A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Monkton (St. Mary Magdalene)
MONKTON (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Honiton, hundred of Colyton, Honiton and S. divisions of Devon, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Honiton; containing 141 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed, with that of Shute, to the vicarage of Colyton: the tithes of Monkton have been commuted for £80 payable to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, and £60 to the incumbent.
MONKTON, a township, in the parish of Jarrow, union of South Shields, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 5 miles (E.) from Gateshead; containing 135 inhabitants. This place was a very early possession of the monastery of Jarrow, whence the name is derived; and afterwards was the property of the Hedworths of Harraton, for the alienation of which, John Hedworth had licence in the first year of Bishop Sever, "in order to raise certain trusts and uses therein." The chief part of the township is now leasehold under the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The village is pleasantly situated, and contains some respectable houses. The tithes have been commuted for £155. 19. The Venerable Bede was born in the township; he spent his time chiefly in the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, in which latter he died on the 26th of May, 735. In a field on the north side of the village, is Bede's Well, which was once in repute as a bath for the recovery of infirm or diseased children, and was also one of the spots where the people celebrated the usual sports of Midsummer eve.
Monkton (St. Mary)
MONKTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of the Isle of Thanet, hundred of Ringslow, or Isle of Thanet, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 6½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Margate; containing 402 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by the Stour, and comprises 2364a. 3r. 21p., of which 1560 acres are arable, 726 marshland pasture, and 16 garden and orchard. Fairs are held on July 22nd and October 11th, for toys, &c. The living is a vicarage, with the livings of Birchington and Acol (or ville of Wood) united, valued in the king's books at £13. 8. 4.; patron, the Archbishop; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter, of Canterbury. The great tithes have been commuted for £709; and the vicarial for £340, with a glebe of 39 acres.
Monkton-Farley (St. Peter)
MONKTON-FARLEY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bradford, Westbury and N. divisions, and Trowbridge and Bradford subdivisions, of Wilts, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Bradford; containing 435 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 15. 2½., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Salisbury, with a net income of £169; there are 35 acres of glebe. Some remains exist of a convent of Cluniac monks, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, which was founded about 1125, as a cell to the priory of Lewes, and at the Dissolution had a revenue of £217. 0. 4. A silver seal of exquisite workmanship, supposed to be that of the last abbot, was lately discovered near the convent.
Monkton, Moor (All Saints)
MONKTON, MOOR (All Saints), a parish, in the E. division of Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York; containing, with the township of Hessay, 454 inhabitants, of whom 305 are in the township of Moor-Monkton, 6½ miles (N. W. by W.) from York, on the road to Ripon. The river Nidd, at its confluence here with the Ouse, forms the north-west boundary of the parish, which comprises by computation 4000 acres of profitable land, chiefly arable; the soil is generally a strong clay, and the surface level. Red House, the residence of George Hopps, Esq., built in the reign of Charles I. by Sir Henry Slingsby, commands an extensive view, including the city and cathedral of York; the chapel is entire, and paved with Italian marble, and its windows are embellished with painted glass. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 19. 7., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £701 per annum. The church, which is situated about half a mile from the village, is an ancient structure with a tower.
Monkton, Nun (St. Mary)
MONKTON, NUN (St. Mary), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Green-Hammerton; containing 365 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1692a. 1r. 17p., of which 861 acres are arable, 739 meadow and pasture, and 15 woodland and plantations; the surface is generally flat, and the soil a strong clay. The Hall, formerly the seat of the ancient family of Paylin, is now the property of J. J. Tufnell, Esq. The village is situated at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Nidd, about 2¾ miles to the west of the Shipton station of the York and Newcastle railway, and 2½ miles east of the road from York to Boroughbridge. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £78; patron and impropriator, Mr. Tufnell, whose tithes have been commuted for £76. The church, an ancient edifice in the Norman style, consists only of the nave and chancel of the original structure built in the reign of Stephen; the western entrance is remarkably beautiful. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A school which is free for 12 boys and 12 girls, was founded by Dorothy, Thomas, and Leonard Wilson, and has an endowment of £30 per annum, with a house and garden for the master. The church belonged to a priory of Benedictine nuns, founded in the time of Stephen, by William de Arches and Ivetta his wife; at the Dissolution, the revenue was estimated at £85. 14. 8.
