A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Grewell (St. Mary)
GREWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hartley-Wintney, hundred of Odiham, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 1¾ mile (W.) from Odiham; containing 280 inhabitants. The parish is on the river Whitewater; and comprises 843a. 10p., of which 417 acres are arable, 94 meadow and pasture, 28 woodland, and 254 open and uncultivated common. The Basingstoke canal passes along a tunnel nearly three-quarters of a mile in length, cut through Grewell Hill, in the parish. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Odiham: the church is pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Whitewater.
Grewelthorpe, or Gravelthorpe
GREWELTHORPE, or Gravelthorpe, a township, in the parish of Kirkby-Malzeard, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 6¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Ripon; containing 582 inhabitants. The township comprises 3820 acres, of which 823 are waste land or common; the surface is strikingly varied. The village is beautifully situated in the valley of the river Ure; and about a mile distant is Hack Fall, a sequestered and romantic spot, where the Ure, obstructed in its rapid course by two deep rocky dingles richly wooded, forms a succession of cascades, of which the largest falls from a height of forty feet; the grounds are ornamented with grottos, artificial ruins, temples, and pavilions, and attract numerous visiters from Harrogate and other places. Tithe rent-charges have been awarded, of which £46. 18. 8. are payable to the vicar, and £150. 19. to Trinity College, Cambridge. A separate incumbency has been founded here.
Grey-Easton.—See Easton, Grey
GREY'S-FOREST, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Newton, union, and W. division of the ward, of Glendale, N. division of Northumberland, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Wooler; containing 56 inhabitants. It is situated about two miles to the west of Kirk-Newton, and is a wild township, comprising 8100 acres, of which very nearly all are waste or common.
Greystead, or Gaystead
GREYSTEAD, or Gaystead, a parish, in the union of Bellingham, N. W. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 20 miles (N. W.) from Hexham; containing, with the townships of Chirdon and Smalesmouth, 219 inhabitants. This place, which is intersected by the river North Tyne, formed part of the extensive parish of Simonburn, which was divided in 1811, by act of parliament, into six distinct parishes. That of Greystead comprises by computation 16,010 acres, whereof 15,700 are pasture, 260 arable, and about 50 wood. The surface is varied; the soil in the valley here, which is narrow, is very fertile, but a considerable portion of the parish is unproductive moorland. The living is a rectory not in charge; patrons, the Governors of Greenwich Hospital: the tithes have been commuted for £150, and the glebe consists of 14 acres. The church was consecrated in 1818.
Greystock (St. Andrew)
GREYSTOCK (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 11 miles (W. by N.) from Penrith; comprising the townships of Berrier with Murrah, Little Blencow, Bowscale, Greystock, Hutton-John, Hutton-Roof, Hutton-Soil, Johnby, Matterdale, Motherby with Gill, Mungrisdale, Threlkeld, and Water-Millock; and containing 2786 inhabitants, of whom 364 are in the township of Greystock. This place belonged soon after the Conquest to Lyolf, whose descendants assumed the name of the estate. Thomas de Greystock obtained from Henry III. the grant of a weekly market and an annual fair, both of which have been long since discontinued. During the war in the reign of Charles I., the ancient baronial castle was garrisoned for the king, but being besieged by a detachment of the army under General Lambert, surrendered, in 1648, and was soon afterwards demolished by order of the parliament: some of the ruined towers only are at present remaining, near the site of the modern castle, erected about the year 1670. The parish comprises a tract of rich and fertile land, extending ten miles in length and eight in average breadth, and abounding in richly diversified scenery. The soil is generally a red loam, alternated with gravel, and the substratum abounds with coal and limestone; there are also some quarries of good slate. The present castle, erected by the Hon. Charles Howard, and greatly improved by the late Duke of Norfolk, is a magnificent structure, containing several stately apartments, and a large collection of paintings; the grounds are beautifully laid out, and embellished with artificial waterfalls. The village is situated near the source of the river Petterill, and the neighbourhood abounds with various kinds of game. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £40. 7. 8½.; patron, Adam Askew, Esq. The church was in 1382 made collegiate by Neville, Archbishop of York, for a prior and six canons, whose stalls are yet remaining, though their chantries have been demolished; it is a handsome structure in the decorated English style, and near the altar is a table-monument of alabaster, with effigies of two of the barons of Greystock, in armour, under highly-enriched canopies of alabaster. There are chapels at Matterdale, Mungrisdale, Water-Millock, and Threlkeld. In the parish are vestiges of a Roman intrenchment, called Redstone Camp, near which have been found urns, stone coffins, and human bones; leading from it in a direction towards Ambleside, are traces of an ancient road, and in the same tract lie three large cairns. In the vicinity of Motherby is a circle of stones, seventeen yards in diameter, within the area of which heaps of bones have been discovered.
