-de-la-Val, of uncertain foundation, has long been in ruins. There is an endowed school in the parish.
BRADWOOD-WIDGER, a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Lifton, Lifton and S. divisions of Devon, 6 miles (N. E.) from Launceston; containing 923 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 5000 acres, of which 1500 are common or waste; the soil is chiefly clay, and the surface hilly. It is bounded by the river Bradwood on the south and north, and the river Carey on the west. The place belonged to the Priory of Frithelstock, and, on the dissolution of monasteries, was conferred by Henry VIII. on the Dean and Chapter of Bristol. A fair is held on the Tuesday next after Midsummer-day. The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of German's-Week annexed, valued in the king's books at £8. 3. 4.; net income, £148; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter. About 70 acres of glebe are attached to the curacy. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Bradworthy (St. John the Baptist)
BRADWORTHY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Bideford, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Holsworthy; containing 1081 inhabitants. It comprises 7800 acres, of which 100 are common or waste. The reservoir of the Bude canal, occupying an extent of 75 acres, is chiefly in the parish. The living is a vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Pancrasweek annexed, valued in the king's books at £25. 5. 5., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £243; impropriators, Mrs. E. Langdon and the Rev. R. Kingdon. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
BRAFFERTON, a township, in the parish of Aycliffe, union of Darlington, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 4½ miles (N. by E.) from Darlington; containing 211 inhabitants. This township, which is situated on the line of the York and Newcastle railway, contains 2312 acres; and comprises the ancient manor of Ketton, which was granted by Bishop Carilepho to the convent of Durham, and is now the property of the Rev. Sir Charles Hardinge, Bart. While Ketton was in the occupation of the late Charles Colling, who died in 1830, it was celebrated for its fine breed of short-horned cattle. The tithes have been commuted for £144. 10. payable to the vicar, and £73 to the Dean and Chapter of Durham.
Brafferton (St. Peter)
BRAFFERTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Easingwould, wapentakes of Hallikeld and Bulmer, N. riding of York; containing 873 inhabitants, of whom 179 are in the township of Brafferton, 4½ miles (N. E.) from Boroughbridge. The parish includes the townships of Helperby and Thornton-Bridge, and comprises 4565 acres: the village adjoins Helperby on the east side of the river Swale. The York and Newcastle railway intersects Pill-Moor. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 15. 6., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £307; appropriator, the Archbishop of York. The church was rebuilt in 1832, at the expense of £1300, raised by subscription. Brafferton Spring, north-east of the village, is a noted fox-cover.
Brafield-on-the-Green (St. Lawrence)
BRAFIELD-on-the-Green (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Hardingstone, hundred of Wymmersley, S. division of Northamptonshire, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Northampton; containing 428 inhabitants. It comprises about 1300 acres, including between fifty and sixty acres of woodland, and is mostly arable; the surface is undulated, and the soil principally clay, and generally fertile. Gravel and stone are obtained, but only fit for the repair of roads. Shoes are made by the greater portion of the male population, and pillow-lace by nearly all the females. The village lies on the Northampton and Bedford road, and within a mile of the Peterborough railway, which passes through about two acres of land belonging to the Rev. Christopher Smyth. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to that of Little Houghton, and valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 6¼. The church was in the early English style; but the character of the body of it was completely destroyed about fifty years ago, when the edifice underwent a thorough repair: the tower remains in its original state, but its beauty is much spoiled by unsightly buttresses. The Baptists have a small place of worship; and there is a handsome school-house, lately built by the vicar, the Rev. C. Smyth, who also supports an infant school. Coal and clothing clubs have been established.
