A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BRAWBY, a township, in the parish of Salton, union of Malton, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 6½ miles (N. W.) from Malton; containing 218 inhabitants. This place is situated at the confluence of the Seven and Dove rivers with the Rye, and comprises by computation 1080 acres of fertile land. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £13. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Brawith, with Knayton.—See Knayton.
Braxted, Great (All Saints)
BRAXTED, GREAT (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Witham, N. division of Essex, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Witham; containing 410 inhabitants. Tiptree Heath, which takes its name from the manor belonging to an ancient priory here that was given to Cardinal Wolsey for the endowment of his two colleges, originally formed part of the great forest of Essex; it is now inclosed. A fair for cattle and toys is held on the 25th of July. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19, and in the patronage of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £600, and the glebe comprises 65 acres. The church is a small ancient edifice, with a tower surmounted by a shingled spire, and is seated on an eminence commanding an extensive prospect: it displays some remains of Norman architecture. The priory, which was for Black canons, in honour of St. Nicholas, was founded in the reign of Edward I., and at the time of its dissolution had a revenue of £22. 6. 4.
Braxted, Little (St. Nicholas)
BRAXTED, LITTLE (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union and hundred of Witham, N. division of Essex, 1 mile (E.) from Witham; containing 126 inhabitants. It comprises an area about three miles in circumference; and formed, at the time of the Norman survey, part of the private estate of the Bishop of London. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 6. 8., and in the gift of Mrs. E. D. Clarke: the tithes have been commuted for £153, and the glebe consists of 7 acres. The church is an ancient edifice, with a circular chancel.
Bray (St. Michael)
BRAY (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Cookham, hundred of Bray, county of Berks; containing, with part of the town of Maidenhead, 3728 inhabitants. This place is by some considered to occupy the site of the Roman station Bibracte: it now forms part of the royal demesne, being included within the liberty of Windsor Forest, and enjoys some privileges, among which is exemption from toll in the adjacent market-town. The manor-house of Ockwells, an ancient structure, was a hunting-seat of King Henry III., and subsequently the property of the family of Norreys, who had also two other manors in the parish. The present house was built by Sir John Norreys, in the reign of Edward IV.: in the hall is a large bay window, filled with coats of arms in stained glass in fine preservation, among which are those of Henry III. and his queen Margaret, the abbey of Abingdon with the mitre, and the Norreys family several times repeated. The site of the manor-house of Creswell, now called Philberts, was formerly occupied by a magnificent palace, inhabited by Nell Gwynne. Fuller, in his Worthies, relates a story of a vicar of this parish, who unhesitatingly conformed to every change of religion that took place during the reigns of Henry VIII. and his three immediate successors, being steady in the exercise of one principle only, which was, to live and die "Vicar of Bray." The parish comprises by measurement nearly 10,000 acres. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £25. 4. 4½.; net income, £500; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Oxford, whose tithes have been commuted for £2299: in 1814, 402 acres of land were assigned in lieu of all vicarial tithes. The church is a spacious edifice, with a tower on the south side, and contains some ancient memorials of the family of Norreys. A school for boys was founded by William Cherry, Esq., who endowed it with £500, to which Townley Ward, Esq., added £100 three per cents.; and there is a national school for girls at Bray Wick, endowed with £16 per annum by the late Whitshed Keene, Esq., of Hawthorn Hill. Jesus' Hospital was founded in 1627, by William Goddard, for forty poor persons, six of them to be free of the Fishmongers' Company, under whose management it is placed: attached is a chapel.
Bray-Eaton.—See Eaton, Bray.
Bray, High (All Saints)
BRAY, HIGH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Barnstaple, hundred of Sherwill, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, 7 miles (N. by W.) from South Molton; containing 314 inhabitants. It comprises 3790a. 2r. 25p., of which 1447 acres are arable, 533 meadow and pasture, 311 wood, and 1400 common land. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 6. 8., and in the patronage of T. P. Acland, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £360, and there are 89½ acres of glebe.