GRIBTHORPE, a township, in the parish of Bubwith, union of Howden, Holme-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 5½ miles (N. by E.) from Howden; containing 61 inhabitants. It is east of the Derwent, and the road from Selby to Holme passes to the north. The tithes have been commuted for £138, of which £8 are payable to the vicar, and the remainder is equally divided between an impropriator and the Dean and Chapter of York.
GRIFF, a hamlet, in the parish of Chilvers-Coton, union of Nuneaton, Atherstone division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick; containing 263 inhabitants. This place, in the reign of Elizabeth, was purchased by the Giffard family, from whom it passed to the Newdigates, of Arbury. It lies about two miles south of Nuneaton, on the road to Coventry, and west of the Coventry canal.
GRIFF-GRANGE, an extra-parochial liberty, adjoining the township of Hopton, in the parish and hundred of Wirksworth, union of Belper, S. division of the county of Derby, 4½ miles (W. by N.) from Wirksworth; containing 24 inhabitants. It is situated on a lofty mountain, on the western side of which the road from Wirksworth to Bakewell runs along a delightful vale, denominated the "Valley of the Lilies." The eastern side is inclosed by the high lands of Ible. A small stream overhung with copse and underwood, runs through, forming a romantic and sylvan walk.
GRIMBLETHORPE, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Louth, Wold division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5½ miles (W.) from Louth; containing 12 inhabitants. This place, which formerly belonged to a religious house, comprises 620 acres of land, and lies on the road from Louth to Wragby.
Grimley (St. Bartholomew)
GRIMLEY (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Martley, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4½ miles (N. by W.) from Worcester; containing 723 inhabitants. This parish, which includes the hamlets of Monkwood-Green and Sinton-Green, is bounded on the east by the river Severn, and extends along the Stourport road; it comprises 2458 acres. Gravel of excellent quality is dug. The allotment system has been adopted, producing the most salutary effects on the labouring class. The mansion of Thorngrove stands on a gently rising eminence adjoining the road from Worcester to Ludlow; it is approached through a beautiful grove a mile long, and in front of the house is a fine lake: while sojourning in England, Lucien Bonaparte resided here for some time. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 0. 10., and having the curacy of Hallow annexed; net income, £541, with a house; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Worcester. The great tithes have been commuted for £280, and the vicarial for £170; the glebe comprises 25 acres, and there is other property belonging to the living, producing £50 per annum. The church is an ancient structure, which was enlarged, and the tower rebuilt, in 1846. Grimley was given, more than a thousand years ago, to the church of Worcester, by Burtwolf, King of the Mercians, before he was expelled his country by the Danes; and in the time of Pope Nicholas, the church of Grimley is mentioned with that of Hallow depending on it. Schools are supported partly by endowment. A stone celt of the ancient Britons was found in 1835 in a gravel bed, several feet below the surface, near Ball mill.
Grimoldby (St. Edith)
GRIMOLDBY (St. Edith), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (E.) from Louth; containing 267 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 10.; net income, £144; patron, G. F. Heneage, Esq. J. Byron, Esq., is entitled to a moiety of the tithes of the parish.