Brailes (St. George)
BRAILES (St. George), a parish, in the union of Shipston-upon-Stour, Brailes division of the hundred of Kington, S. division of the county of Warwick, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Shipston; containing, with the hamlets of Chelmscote and Winderton, 1284 inhabitants. Prior to the Conquest, this lordship was in the possession of Edwin, Earl of Mercia; and subsequently, including Chelmscote and Winderton, it yielded to the Conqueror "no less than £55 yearly, with 20 horseloads of salt." Henry III., in 1248, granted a charter for a market here on Monday, which has been long discontinued; also a fair, which is held on Easter-Tuesday. In the 13th of Edward I., William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, then owner of the manor, claimed by prescription, and was allowed certain privileges; viz., a gallows, with assize of bread and beer. The parish contains 5407 acres of land, whereof about 2000 are arable and 3000 pasture; the village is situated on the turnpike-road from Shipston to Banbury, and is of considerable extent. There is a manufactory for livery shag, plush, &c., in which nearly 100 persons are employed. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £25; net income, £344; patron, John Thornton, Esq. Under an inclosure act passed in 1784, land and annual money payments were assigned in lieu of all tithes and moduses, for Lower Brailes. The church was probably erected in the time of the Conqueror, and was given in the reign of his son, Henry I., to the canons of Kenilworth. It is a large and handsome edifice, combining the early, decorated, and later English styles, with a lofty tower (supported by tall buttresses and crowned with battlements and pinnacles) containing six bells, the largest of which weighs more than two and a half tons; the interior was modernised in 1824. A guild consisting of a warden, brethren, and sisters, was founded in the church by Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick; the revenue, in the 37th of Henry VIII., was £18. 13. 2., out of which a grammar school was then supported. There was anciently a chapel at Chelmscote, in which a chantry for four priests was founded by Thomas de Pakinton, of Brailes, in 1322. The Society of Friends and the Roman Catholics have places of worship; and a free school, probably founded about the end of the reign of Henry VIII., is endowed with an improved income of £70. In Upper Brailes, at the distance of 1¼ mile from the church, is a chalybeate spring, the water of which has been used with considerable advantage in cases of scrofula.
Brailsford (All Saints)
BRAILSFORD (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 7 miles (N. W. by W.) from Derby; containing, with the township of Ednaston, 756 inhabitants, of whom 539 are in that portion exclusive of the township. The manor, which in the reign of the Confessor had belonged to Earl Wallef, was one of those given by William the Conqueror to Henry de Ferrers, under whom it was held by Elsin, ancestor of the ancient family of Brailsford. From the Brailsfords the property passed by marriage to the Bassetts, and from them in the same way to the Shirleys: the manor now belongs to the Evans family. The parish comprises 4296a. 33p., whereof two-thirds are pasture, and the remainder arable and woodland; it is situated on the road from Derby to Ashbourn. Brailsford House and Culland Hall are the property of the family of Cox. The living is a rectory, with that of Osmaston annexed, valued in the king's books at £9. 19. 2., and in the patronage of Earl Ferrers. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £500, and the glebe consists of about 72 acres, valued at £100 per annum, with a residence. The church, which stands on an eminence, is a handsome edifice with a tower; some portions of it are in the Norman style, but its architecture is chiefly of the early part of the 15th century. On the floor are several alabaster slabs: two of them have effigies, in scroll lines, of knights in armour; and on a third is the representation of a priest in his vestments. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have places of worship; and schools built in 1831, by William Evans, Esq., are supported by subscription. The Venerable Archdeacon Shirley, rector of Brailsford, was raised to the bishopric of Sodor and Man, in 1846, but only held the prelacy a few months, his death occurring in April 1847.
Braintfield (St. Andrew)
BRAINTFIELD (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Hertford, hundred of Cashio, or liberty of St. Alban's, though locally in the hundred of Hertford, county of Hertford, 3½ miles (N. W.) from Hertford; containing 201 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 6. 8., and in the patronage of Abel Smith, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £326, and there are about 35 acres of glebe. According to Matthew Paris, this was the first preferment held by Thomas à Becket; and a small pond near the parsonage-house still bears his name.
Braintree (St. Michael)
BRAINTREE (St. Michael), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 11 miles (N. by E.) from Chelmsford, and 40 (N. E.) from London; containing 3670 inhabitants. This place is described in Domesday book under the head of "Raines," including also the village of "Raine," to which it was at that time a hamlet, and from which it was separated in the reign of Henry II. From its situation on the road leading from London into the counties of Suffolk and Norfolk, it is supposed to have derived considerable benefit from the numerous pilgrims who passed through it, on their way to the shrines of St. Edmund at Bury, and Our Lady of Walsingham; and the population having consequently increased, it was made a market-town in the time of John. In the early part of the reign of Elizabeth, the Flemings, as has been supposed, fleeing from the persecution of the Duke of Alva, settled at Braintree, and introduced the manufacture of woollen-cloth; but it appears that that manufacture had existed long before, it being noticed so early as 1389, in an act of parliament, intituled "The clothes of certain counties tacked and folded shall not be put to sale before they be opened."