Braybrook (All Saints)
BRAYBROOK (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Market-Harborough, hundred of Rothwell, N. division of the county of Northampton, 2½ miles (S. E.) from Harborough; containing 420 inhabitants. The parish is on the road between Harborough and Kettering, which bounds it on the north; and comprises by computation 2778a. 2a. 39p., whereof 2543 acres are pasture, 215 arable, and 20 plantation. The soil is of first-rate quality, and watered by numerous streams; the village is very healthy. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23. 6. 10½.; net income, £600; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. Field: there are 313 acres of glebe, together with tithes of the old inclosure, now commuted into a rent-charge; also a spacious glebe-house. The church is a very handsome edifice in the decorated English style, consisting of a nave, north and south chancel, and two aisles; in the south chancel is an elaborately wrought monument to Sir Nicholas Griffin. There is a place of worship for Baptists. Braybrook gives the title of Baron to the family of Neville-Griffin.
Braydeston (St. Michael)
BRAYDESTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blofield, E. division of Norfolk, ½ a mile (S.) from Blofield; containing 126 inhabitants. It comprises about 700 acres, of which 378 are arable, and 139 marsh land; and is bounded on the south by the navigable river Yare, from the valleys of which the land rises in gentle acclivities: the soil varies from a fine (in some places stiff) brick earth to a light sand. The prospects from the high land over the vale of the Yare are much admired. The Norwich and Yarmouth railway passes through the parish. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Strumpshaw, and valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8. The church consists of a nave and chancel, with a square tower: the ruins of another church, dedicated to St. Clement, were pulled down about 30 years ago. Three Roman urns, containing calcined bones, were found in digging a sand-pit near the site of the demolished church.
BRAYDON, a hamlet, in the parish of Purton, union of Cricklade and Wootton-Basset, hundred of Highworth, Cricklade, and Staple, Cricklade and N. divisions of Wilts, 4½ miles (S. S. W.) from Cricklade; containing 60 inhabitants. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £55, and the vicarial for one of £50.
Brayfield, Cold (St. Mary)
BRAYFIELD, COLD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 2¾ miles (E. by N.) from Olney; containing 83 inhabitants. The manor anciently belonged to the Blossomvilles, and afterwards to the Staffords; in Elizabeth's reign it was held by the Mordaunts. In 1669 it came by purchase to the Boddingtons, from whom it passed by marriage to the Dymocks; and about 1714 the estate was sold to the Farrer family. The parish lies on the borders of Bedfordshire, and is bounded on the south and east by the river Ouse: the village is on the road from Olney to Bedford. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Lavendon. As a commutation in lieu of tithes, land and a money payment were assigned in 1801, when the parish was inclosed by act of parliament.
Braytoft (St. Peter And St. Paul)
BRAYTOFT (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Wold division of the wapentake of Candleshoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Spilsby; containing 235 inhabitants. It comprises 1815a. 2r. 26p., and is situated on the road from Spilsby to Burgh and Skegness: by a drainage navigation which approaches within three miles, corn may be forwarded to the market at Boston. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 3. 6., and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for £322. 18. payable to the incumbent, and £18. 7. belonging to an impropriator: the glebe consists of 31½ acres. The church is built chiefly of brick. The nave is supported by five pointed arches, springing from octangular pillars, and surmounted by a row of clerestory windows; and above the arch which opens into the chancel is a painting of the Spanish Armada: the font is ancient, and adorned with escutcheons emblazoned with devices representing the Saviour's passion: the east end of each aisle is taken off by screen-work for a chapel. The porch was rebuilt in 1715, and the tower in 1747. The family of Braytoft resided here in 1281; their ancient residence was taken down in 1698. Braytoft was the birthplace of the Rev. T. Scott, author of a very copious Biblical Commentary, and various other publications of considerable merit.
Brayton, with Aspatria.—See Aspatria.