GRIMSARGH, with Brockholes, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Preston, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (N. E.) from Preston, on the road to Clitheroe; containing 331 inhabitants. Under the first duke of Lancaster, William de Eton held the town of "Grymesargh" by the service of three shillings per annum; and at the same time (reign of Henry III.) Roger de Etheleston was a tenant in the town by the like service of three shillings per annum. The manorial rights were long vested in the family of Hoghton, and were sold by Sir Henry Philip Hoghton, Bart., to the late William Cross, Esq., of Red Scar. The township, of which the river Ribble forms the southern boundary, comprises 1912 acres of land. The Preston and Longridge and the Fleetwood railways pass through it. Mrs. Cross, of Red Scar (an elegant modern mansion in the Elizabethan style, erected by Mr. Cross); James Blanchard, Esq., of Grimsargh House; and John Frederick Chadwick, Esq., of the Hermitage, are the chief proprietors. The living is a perpetual curacy, net income, £77, with a house; patron, the Vicar of Preston. The tithes have been commuted for £50. 13. 3. payable to the impropriators, and £6. 10. to the vicar. The chapel, dedicated to St. Michael, was consecrated in 1726; and was restored, and coloured-glass windows inserted, in 1844, at the expense of Mr. John Cross. A school is supported by subscription. The Preston Water-works Company have a reservoir here of twenty acres.
Grimsby, Great (St. James)
GRIMSBY, GREAT (St. James), a borough, sea-port, market-town, and parish, in the union of Caistor, wapentake of BradleyHaverstoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 16 miles (S. E.) from Hull, 35 (N. E. by N.) from Lincoln, and 161 (N.) from London; containing 3700 inhabitants. This place is advantageously situated near the mouth of the Humber, and is supposed to have been the spot where the Danes landed on their first invasion of Britain towards the close of the eighth century. Camden treats as fabulous a tradition that the town was founded by a merchant named Gryme, who derived great riches from having brought up an exposed child, called Haveloc, that proved to be of the blood royal of Denmark, and after being scullion in the king's kitchen obtained the king's daughter in marriage. To this romantic story, whatever may have been its origin, there is a reference in the device of the ancient seal of the corporation. Gervase Hollis, in his folio MSS. in the Harleian collection, attributes the foundation of the town to Grimus, a Norwegian pirate, and a man of vast stature, who was slain in single combat by Haldanus, a Danish prince, in the reign of Frotho, King of Denmark. In the reign of Edward III., Grimsby was a considerable sea-port, and in 1346 supplied the king with eleven ships and 170 mariners towards his armament for the siege of Calais. The harbour was formerly defended by two block-houses, and the commerce of the port was very extensive, till the haven became obstructed by the accumulation of sand and mud deposited by the Humber, which prevented the access of any vessels larger than sloops; in which state it continued till the beginning of the present century.
The town consists of several good streets; the houses are well built, and great improvements have taken place within the last few years in its general appearance. It has also recovered somewhat of its commercial importance, chiefly through the spirited exertions of some of the proprietors of land in the neighbourhood, who raised a subscription for improving the harbour, and obtained an act by which they were incorporated under the title of "The Grimsby Haven Company." A very capacious and excellent dock was constructed at an expense of £70,000, and opened in December, 1800, since which time many warehouses, mills worked by steam for crushing bones and linseed, and other buildings, have been erected, chiefly in the vicinity of the haven. An act was passed in 1845 for making additional docks, and other works; and in 1846 an act was obtained for lighting the town with gas. Grimsby is a warehousing port for all merchandise except East India goods and tobacco, and since 1800 has had a custom-house establishment. The foreign trade consists principally of timber, deals, tar, and other produce of the countries bordering on the Baltic, also of bones and corn; and the home trade mostly of corn and coal. Two steampackets ply daily to and from Hull. In 1845 an act was passed for a railway hence to Gainsborough, there to join railways to Lincoln and to Sheffield; and in 1846 an act was obtained for a railway to Louth and Boston. The market, which is very considerable for corn, is on Friday; two fairs, held respectively on the 6th of June and the 15th of September, have been discontinued.
