A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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SEABEACH, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Boxgrove, and partly in that of Eartham, union of West Hampnett, hundred of Box and Stockbridge, rape of Chichester, W. division of the county of Sussex; containing 31 inhabitants.
SEA-BOROUGH, a parish, in the union of Beaminster, hundred of Crewkerne, W. division of Somerset, 2½ miles (S. by W.) from Crewkerne; containing 84 inhabitants. It comprises 587a. 3r. 16p., of which 213 acres are arable, 332 meadow and pasture, 19 woodland, and 14 garden and orchard grounds. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 15., and in the gift of F. Maynard, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £130, and the glebe comprises 28 acres.
SEABRIDGE, a township, in the union of Stokeupon-Trent, partly in the parish of Swinnerton, but chiefly in that of Stoke, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 1½ mile (S. by W.) from Newcastle; containing 166 inhabitants.
SEACOMBE, with Poolton, a township, in the parish of Wallasey, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, ¾ of a mile (W. by N.), by ferry, from Liverpool; containing 2446 inhabitants. This township is bounded on the east by the river Mersey, on the north by Liscard, and on the south by Wallasey Pool; and comprises 669a. 23p., mostly arable and pasture land, and chiefly of a clay soil. Being situated opposite to Liverpool (to which a steam-boat plies every half hour), there is a fine view of that town and its vicinity; while in another direction are seen the Cheshire hills and the Welsh mountains. The village is situated on Wallasey Pool, and overlooks Oxton hill, Birkenhead, &c.; it is remarkable for the salubrity of its air. Much land has been reclaimed in the township, by the Birkenhead Dock Commissioners.
Here are very extensive works of various kinds. The Seacombe Copper and Patent-Metal Mills (the latter carried on under a patent formerly belonging to G. F. Muntz, Esq.) were established in 1836, by Messrs. John Bibby and Sons, of Liverpool, and Messrs. Sims, Willyams, and Company, of London. These mills employ between eighty and ninety hands in making sheathing for ships' bottoms, braziery sheets, locomotive plates, sugar-pans, air-pumps, rods, and all kinds of hammered and flat work. They are worked by two engines of the united power of 130 horses; are supplied with fresh water from artesian wells 22 yards deep; and being conveniently situated on the bank of Wallasey Pool, vessels can always come up to the quay with the materials brought from the company's works at St. Helen's and in Wales. About 1600 tons of manufactured copper and patent metal are issued hence yearly for home consumption, and for exportation to Calcutta, Bombay, Boston, New York, and most parts of the world. The Seacombe Smalt-Works are in the occupation of Mr. Mawdesley and Messrs. Mawdesley and Smith. The manufacture was first established here, though on a much smaller scale, about forty years ago, by Messrs. Home and Stackhouse, merchants of Liverpool. It was afterwards continued by a company called the Seacombe Company; next by a Mr. Craven; and more recently by Messrs. Rawlins and Mawdesley, in whose hands the manufacture of the article in this country may be said to have first succeeded. A foundry is also carried on.
At the eastern extremity of the township is the station of the ancient ferry, with a large hotel. The ferry, which is the property of R. Smith, Esq., the reputed lord of the manor, has a good supply of steam-boats; and the hotel is furnished with a bowling-green, a billiard-room, and every accommodation. The rapid tide occasioned by the inlet of Wallasey Pool, rendered the landing inconvenient until the erection of a stage, of a very uncommon construction, worked by means of a moveable steam-engine, upon a tramway. To the south of the ferry, a row of pleasant houses now faces the Mersey, and the shore is crested with elegant residences. Henry Winch, Esq., a magistrate of the county, resides here; and the Rev. James Mainwaring, M.A., of Bromborough Hall, is a large proprietor in the township. Poolton village, which lies a mile up Wallasey Pool, from its situation in a small cove bordered with flourishing trees, and the rural simplicity of its houses, forms a pleasing contrast to the activity and bustle prevailing at the ferry.
A church, dedicated to St. Paul, was erected by subscription, at a cost of £1800, from designs by Mr. John Hay, of Liverpool, and consecrated in 1847. It stands at the intersection of four new roads, about 500 yards from the Seacombe hotel; and is in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by an ornamented spire. Though not remarkable for elaborate decoration, it is of admirable proportions, which are strictly maintained throughout the entire building; the open roof is at once eminently scientific and extremely simple. Seats are provided for about 500 persons, on low benches, all invidious distinction between those that are free and those appropriated being avoided. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with the interest of £1000; patrons, the Rector of Wallasey (who had the first presentation), Mr. Winch, and three other Trustees. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £137, equally divided between the rector of the parish and the Rev. W. Armitstead. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also an infants' school; and a dispensary, and some minor institutions, have been established. Iserene, with magnetic sand, prominently noticed by Dr. Trail, late of Liverpool, is to be seen along the coast from Seacombe Point to the Rock lighthouse, oozing from under the bed of clay, and streaking the shoresand black: the magnetic sand is easily attracted by the magnet.