Brayton (St. Wilfrid)
BRAYTON (St. Wilfrid), a parish, in the union of Selby, Lower division of the wapentake of BarkstoneAsh, W. riding of York; comprising the townships of Barlow, Brayton, Burn, Gateforth, Hambleton, and Thorpe-Willoughby; and containing 1974 inhabitants, of whom 307 are in the township of Brayton, 1 mile (S. W.) from Selby. The parish comprises by measurement 10,690 acres, of which 660 are woodland; it is partly skirted by the river Ouse, and intersected by a canal which connects that river with the Aire. The soil is principally of a sandy nature, but its quality varies, and in some parts it is of a reddish cast; the surface is generally level. Brayton Barf and Hambleton Haugh, two noted hills, covered with trees, are conspicuous objects in this flat district, and are seen at a great distance. The Leeds and Selby railway passes through the parish, one of its stations being at Hambleton. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 4½.; net income, £268; patrons, the Hon. E. R. Petre and the Prebendary of Wistow, the former of whom is impropriator: the glebe comprises 140 acres, with a good residence. The church exhibits various styles of architecture: the tower is Norman, and is surmounted by an octagonal lantern, from which rises a lofty spire in the later English style; the south doorway, and the arch leading into the chancel, are Norman, highly enriched; the chancel is in the decorated, and the nave in the later, English style. At Barlow, three miles from the parish church, is a small chapel, a plain brick building, rather ancient; there is also a chapel at Gateforth.
Breadsall (All Saints)
BREADSALL (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Shardlow, hundred of Appletree, though locally in that of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Derby; containing 620 inhabitants. This place was for several centuries the property of the ancient family of the Harpurs, ancestors of the Crewes, of whose mansion there are still some picturesque remains near the church. A house of friars Eremites, afterwards converted into a priory of Augustine monks, was established at an early period, as is supposed by some member of the Dethic family; its revenue at the Dissolution amounted to £18. 0. 8. The site, with the adjoining lands, was granted by Edward VI., in 1552, to Henry Duke of Suffolk, and came soon afterwards to other hands. The parish is situated on the Midland railway, the Derby and Eaton canal, and the road to Chesterfield; and comprises by measurement 2219 acres of fertile land, mostly pasture. There are quarries of coarse gritstone. The village, which is ancient and well built, is situated in the vale of the Derwent, and at the foot of a hill which shelters it from the north and north-east winds. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28. 2. 8½.; net income, £580, arising from land allotted in lieu of tithes in 1815; patron, Sir John Harpur Crewe, Bart. There is an excellent rectoryhouse. The church is a large handsome structure with a lofty spire, in the early and decorated English styles, and having a fine Norman arch at the principal entrance; it contains some rich specimens of carved oak, and an ancient stone font: on the south side of the chancel is a monument to the memory of Erasmus Darwin, the poet, who died here in 1802. The Methodists have a place of worship. A school is endowed with £10. 8. per annum, arising from a bequest of £200 by the Rev. John Clayton, in 1745; excellent schools and a house for the master were built a few years ago, the former by Sir George Crewe, and the latter by the incumbent. There are remains of a Roman encampment; and in a field belonging to the glebe is a very perfect tumulus, crowned by a venerable oak. John Hieron, a non-conformist divine of some celebrity, was incumbent from 1644 till 1662.
BREADSTONE, a tything, in the parish of Berkeley, union of Thornbury, Upper division of the hundred of Berkeley, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Berkeley; containing 140 inhabitants.
Breage (St. Breage)
BREAGE (St. Breage), a parish, in the union of Helston, W. division of the hundred of Kerrier and of the county of Cornwall, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Helston; containing 6166 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Falmouth to Penzance, and bounded on the south by the sea for nearly seven miles; it abounds in mineral ores, chiefly copper and tin, with some lead and manganese, and zinc. Stone of good quality for building is found in abundance, and Tregonning Hill consists almost entirely of granite, which is extensively quarried; there is also a quarry of chinastone. The number of acres is 7056: the greater portion is profitable land, and in good cultivation; 544 acres are common or waste. A fair for cattle is held on the 18th of June, and there is another fair. The living is a vicarage, with the vicarages of Cury, Germoe, and Gunwalloe annexed, valued in the king's books at £33, and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriators, Mrs. Richards and others. The great and small tithes of Breage have been commuted for £628. 10. and £510 respectively. The church is a handsome structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower. A church district named Godolphin was endowed in 1846 by the Ecclesiastical Commission. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and other denominations of Methodists. The parish contains the remains of Pengersick Castle, consisting of a tower of several stages, with a good stone staircase, supposed to have been built in the time of Henry VII.