Monkton, West (St. Augustine)
MONKTON, WEST (St. Augustine), a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Whitley, W. division of Somerset, 3½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Taunton; containing 1164 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the Bath and Exeter road, comprises by measurement 3080 acres; the surface is finely varied. In the upper portion, which forms part of the Quantock hills, stone of good quality is extensively quarried for building, and also for the roads. The river Tone, and the Bridgwater and Taunton canal, flow through the lower part of the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Dr. Kinglake, whose tithes have been commuted for £630, and whose glebe comprises 50 acres. The church is a beautiful structure, in the decorated and later English styles. A free school, to which John Claymond, Esq., bequeathed £15 per annum for an exhibition to Brasenose College, Oxford, is supported by subscription. Nearly adjoining the town of Taunton is the Spital almshouse, founded in 1270, by Thomas Lambret, destroyed by fire in the reign of Henry VIII., and rebuilt soon afterwards by the abbot of Glastonbury; it is endowed with several parcels of land, producing an income of about £44. 10.
Monmouth (St. Mary)
MONMOUTH (St. Mary), a borough, markettown, andparish, and the head of a union, in the division and county of Monmouth, of which it is the chief town, 130 miles (W. N. W.) from London, containing 5446 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name from its situation at the mouth of the river Monnow, is by some supposed to have been the Blestium of Antoninus, but no antiquities have been discovered tending to confirm that opinion. It was of considerable importance during the time of the Saxons, who, to secure their conquests between the Severn and the Wye, and to repel the frequent incursions of the Britons, erected a stately castle, and fortified the town with walls of immense strength, of which, however, there are no remains. In the early Norman times, it was bestowed upon William Fitz-Baderon, one of the Conqueror's followers, who, from that circumstance, assumed the name of William de Monmouth. This chieftain rebuilt the castle; and Edward I., in 1272, erected Dixton, Monks, Wye-bridge, and Over-Monnow-bridge gates, and re-erected the walls: small portions of the castle, and of Dixton and Over-Monnow-bridge gates, still remain. Edward was lord of the honour, castle, and manor, which, with the honour and castle of Lancaster, he erected into a duchy, and granted to his third son, Henry, creating him Duke of Lancaster. The celebrated John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, resided for some time in the castle, which was also the birth-place of Henry V. In the civil war during the reign of Charles I. the castle was garrisoned for the king by Lord Herbert; it was taken by Sir William Waller for the parliament, again recovered for the king, and again taken by the parliamentarians.
The town is beautifully situated on the banks of the river Wye, near its confluence with the Monnow, in a luxuriant vale environed by hills of various elevation, some of which are richly crowned with wood. It consists of several streets diverging in different directions to the Wye, over which is a handsome stone bridge of five arches; a spacious street from the market-place leads to the river Monnow, which is crossed by an ancient stone bridge, on which is the arched gate above mentioned, forming an entrance from the Abergavenny road. The houses are in general well built; many of those in the principal streets have gardens and orchards attached to them, and in various parts are ancient buildings interspersed with good modern houses: the town is well paved, lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water from a reservoir on May hill. Chippenham meadow, an extensive plot of ground, bounded on two sides by the Wye and Monnow, forms a delightful promenade; races are held in October, and assemblies occasionally. The Kymin, a lofty hill from which may be seen thirteen counties, commands a view of the windings of the rivers Wye and Monnow through a varied tract of country, and of the town lying at its base; a marine pavilion was erected on it in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson, and other naval heroes, but this has fallen into decay. Adjoining it is Beaulieu Grove, a fine wood, through which many pleasing walks have been made, affording in different points of view agreeable prospects of the neighbourhood. The steep banks of the Wye are clothed in many places with the most luxuriant verdure; and the windings of the river lead through a succession of scenes not surpassed by any of like character in the country. The beauty of the landscape, the mildness of the air, and the peculiar adaptation of the town as a place of retirement, have made Monmouth the residence of many respectable families.