This place is a borough by prescription, and one of the most ancient in the kingdom; and the number of charters, grants, and acts of regulation, still extant, prove that it was formerly a town of great trade. The corporation, previously to the passing of the Municipal act, consisted of a mayor, high steward, recorder, twelve aldermen, two chamberlains, two coroners, twelve common-councilmen, two bailiffs, a town-clerk, and other officers; the government is now vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, the offices of high steward, bailiff, and town-clerk being continued. A commission has been issued by the crown, empowering ten gentlemen to act as justices of the peace. A court, styled the Foreign Court, is held weekly before the bailiff, the jurisdiction of which extends to controversies and actions between non-freemen. The mayor and bailiff, as lords of the manor, with the high steward or his deputy, hold a court leet and view of frankpledge, and a court baron at Michaelmas. The borough magistrates meet twice a week at the town-hall for the general administration of justice; and the magistrates of Lindsey hold pettysessions here for the wapentake of Bradley-Haverstoe on the first and third Tuesday in every month. The powers of the county debt-court of Grimsby, established in 1847, extend over the sub-registration-district of Grimsby and 4 adjacent parishes. A common gaol for debtors and offenders was granted by Edward II. The borough regularly returned two members to parliament from the 23rd of Edward I. to the 2nd of William IV., when it was deprived of one: the right of election was formerly vested in the freemen paying scot and lot, about 390 in number, but is now enjoyed by the £10 householders of several parishes, which for elective purposes, were made to constitute the new borough, containing 14,991 acres; the mayor is returning officer.
The town formerly contained two churches, but in 1586 the parishes were united, and the church of St. Mary, then dilapidated, was suffered to fall to decay. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 18. 4. for the two parishes; net income, £532; patron and impropriator, G. F. Heneage, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for land and cornrents, under an inclosure act of the 7th and 8th of Geo. IV. The church, which is dedicated to St. James, is a spacious and handsome cruciform structure, principally in the early English style, with a central tower, and a western entrance in the Norman style; it was originally larger than at present, part of the choir having fallen about the year 1500, when, also, it became necessary to take down an adjoining chantry: the font is of large dimensions, and in the early English style, as is also a mutilated cross in the churchyard. There are places of worship for Baptists, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans. The free grammar school was founded in 1547, by letters-patent of Edward VI., who endowed it with the revenue of an ancient chantry of small amount: it is chiefly supported by the corporation, who allow a salary of £150 to the head master, and £60 to the second master; also £100 a year to the master of a preparatory school, and £14 to the mistresses of two schools for girls.
There were several religious houses in the parish. Wellow Abbey was founded by Henry I. about the year 1110, for Black canons; the revenue, at the Dissolution, was, according to Dugdale, £95. 16. 1., and to Speed, £152. 7. 4., and the site was granted to Sir Thomas Heneage. Among the other houses, were, a Benedictine nunnery, founded prior to 1185, and which was valued at the Dissolution at £9. 14. 7., and granted to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, and subsequently to Trinity College, Cambridge; a house of Augustine friars, founded about 1304, and granted on its dissolution to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, and afterwards to Augustine Porter and John Bellow; and a convent of Franciscan or Grey friars, founded about the year 1307, and granted on its dissolution, first to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, and afterwards to John Bellow and Robert Brokesby. Spittal Hill is supposed to have been the site of an establishment of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem. In preparing the ground of a paddock belonging to Lord Yarborough, for the purpose of erecting stables, the foundation of an ancient stone wall was discovered, in which were some carved stones, fragments of pillars, and part of the span of an arch, thought to have been brought in the reign of Henry VIII. from the dilapidated church of St. Mary, the materials of which were used in the repair of private houses. Near this spot was a house anciently occupied by one of the priests of Rayner's chantry, founded in the time of Edward III., and endowed in the 19th of that reign by Edmund de Grimsby with two dwelling-houses, one of which occupied the site above mentioned, and the other that of the present free school. In the vicinity of Grimsby are several deep circular pits called Blow wells, the water of which rises even with the surface of the ground, but never overflows. Dr. John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born here in 1530; and Dr. Martin Fotherby, Bishop of Salisbury, and his brother John, Dean of Canterbury, in the reign of James I., were also natives of the place.
