A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Thornham (St. Mary)
THORNHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hollingbourne, hundred of Eyhorne, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Maidstone; containing 535 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3319 acres, of which 815 are in wood. A vein of white sand discovered here, known by the name of Maidstone sand, is said to have caused the first improvement in the manufacture of glass in this country; it was originally worked by experienced Italians, and soon became of infinite importance in the trade. The pits are remarkable for their vast subterranean caverns, which are curiously arched. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 0. 10.; net income, £392; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. McMahon Wilder; impropriator, Sir E. Dering, Bart.: a vicaragehouse has been recently built. The church is principally in the decorated English style. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Ruins of a castle still exist on the brow of a hill forming part of a great range of chalk hills; the walls are more than thirteen feet high, and three feet thick, and inclose an area of a quarter of an acre including the keep mount. Urns and other vestiges of a Roman station have been found.
THORNHAM, a township, in the parish of Middleton, union of Oldham, hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 3½ miles (S.) from Rochdale; containing 1456 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from Thorn and Ham, both Saxon terms, meaning "the hamlet of thorns." The township stretches to the northeast of Middleton, extending on both sides of the Oldham and Rochdale road, and comprises 2070 acres. Coal is abundant. The chief feature in the natural aspect of the district is Tandle Hill, remarkable for the swelling outline of its base and the rotundity of its shape in the upper part, which, with the groves on its summit, render it altogether a striking eminence, visible for many miles round; the slopes are here and there shrouded by copses of wood, and the views from the hill are highly diversified. The principal landowner is Lord Suffield: the late lord planted the rising grounds to a moderate extent, and erected a cottage on the heights for one of his keepers. Thornham Fold, a group of ancient houses, is two miles north-east of Middleton. At Smithy Ford, Gravel Hole, and Beursill are also groups of dwellings. The extensive farm of Hough here, derives its name from hoeh, Saxon, "a dry ditch."
Thornham (All Saints)
THORNHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Smithdon, W. division of Norfolk, 6¼ miles (W. by N.) from Burnham-Westgate; containing 790 inhabitants, and comprising 2100 acres of land. The village is of considerable extent, on the road from Lynn to Wells; and about half a mile to the north is a staith, formed on a creek which is sufficiently large for ships of 100 tons. A good trade is carried on in corn, coal, timber, malt, and oil-cake. On the seashore is an extensive tract of rich salt-marsh, formerly a forest: large trees and the horns of stags have been frequently found. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Holme-near-the-Sea annexed, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £428; patron, and appropriator of Thornham, the Bishop of Norwich. The great tithes of Thornham have been commuted for £480, and the vicarial for £250; the vicar receives a modus of £20 out of the great tithes, and the glebe contains about 14 acres. The church is chiefly in the early and later English styles, and a beautifully-carved screen separates the nave from the chancel; the tower is in ruins. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. At the inclosure in 1794, 30 acres of land were allotted to the poor, who receive also the proceeds of 9 acres left by an unknown benefactor.
Thornham Magna (St. Mary)
THORNHAM MAGNA (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of Suffolk, 3¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Eye; containing 374 inhabitants. The road from London to Norwich, by way of Ipswich, runs through the eastern part of the parish. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Thornham Parva consolidated in 1744, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 3.; net income, £497; patron, Lord Henniker, who possesses the seat of Thornham Hall. The church is chiefly in the later English style, with an embattled tower. Here was a chapel dedicated to St. Eadburga, and called St. Arborough's chapel, in which an anchorite resided; it appears to have been standing in the reign of Elizabeth.
THORNHAM PARVA, a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of Suffolk, 2¾ miles (W. by S.) from Eye; containing 203 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, consolidated with that of Thornham Magna, and valued in the king's books at £4. 14. 4½. The church is chiefly in the early English style, with a low tower; the entrances are through Norman doorways.
Thornhaugh (St. Andrew)
THORNHAUGH (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Stamford, soke of Peterborough, N. division of the county of Northampton, 1 mile (N.) from Wansford; containing 295 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the great road from London to York, within a mile of the river Nene, and two miles of the Peterborough and Blisworth railway; it comprises 1726a. 1r. 13p. Stone is quarried for roads and buildings. The living is a rectory, with the living of Wansford annexed, valued in the king's books at £17. 1. 3., and in the gift of the Duke of Bedford: the tithes have been commuted for £447, and the glebe contains 52 acres. The church exhibits portions in the various styles of English architecture. Sir William Russell, 4th son of Francis, 2nd earl of Bedford, resided in the parish, and was buried here in 1613; the place confers the title of Baron on the Russell family.