This place was formerly celebrated for its "caps," and many acts of parliament were passed in the reigns of Edward IV., Henry VIII., and Elizabeth, for the purpose of encouraging their wear; in the last-mentioned reign it was enacted that they should be worn by all persons (with a few exceptions for those of "worship and quality") "on Sabbath and holy days, upon pain of forfeiting ten groats for omission thereof." The chief manufacture of these caps, now worn principally by seamen, is removed to Bewdley. The trade at present mostly arises from the navigation of the river Wye, in the traffic carried on with Hereford and Bristol; and immense quantities of bark from the forests of the Upper Wye, are sent to Chepstow for exportation to the south of England and different parts of Ireland and Scotland, employing a considerable number of men, women, and children. The iron and tin manufactures were introduced into this kingdom, and established at Monmouth, by a native of Switzerland, and are still carried on here: the town is well supplied with coal from the neighbouring Forest of Dean, from which a tramroad has been constructed, passing through Coleford and Newland. Paper is largely manufactured at mills situated at Whitebrook; and there are several corn-mills. A market, which is well supplied, is held on Saturday, and an additional one on the first Wednesday in each month, for the sale of cattle, sheep, and pigs. In 1834 an act was obtained for making a new entrance into the town from London, and for the erection of a new market-house; this entrance is on the north side of the town, the road being formed by a series of arches along the banks of the Monnow. The markethouse is a handsome freestone building, a pentagon, and of the Grecian-Doric order: the lower part is occupied by butchers, green-grocers, and general traders; and above is a large room, used as the poultry and butter market, and occasionally as a concert and assembly room, and for public business. The fairs are on WhitTuesday, for toys; the Wednesday before the 20th of June, for wool and cheese; and September 4th and November 22nd, for cattle, hops, and cheese. An act was passed in 1845 for a railway to Hereford, by way of Ross.
Monmouth had a corporate body so early as the reign of Henry III. The inhabitants were first regularly incorporated by Edward VI., on June 30th, 1550, and received other charters from subsequent monarchs, under which the town was governed till 1836, when the control was vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, by the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, by which also the municipal boundaries were made co-extensive with those for parliamentary purposes. The borough returns one member to parliament, in conjunction with Usk and Newport: the mayor is returning officer. A court of record was established by the charter of Edward VI., which authorised the mayor and bailiff to hold pleas in all actions to any amount; it is held by the mayor every Monday, on which day petty-sessions for the borough are also held. The assizes for the county, and the pettysessions for the division of Monmouth, are held here, the latter every Saturday; and the town is within the duchy of Lancaster. The powers of the county debtcourt of Monmouth, established in 1847, extend over nearly the whole of the registration-district of Monmouth. The shire hall is a handsome Bath-freestone edifice of the Ionic order, standing on six lofty arches in front, and two at each end, the centre supported by six Tuscan columns, with a pediment, and ornamented with a statue of Henry V.; in the rear are the borough courts, erected in 1830. The county gaol and house of correction is a spacious stone building, in the form of a castle, on the road to Hereford.
The parish comprises 3247a. 2r. 8p., of which 1095 acres are arable, 1627 pasture, and 525 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 2. 3.; net income, £270; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Beaufort. The church was anciently the church of a Benedictine priory founded about 1080, by Wihenoc de Monmoe, and the revenue of which at the Dissolution was £56. 1. 11. The body was rebuilt in 1736, in the modern style, and the only part remaining of the original building is a buttress on the north side of the tower, which is surmounted by an elegant and finely-proportioned spire, in the early English style, 210 feet high, and forming an interesting feature in the view of the town. St. Thomas's, OverMonnow, is a perpetual curacy; net income, £90; patron, the Vicar. The church is in the Norman style, supposed to have been founded prior to the Conquest, and for many years remained in a ruinous condition, but was restored and fitted up for divine service in 1832, partly at the expense of the Duke of Beaufort, and partly by subscription. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Primitive Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics.