Breamore (St. Mary)
BREAMORE (St. Mary), a parish and liberty, in the union of Fordingbridge, Ringwood and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Fordingbridge; containing, with the tything of Outwick, 647 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Avon, which forms its eastern boundary; and comprises 2651a. 21p., of which 1244 acres are arable, 306 water mead, 311 dry pasture, 358 woodland, 231 down, and 85 acres homesteads, orchards, &c. The living is a donative; net income, £540; patron and impropriator, the Rev. J. N. Palmer. A priory of Black canons, dedicated to St. Michael, was founded by Baldwin de Redveriis, and his uncle Hugh, about the end of the reign of Henry I.: at the time of its suppression, the establishment consisted of a prior and nine canons, and the revenue amounted to £200. 5. 1.
Breane (St. Bridget)
BREANE (St. Bridget), a parish, in the union of Axbridge, hundred of Bempstone, but locally in the hundred of Brent with Wrington, E. division of Somerset, 8½ miles (W.) from Axbridge, and 16 (N.) from Bridgwater; containing 126 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1126a. 3r. 4p., chiefly arable; and is bounded on the north by Uphill bay and the Bristol Channel, on the west by Berrow bay, and on the east by the river Axe. The sea in 1825 broke through a natural barrier of sand hills, and inundated a considerable portion of the land. The village is situated on the margin of Berrow bay. Breane Down is an elevated peninsula, extending a mile into the sea, and strikingly conspicuous from various parts of the surrounding country. A great quantity of samphire is gathered on the shore, and pickled previously to being conveyed to the inland towns. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 0. 5., and in the gift of W. Willis, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £260, and there are more than 25 acres of glebe.
BREARTON, a township, in the parish of Knaresborough, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Knaresborough; containing 201 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1560 acres. A chapel of ease was built in 1836, containing 150 sittings, of which 110 are free. The tithes have been commuted for £150. 6. 8.
BREASTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Sawley, union of Shardlow, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 7¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Derby; containing 712 inhabitants. The manor of Breaston, when the Domesday survey was taken, was held with Risley, by Roger de Busli. The chapelry comprises 1250 acres, whereof two-thirds are pasture, and the rest arable, with some woodland. Here is a station on the Midland railway; and the Nottingham and Derby canal passes through. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Risley. A rentcharge of £361, formerly belonging to the prebend of Sawley (a suppressed dignity), has been awarded as a commutation of the tithes; and there is a glebe of nearly 24 acres. The chapel, dedicated to St. Michael, is a neat edifice, with a square tower surmounted by a curious spire. The Wesleyan Methodists have a place of worship.
Breccles, Little, Norfolk.—See Shropham.
Breckenbrough, with Newsham, county of York.—See Newsham.
Breckles (St. Margaret)
BRECKLES (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of Wayland, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Watton; containing 160 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1600 acres, the property of Sir E. Kerrison, Bart. There was formerly a lake of 100 acres, which was drained about 40 years since, and now affords rich pasturage. The Hall is an ancient mansion of brick, in the Elizabethan style. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 17. 11.; net income, £41, arising from Queen Anne's Bounty; patron and impropriator, Sir E. Kerrison. The church is an ancient structure in the early and later English styles, with a circular tower, and contains a large Norman font, which is elaborately sculptured.
BREDBURY, a township, in the parish and union of Stockport, hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 2¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Stockport; containing 3301 inhabitants. The manor was held under the Stockports, by the family of Bredbury, whose heiress brought a moiety of it to the Ardens; the other moiety was for several generations in the Davenports of Henbury, from whom it passed by a female heir to Sir Fulke Lucy: the whole now belongs to the Arden family. The township comprises 2236 acres, the soil of which is clay, gravel, and sand; the surface is undulated or hilly. Coal-mines are wrought; and there is a cotton-mill. The road from Stockport to Hyde, and the Peak Forest canal, pass through the township; and the rivers Goit and Tame bound it on the south and north, respectively. There are three old Halls, of which Arden Hall is a place of great antiquity. A church district, called St. Mark's, was constituted by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1846: the living is in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Chester, alternately. Hatherlow Independent chapel, here, was built at the cost of O. Heyworth, Esq., of Oakwood Hall; the Primitive Methodists, also, have a place of worship. The tithes have been commuted for £156.