Thornhill (St. Michael)
THORNHILL (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Dewsbury, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Flockton, and the townships of Shitlington and Lower Whitley, 7201 inhabitants, of whom 2816 are in Thornhill township, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Dewsbury. This place was the seat of the Thornhill family, for many generations proprietors of the manor, which was conveyed by marriage in 1404 to the Savilles, from whom the estate descended to the second son of Sir George Saville's sister: that lady had been married to Richard, Earl of Scarborough, ancestor of the present owner. The parish comprises by admeasurement 7816 acres, of which 2486 are in the township. It produces coal of excellent quality, and an extensive mine under his own estate is wrought by Joshua Ingham, Esq., affording constant employment to nearly 400 of the population. In the Lees, a tract sloping towards the river Calder, and ornamented with ancient woods, are the remains of the castellated mansion of the Thornhill family, which was garrisoned by Sir George Saville for the king, was besieged and taken by the parliamentary forces, and subsequently demolished. The village is situated on the south side of the river Calder and the Calder and Hebble navigation; it was formerly a place of considerable importance, of which several indications still remain, and had a market and a fair, granted by a charter of Edward II. in 1320. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £40. 0. 7½.; net income, £988, with a good glebe-house and grounds; patron, the Earl of Scarborough. The church is an ancient and venerable structure, chiefly in the early English style, with a square embattled tower: on the south side of the chancel is a chapel containing numerous monuments to the Saville family, one of which, entirely of oak, has the effigies of Sir John Saville and his two wives. The churchyard was walled round, and neatly inclosed, in 1840, by the present rector, At Flockton is a separate incumbency. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. The Rev. Charles Greenwood, in 1642, bequeathed £500 for the crection and endowment of a free school; the income is £20 per annum. Here is also a school endowed in 1712, by Richard Walker, Esq., with property producing £40 per annum. Richard Swallow, Esq., in 1688 bequeathed £100, and Mrs. Margaret Trapper in 1698 £300, for the poor; which sums were vested in land now producing £120 a year.
THORNHOLM, a township, in the parish of Burton-Agnes, union of Bridlington, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 4¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Bridlington; containing 88 inhabitants. It comprises about 1360 acres of land: the village is on the high road from Bridlington to Driffield. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £136; and the appropriate for £175. 13. 6., payable to the Archbishop of York.
THORNLEY, a township, in the parish of Kelloe, union of Easington, S. division of Easington ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 6½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Durham; containing 2730 inhabitants. This place was distinguished in the twelfth century as the retreat of William de St. Barbara, Bishop of Durham, who, during the usurpation of the see, on the death of Gilfrid Rufus, by William Cummin, chancellor of the king of Scotland, took refuge with his retinue in an ancient castle here, which appears to have been strongly fortified. The township comprises the two estates of Thornley Hall and Gore Hall, both of which have been the property of the Spearman family for more than 150 years. Thornley Hall, a spacious mansion supposed to occupy the site of the castle, is situated on a commanding eminence, and is now the residence of the agents of an extensive colliery commenced here in 1833, previously to which year the population of the township did not exceed 60 persons. The coal is of very excellent quality, and is conveyed by railway to Hartlepool, whence it is shipped for the London market under the appellation of "Hartlepool Wallsend." A district church in the early English style was erected in 1842, by subscription, aided by a grant of £250 from Her Majesty's Commissioners; it is a neat structure, and calculated to accommodate 474 persons. The living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Vicar, with an income of £150. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £20. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
THORNLEY, with Wheatley, a township, in the parish of Chipping, union of Clitheroe, Lower division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 9½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Preston, on the road to Clitheroe; containing 507 inhabitants. Thomas, Earl of Derby, in the 14th of Henry VII., purchased the manor of Thornley-cum-Wheatley from Charles Singleton. The mother of Sir Edward Stanley, of Bickerstaffe, afterwards Earl of Derby, was a daughter of Thomas Patten of Preston: the Misses Patten resided here, and gave name to Patten Hall, a mansion in the Gothic style, which they sold to the Earl of Derby. The township comprises 3180a. 3r. 2p., whereof 366 acres are arable, 2444 meadow and pasture, 70 wood and plantation, and 300 common, &c. The soil is various, including clay and a brown earth; and the surface rises gradually from a stream called the Loude (a tributary to the Hodder) up to Longridge Fell, forming a pretty vale. The Loude separates the township from Chipping. Extensive limestone-quarries here are leased from the Earl of Derby by Mr. Henry Wilkinson, of New House, who employs 100 hands. There is a manor cornmill. The Roman Catholics have a place of worship.
THORNSETT, a hamlet, in the district of Newmills, parish of Glossop, union of Hayfield, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby; containing 764 inhabitants. It extends north-east from the thriving village of Newmills.
THORNTHWAITE, a chapelry, in the parish of Crosthwaite, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 4 miles (W. N. W.) from Keswick; containing 187 inhabitants. This village commands romantic views of Bassenthwaite lake and Skiddaw. The manufacture of woollen-cloth is carried on. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £59; patron, the Vicar of Crosthwaite. The chapel has been enlarged.
THORNTHWAITE, a chapelry, in the parish of Hampsthwaite, union of Pateley-Bridge, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 4 miles (S.) from Pateley-Bridge; containing, with the hamlet of Padside, 281 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 3126 acres, of which a considerable portion is moorland; the surface is boldly undulated, and the scenery picturesque. The district contains coal of good quality, of which some mines are in operation; and a few of the inhabitants are employed in spinning flax, and in the manufacture of linen. The river Washburn passes on the west. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Hampsthwaite, with a net income of £109: the chapel rebuilt in 1810, at an expense of £500, and beautified in 1842, contains 300 sittings. Francis Day, in 1748 and 1757, gave land now producing £40 per annum, for teaching children.