The free grammar school was founded in the reign of James I. by William Jones, a native of Newland, in this vicinity, and citizen and haberdasher of London, who bequeathed £9000 (which sum was laid out in land at New Cross, near London, now producing a very considerable income) for the endowment of a school, almshouses for 20 aged men and women, and for the establishment of a lectureship in the church. The lecturer, master, and usher have handsome residences; the almshouses were rebuilt in a substantial manner, in 1842, at an expense of £7000, by the Haberdashers' Company, who are the trustees, and who appoint visiters. The boys are provided with books and stationery, are taught the classics, and receive a general English education: two yearly exhibitions of £30 each, for boys from the school, to any college at either of the universities of Oxford or Cambridge, were established out of the funds by the trustees, in 1841. A national school is kept in an ancient room with a fine oriel window, part of the priory of Benedictine monks, said to have been the study of the celebrated Geoffrey of Monmouth, a native of the town, who resided many years in that convent. The poor-law union comprises 32 parishes or places, 24 of which are in the county of Monmouth, 5 in that of Hereford, and 3 in that of Gloucester; altogether containing a population of 24,524. Of the hospitals of the Holy Trinity and St. John, founded in the early part of the thirteenth century by John de Monmouth, there are no remains. The town gave the title of Duke to James, natural son of Charles II.
MONMOUTHSHIRE, a maritime county, bounded on the west by the counties of Glamorgan and Brecknock, in South Wales; on the north, by part of Brecknockshire and by Herefordshire; on the east, by Gloucestershire, from which it is separated by the river Wye; and on the south-east and south by the river Severn and the Bristol Channel. It extends from 51° 29' to 51° 59' (N. Lat.), and from 2° 41' to 3° 16' (W. Lon.); and comprises an area of 498 square miles, or 318,720 statute acres. Within its limits are 24,944 houses inhabited, 1432 uninhabited, and 235 in progress of erection; and the population amounts to 134,355, of which number 70,606 are males, and 63,749 females.
At the time of the second Roman invasion of Britain, Monmouthshire formed part of the territory of the Silures. In the reign of the Emperor Claudius, it was invaded by Ostorius Scapula, who, from the difficulties of the ground and the spirited and persevering resistance of the inhabitants, was unable to reduce it, and ultimately fell a victim to the fatigue and anxiety which he experienced in the expedition. Julius Frontinus, however, in the reign of Vespasian, achieved the final conquest of this part of Britain; and the district now constituting Monmouthshire became a portion of the Roman division called Britannia Secunda. From the stations and camps which the Romans here established, and from the numerous fragments of their buildings and sculptures that have been discovered, it appears that the fine climate and great natural beauty of the county rendered it a favourite resort of the Romans, in the elegant and luxurious, though declining age of Rome.
At a period not long subsequent to the Saxon conquests, Monmouthshire, together with the rest of the country west of the Severn, continued free from the Anglo-Saxon dominion; and Caerleon, at that time its capital, was one of the most flourishing cities of the Britons. Wales then included three regions, or principalities, namely, Gwynedd, Powysland, and Dehenbarth, in the last of which the whole of Monmouthshire was included. In those remote and obscure times it is difficult to trace the particular history of this county, which sometimes formed a separate territory, under the name of Gwent, and at other times was comprehended in Morgannoe, which included Glamorganshire and part of Carmarthenshire. The petty chieftains of this latter province were professedly tributary to the Prince of South Wales. The attempts of the Anglo-Saxon sovereigns to subjugate Wales were opposed by the Gwentians with extraordinary courage, insomuch that they do not appear to have been ever completely conquered during the Anglo-Saxon period. After the Norman Conquest, when various adventurers received permission to make incursions into Wales with a view to establish themselves upon the territory, several petty feudal sovereignties were erected here. The lands, being held per baroniam, with full power to administer justice to the tenants, were invested with jura regalia, so that the king's writs did not run in them. But in the event of a contest between two lords marchers (as these territorial proprietors were denominated), concerning the limits of their respective territories, they had recourse to the king as their supreme lord, and justice was administered to them in the superior courts of the realm. This system of feudal jurisprudence was continued here, as in the other Welsh marches, until Henry VIII. in 1535 abolished the government of the lords marchers, divided Wales into twelve shires, and included Monmouthshire among the counties of England. But as regards the administration of justice, it was considered a Welsh county until the reign of Charles II., when it was first included in the Oxford circuit; and even after that time it seems to have been affected in some degree by the ancient border law, as the jurisdiction of the supreme court of the lords marchers, usually held at Ludlow, in Shropshire, was not absolutely and finally abolished until the 1st of William and Mary, when the gentry and inhabitants within the principality of Wales petitioned for its suppression.