The town is pleasantly situated on an eminence, and consists of several streets irregularly formed and inconveniently narrow. The houses in the central part, now the only remaining portion of the old town, are in general ancient, and many of them are built of wood; but in the principal street, which is the grand thoroughfare, are many well-built modern houses. The woollentrade has given place to the manufacture of silk, which has been introduced into the neighbourhood within the last 40 years, and in its various branches now affords general employment to a rapidly increasing population. The manufacture of silk-crape has more recently been established; in this branch about 1400 people are employed by the Messrs. Courtauld in the towns of Braintree, Bocking, and Halstead, in machine-making, spinning, weaving, dyeing, and crape-finishing. The total number of persons employed in the silk trade in these towns, in a recent year, was 2210, of which 660 were crape-weavers in hand and power looms, 450 silkweavers in other branches, and 1100 factory hands. Straw-platting has also been introduced, and affords occupation to a considerable number of females. In 1846 an act was passed for the construction of a railway to Witham and Maldon. The market, which is said to be equal to any in the county, is on Wednesday; the fairs commence on May 7th and October 2nd, each continuing for three days, and the latter is a great mart for cattle and hops. The county magistrates hold a pettysession for the division on alternate Wednesdays. The powers of the county debt-court of Braintree, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Braintree. The town is the place for returning two knights for the northern division of the shire.
The parish comprises 2249a. 1r. 19p. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 3. 4., and in the patronage of Lady Stewart; net income, £212; impropriator, the Earl of Winchilsea. The church, a spacious structure on the summit of a mount, apparently the site of an ancient camp, is principally of later English architecture, with a tower in the early style, surmounted by a shingled spire of later date. It was enlarged in the reign of Henry VIII., the expense being defrayed out of the proceeds of many plays performed in it, during the interval from 1523 to 1579, and of which several curious particulars are recorded in the churchwardens' accounts. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Methodists. An ancient grammar school, in which the eminent naturalist, John Ray, received his education, is supported partly by an endowment of land now let for £18 a year, bequeathed by J. Coker, Esq., partly by an annuity of £45 left by the Rev. James Burgess, and partly by voluntary contributions. In the reign of Charles I., Henry Smith, alderman of London, who, from the habit of wandering like a beggar, accompanied by his dog, obtained the appellation of "Dog Smith," bequeathed £2800 to the poor of this and 13 other parishes; and there are many other charities in the town, yielding altogether nearly £200 per annum. The union of Braintree comprises 14 parishes or places, and contains a population of 15,097: the workhouse, calculated for the reception of 300 inmates, cost £6342. About half a mile distant there were, till lately, the ruins of a church founded before the Conquest, and formerly the parish church: the site of a Roman camp, now called the Cherry Orchard, is pointed out; and many sepulchral urns, fragments of Roman pottery, and Roman coins, have been found, besides three British gold coins, supposed to be of Boadicea. This was the scene of one of the earlier martyrdoms, that of Richard Pygott, in the reign of Mary. Samuel Dale, M.D., editor of the History and Antiquities of Harwich, resided here, and assisted Ray in collecting the more rare plants in Essex; the Rev. Mr. Challis, professor of astronomy at Cambridge, is a native of the place.
BRAISEWORTH, a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of Suffolk, 1¾ mile (S. S. W.) from Eye; containing 151 inhabitants. It is within the parliamentary borough of Eye. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 8. 1½., and in the gift of Major-General Sir E. Kerrison, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £195, and there are 20 acres of glebe. The church is in the early style, and consists of a nave and chancel; the entrances on the north and south sides are by Norman doorways, that on the north being exceedingly rich in workmanship.
BRAITHWAITE, a township, in the parish of Crosthwaite, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 2¾ miles (W. by N.) from Keswick; containing 318 inhabitants. The village lies at the foot of Winlatter Fell, the summit of which, gained by a steep ascent of two miles and a quarter, embraces prospects of a most sublime character. A woollen manufactory is carried on; and lead-mines have been worked.
Braithwaite, Leath ward, Cumberland.—See Middlesceugh.
BRAITHWAITE, a hamlet, in the parish of KirkBramwith, union of Doncaster, Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Thorne; containing 107 inhabitants. It is on the north bank of the river Don, and nearly a mile from the village of Kirk-Bramwith.