Grimsby, Little (St. Edith)
GRIMSBY, LITTLE (St. Edith), a parish, in the union of Louth, wapentake of Ludborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3¼ miles (N.) from Louth; containing 61 inhabitants, and comprising about 1000 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 6. 8.; net income, £78; patron and impropriator, Lord Frederic Beauclerk, who is also lord of the manor.
GRIMSTEAD, EAST, a chapelry, in the parish of West Dean, union and hundred of Alderbury, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 5¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from the city of Salisbury; containing 134 inhabitants.
GRIMSTEAD, WEST, a parish, in the union and hundred of Alderbury, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of the county of Wilts, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Salisbury; containing 227 inhabitants. The parish comprises by admeasurement 1453 acres, of which nearly 200 are coppice-wood, and the remainder arable and pasture; the surface is undulated, and the soil various, consisting of chalk, clay, and sand. The ancient manor-house is still remaining, though much mutilated, and retaining little of its original character. The living is a rectory, with that of Plaitford annexed, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 2½., and in the gift of the Earl of Ilchester: the incumbent's tithes in West Grimstead have been commuted for £260, and there is also a rent-charge of £10 payable to the charity trustees of the parish; the glebe comprises 12 acres. The church is a very ancient structure of flint, with quoins of freestone, and has details of the Norman, and early and decorated English styles. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
GRIMSTHORPE, a hamlet, in the parish of Edenham, union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Corby; containing 135 inhabitants. Grimsthorpe House, the seat of Lord Willoughby D'Eresby, is a spacious and handsome mansion, situated in a park of 2000 acres, richly wooded, and well stocked with deer. Within the grounds are the picturesque remains of the Cistercian abbey of De Vaudey or Valle Der, founded in the reign of Stephen, for an abbot and thirteen monks, and the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £124. 5. 11. The Earl of Lindsay, who was killed at the battle of Edge-Hill, resided at Grimsthorpe.
GRIMSTON, a township, in the parish of Dunnington, wapentake of Ouse and Derwent, union and E. riding of York, 3 miles (E. by S.) from the city of York; containing 80 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from York to Pocklington, and comprises by computation 810 acres of land.
GRIMSTON, a township, in the parish of Gilling, union of Helmsley, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 6 miles (S.) from Helmsley; containing 53 inhabitants. It is a moorland township, east of the road from Easingwould to Gilling, and comprises 930 acres. The tithes have been commuted for £52.
GRIMSTON, a township, in the parish of Kirkby-Wharfe, Upper division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 1¾ mile (S.) from Tadcaster; containing 172 inhabitants. The township comprises nearly 1000 acres of rich and fertile land, and the surface is undulated. Grimston Park, the seat of Lord Howden, is an elegant mansion in the Grecian style, with a beautiful portico of the Corinthian order, surmounted by a triangular pediment; the park, which comprises 300 acres, is richly wooded.
Grimston, North (St. Nicholas)
GRIMSTON, NORTH (St. Nicholas), a parish and village, in the union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Malton; containing 175 inhabitants. The soil is various; and the scenery picturesque, particularly at the base of Grimston Hill, on the summit of which a flint stratum commences: stone is quarried for building and for burning into lime. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 8.; net income, £160; patron, the Archbishop of York: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1792. The church has a fine Norman porch, and a curious font.