Monmouthshire was formerly partly included within the limits of the dioceses of Hereford and St. David's; but under the arrangements provided by the 6th and 7th of William IV., cap. 77, the whole has been placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Llandaff. It is in the province of Canterbury, and comprises the deaneries of Abergavenny, Netherwent, Newport, and Usk, with 123 parishes. For purposes of civil jurisdiction it consists of the hundreds of Abergavenny, Caldicot, Raglan, Skenfreth, Usk, and Wentlloog, each of which is subdivided into Upper and Lower. It contains the borough, market, and sea-port town of Newport; the borough and market-towns of Monmouth and Usk; the market and sea-port town of Chepstow; and the market-towns of Abergavenny, Caerleon, and Pont-yPool. Two knights are returned to parliament for the shire, and one representative for the boroughs of Monmouth, Newport, and Usk conjointly. The county is included in the Oxford circuit; the assizes are held at Monmouth, where is the county gaol, and the quartersessions at Usk.
The general aspect of the county is pleasingly diversified. A considerable portion is mountainous and rocky, and those parts abutting on the mountain ridges are sterile, affording only a scanty subsistence for the flocks which feed upon them; but the rich land in the valleys and on the slopes of the hills, is finely chequered with woods and pastures, intermingled with spots of tillage: and the beautiful scenery on the banks of the Wye attracts numerous tourists, and has often furnished subjects for the pencil and the pen. In the hundreds of Wentlloog and Caldicot, sea-walls have been raised for a considerable extent, and at a vast expense, to prevent the sea from overflowing the extensive marshes in those neighbourhoods, which would otherwise be subject to continual damage from inundations. In an agricultural point of view, Monmouthshire may be divided into three districts. The first comprises the southern portion, and consists partly of large tracts of moor or marsh land: the second includes the eastern part, and possesses such natural advantages and fertility, that it has the appearance of a garden; while the third comprises the western and more elevated tract, the soil of which, upon the hills, is generally thin. The corn chiefly cultivated is wheat, barley, and oats; and a few peas, or beans, are sometimes sown. The woods and coppices are numerous, and contain a great quantity of various kinds of timber, particularly ash and oak. The most important Mineral Productions are iron, coal, limestone, and various other kinds of stone, valuable for building, and other purposes. Although the iron-mines had engaged attention in very remote times, operations in this and the adjacent county of Glamorgan were carried on with little spirit until the latter part of the eighteenth century. The present works on the Welsh border are of considerable extent and importance, producing both pig and bar iron; and attached to some are wire-works. Lead-ore is found; and the coal obtained furnishes more than sufficient fuel for the supply of the inhabitants. Limestone of the finest sort is obtained in almost every part of the county; and there are some quarries of breccia in the parishes of Trelleck and Penalth, celebrated for cider millstones. At Caerleon and Rogerstone are tinworks. The manufacture of flannel has been long established, but is of very limited extent. Some few coarse cloths, woollen stockings, and coarse caps, are made by the inhabitants in the mountainous parts, and brought to the great fairs for sale.
The principal rivers are the Severn, the Wye, the Usk, the Rumney, the Monnow, and the Ebwy. The Severn first touches the county at the angle where it receives the waters of the Wye; it is a river of great magnitude, with a strong tide, and in its progress widens rapidly, and forms the Bristol Channel. The Wye is navigable for large vessels only to Chepstow bridge, but for barges, with some difficulty, as high as Hereford. The Usk is navigable for coasting-vessels up to Newport, and for barges as high as Tredunnock bridge. The Monmouthshire canal was begun in 1792, and finished in 1798: by an act obtained in 1797, the proprietors were authorised to extend the line eastward one mile and a half; and by another, passed in 1802, various powers were obtained for making collateral tramroads. The Brecknockshire canal, which may be considered a branch of this, was formed pursuant to an act obtained in the 33rd of George III. On the banks of the Monmouthshire canal, at Pontnewydd, commences a tramroad to the Blaenavon iron-works, a distance of five miles and a quarter, in which it has a rise of 610 feet from the canal; and there are several other tramroads in connexion with the various works in this extensive mining district.
Five principal Roman stations were fixed in that part of the territory of the Silures, which is included in the present county of Monmouth; viz., Venta Silurum, placed by the general consent of antiquaries at Caerwent; Isca Silurum, at Caerleon; Gobannium, at Abergavenny; and Burrium and Blestium, which, according to the opinion of Horsley, were respectively at Usk and Monmouth. Although it is probable that most of the great roads connecting the southern part of Britannia Secunda with the Roman-British territory east of the Severn, passed through Monmouthshire, yet the only one that can be distinctly traced is that which ran south-westward from Abergavenny to Neath, or some other station in Glamorganshire, and which is called by the natives Sarn-hîr, signifying "the long paved causeway." The miscellaneous Roman antiquities discovered at different times are various, comprising aqueducts, baths, sudatories, tessellated pavements, columns, statues, bas-reliefs, hypocausts, altars, votive and sepulchral stones, sarcophagi, urns, medals, coins, fibulæ, &c. Remains of numerous encampments are still visible, the construction of which, as this part of the British territory was never permanently occupied either by the Saxons or the Danes, may be reasonably attributed almost exclusively to the Britons and the Romans. The castles, from the contiguity of the county to the Welsh border, were also very numerous, the sites of not fewer than twenty-five being still distinguishable. Most of them were of Norman erection, and considerable portions of several still remain, though for the most part ruinous: those of Caerleon, Grosmont, and Skenfreth, are probably the most ancient; that of Raglan presents the most magnificent extent of ruins. The number of religious houses, including two hospitals, was seventeen, and the most interesting remains are those of Llanthony Priory church, and of the Cistercian abbey of Tintern, both which exhibit large masses of beautiful ruins. Many of the churches have a remarkably picturesque appearance; and few of them having undergone much alteration since the Reformation, they still exhibit vestiges of the Roman Catholic worship and discipline, such as rood-lofts, niches, auricular recesses, and confessional chairs.
Monnington-upon-Wye (St. Mary)
MONNINGTON-upon-Wye (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Weobley, hundred of Grimsworth, county of Hereford, 9 miles (W. N. W.) from Hereford; containing 86 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the river Wye, and on the road from Hereford to Hay, comprises by computation 1000 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 12. 10.; patron and impropriator, Sir V. Cornewall, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £227, and the glebe comprises 30 acres. The church is a neat plain structure, built in the reign of Charles II.
Montacute (St. Catherine)
MONTACUTE (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union of Yeovil, hundred of Tintinhull, W. division of Somerset, 4½ miles (W. by N.) from Yeovil; containing, with the tythings of Bishopstone and Hyde, 1047 inhabitants. This place, in the time of the Saxons, was called Logaresburch, which is said to have been changed for its present name by William, Earl of Morton, who soon after the Conquest built a strong castle here, on the sharp point of a hill. The parish is situated on the road from Yeovil to Ilminster, and comprises 1485a. 14p., chiefly arable land; the soil in some parts inclines to sand, and in others to clay, and the surface is finely varied. The hill from which the parish is thought to take its name, and another contiguous hill are planted with firs and oaks; the prevailing wood in other parts is elm, which grows with great luxuriance. There is excellent freestone. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 10.; patron and impropriator, William Phelips, Esq.: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £190. 10., and the glebe comprises 4 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, and contains 308 sittings. Here are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. In the parish is a double-moated Roman camp, about three miles in circuit, the north-west part of which is further defended by a high rampart, partly of stone, inclosing twenty acres, within which many Roman coins have been found. A priory in honour of St. Peter and St. Paul, founded here by William the Conqueror, was in the reign of Henry I. amply endowed, and granted to the monks of Cluny, by the Earl of Morton; its revenue, at the Dissolution, was estimated at £524. 11. 8.
Montford (St. Chad)
MONTFORD (St. Chad), a parish, in the union of Atcham, hundred of Pimhill, N. division of Salop, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Shrewsbury; containing 490 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by the river Severn, across which is a bridge; the soil is chiefly loam and sand, producing excellent crops of barley, and the surface is generally level. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 18. 6.; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Powis: the tithes of the incumbent have been commuted for £245, and the glebe consists of 40 acres.
Montpelier St. Andrew.—See Bristol.
MONYASH, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Bakewell, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 4¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Bakewell; containing 600 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 3000a. 3r. 16p., of which about 100 acres are uncultivated waste. At Rucklow-Dales are extensive rocks of grey and of black marble, of which a large quantity is quarried; and near them rises the river Lathkill, noted for the beautiful scenery on its banks. A court of miners is held at Monyash once in six months, at which all pleas of debt, and disputes as to title, relating to the lead-mines within the hundred of High Peak, are determined by the steward and bar-masters, assisted by a jury of twenty-four persons. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron, the Vicar of Bakewell; impropriator, the Duke of Rutland. The chapel, dedicated to St. Leonard, has a low tower and spire. There is a meeting-house for the Society of Friends, and the Primitive Methodists have a place of worship. A school, built in 1750, has an income of £17 per annum, arising from an allotment of land under an inclosure act in 1771. About a mile and a half from the village are "The Arborlows," Druidical remains, which occupy a mound twenty feet above the surrounding level; they consist of a number of stones from ten to twelve feet in length, and from four to five in width, placed in a circular position, each stone pointing to the centre: the diameter of the circle is not less than forty yards.
Moor, with Batchcott
Moor with Hill, Worcestershire.—See Hill
Moorby (All Saints)
MOORBY (All Saints), a parish, in the union and soke of Horncastle, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Horncastle; containing 152 inhabitants. It comprises 950 acres, and has a small village. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 8.; net income, £140; patron, the Bishop of Carlisle. Besides the church, there is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Moore, or Moor
MOORE, or Moor, a township, in the chapelry of Daresbury, parish and union of Runcorn, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 4 miles (S. W. by S.) from Warrington; containing 317 inhabitants. This place is parcel of the barony of Halton: in the reign of Charles I. the copyholders enfranchised their lands, which since that time have been held of the crown in fee-farm, as of the manor of Enfield. An estate here was purchased of the Brookes, before 1666, by the family of Rutter, whose heiress conveyed it in marriage to the Herons. The township comprises 828 acres, of which the soil is light, with some moss. The Duke of Bridgewater's and the Old Quay canals, and the Liverpool and Birmingham railway, pass, each for about a mile, through the township, where the last has a station. Moor Hall is the seat of General Heron. A court leet and a court baron are held by the Marquess of Cholmondeley. The tithes, let on lease from ChristChurch, Oxford, to Sir Richard Brooke, of Norton Priory, have lately been commuted for a rent-charge of £90. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Mooresbarrow, with Parme
MOORESBARROW, with Parme, a township, in the parish of Middlewich, union and hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 2¾ miles (E. by S.) from Middlewich; containing 36 inhabitants. The manor, which had been given by Edward I. to the abbey of Vale-Royal, was granted by Edward VI. to Thomas Browne; it passed afterwards by successive sales to the Brookes, of Norton, and the family of Venables. Lord Vernon, who inherited the Venables estates, sold the manor, about 1792, to Mr. Perrin, of Warrington. The township comprises 407 acres, the soil of which is clay. The Hall and demesne belonged formerly to the Whittinghams: the site of the house is surrounded by a moat.
MOORGATE, a hamlet, in the parish of Clareborough, union of East Retford, North Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham; containing 1007 inhabitants. This hamlet, which includes Spittal hill, forms a handsome suburb of East Retford: within the last sixty years the buildings have been greatly augmented. The land is chiefly in grass, or divided into gardens, except the common, which was inclosed in 1799. A very handsome chapel of ease was built in 1829. The tithes of the hamlet and of Bollom have been commuted for £80, and £68, payable respectively to the impropriator and the vicar of Clareborough, the latter of whom has 4¼ acres of glebe here.