SEACROFT, a township, in the parish of Whitkirk, Lower divisiou of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Leeds; containing 1020 inhabitants. A great battle took place here during the heptarchy, ou Win Moor; and in the reign of Charles I. an engagement occurred between the parliamentarians under Fairfax, and the royalists commanded by Lord Goring, in which the latter obtained a complete victory. The township comprises by computation 1750 acres of fertile land, and the substratum abounds with coal, of which several mines are in operation. The village is on the road from Leeds to York, and has a cheerful aspect. A tithe rent-charge of £357 is paid to Trinity College, Cambridge, and one of £22 to the vicar. There is a district church, dedicated to St. James; the living is in the gift of the Vicar of Whitkirk. The Wesleyan Methodists have a place of worship in the township.
Seaford (St. Leonard)
SEAFORD (St. Leonard), a cinque port and parish, and formerly a representative borough and a markettown, in the union of Eastbourn, locally in the hundred of Flexborough, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 59¼ miles (S. S. E.) from London; containing 953 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have been the Civitas Anderida of the Romans. The parish is situated on the road from Newhaven to Eastbourne, and is bounded on the east by the Cuckmere river, and on the south by the English Channel. Seaford was a considerable town, with four churches and chapels, until burnt by the French in one of those invasions to which the whole of the southern coast was anciently exposed; it has also declined greatly in extent from frequent encroachments of the sea. In 1824, an irruption, breaking through the barrier of shingle by which the land was defended, greatly damaged the town and neighbourhood. The cliffs are of singular formation, in some parts 300 feet in height; and on the summit are the remains of a circular camp. The river Ouse, the estuary of which constituted the harbour, now empties itself into the sea at Newhaven, about three miles westward. An act was passed in 1846, for a railway from Lewes to Newhaven and Seaford, eight and a half miles in length; and the Commissioners for inquiring into the expediency of forming harbours of refuge, have recommended that one (of four) should be constructed here. Prawns of large size and of fine flavour are found in abundance. Fairs are held on March 15th and July 25th.
Seaford was originally a member of Hastings, but was made a port by charter of Henry VIII., who incorporated the inhabitants under the style of "the Bailiffs, Jurats, and Commonalty of the town, parish, and borough of Seaford." The bailiff and other officers are chosen on September 29th; the jurats are eight in number, and four of them are resident magistrates, and hold quarter-sessions for the borough, and petty-sessions occasionally. The town first sent barons to parliament in the 26th of Edward I., and continued to exercise the right to the 21st of Richard II., from which time there was a suspension until the reign of Edward IV., when the privilege was restored: the borough was entirely disfranchised in the 2nd of William IV. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to that of Sutton, and valued in the king's books at £11. 15.: the tithes have been commuted for £240. The church is the nave of one of the old churches, with a tower, and a small chancel of later date; and although the modern repairs and additions have been numerous, and do not harmonize with the original style, the building still retains vestiges of beauty. Seaford gives the title of Baron to the family of Ellis.
SEAFORTH, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Sefton, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 5 miles (N.) from Liverpool; containing 1869 inhabitants. It is beautifully situated on the shore of Bootle bay, with views of New Brighton, the Cheshire hills, and the Welsh mountains; and is studded with the villas and seats of Liverpool merchants. Several of the houses are very handsome: Seaforth House, a spacious and elegant mansion, belongs to Sir John Gladstone, Bart. The line of the Southport railway, and the Leeds and Liverpool canal, run through the district. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100, with a good house and two acres of land; patron, Sir John Gladstone, from whom, in 1855, the patronage will pass to the Rector of Sefton. The church, dedicated to St. Thomas, was erected in 1815, at the expense of the patron, and is a neat cruciform edifice in the early English style, with a small tower. Attached are boys', girls', and infants' schools.
Seagrave (All Saints)
SEAGRAVE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Barrow-upon-Soar, hundred of East Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 3¼ miles (N.E. by E.) from Mountsorrel; containing 451 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2405 acres; the substratum contains limestone of excellent quality, but it is not much wrought. A few of the population are employed in frame-work knitting. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 8. 11½., and in the gift of Queen's College, Cambridge, with a net income of £404, arising from 380 acres of land assigned in commutation of tithes in the year 1760. The church is an ancient structure, chiefly in the early English style of architecture.
Seagry, Lower and Upper (St. Mary)
SEAGRY, LOWER and UPPER (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chippenham, hundred of Malmesbury, Chippenham and Calne, and N. divisions of Wilts, 4¼ miles (S. S. E.) from Malmesbury; containing 231 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7.13. l½., and in the gift of the Earl of Carnarvon: the great tithes have been commuted for £163, and the vicarial for £159. 16. The church is an irregular structure combining portions in the Norman and early English styles; it contains a very ancient font, and under a niche in one of the walls is a recumbent figure of a female.
Seaham (St. Mary)
SEAHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Easington, N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham, 6 miles (S. by E.) from Sunderland; containing, with the township of Seaton with Slingley, 327 inhabitants, of whom 153 are in Seaham township. The parish comprises 2871a. 37p. It is bounded on the east by the sea, and is separated from Seaham Harbour, in the parish of Dalton-le-Dale, by a rivulet, over which is a neat wooden bridge. The surface is varied, commanding some fine views, and the scenery abounds with interesting features. Seaham Hall, formerly the manor-house of the Milbank family, and now the property of the Marquess of Londonderry, is a stately mansion, occupied occasionally by his lordship as a marine residence, and beautifully situated in tastefully ornamented grounds, with prospects of the sea, of Redcar, and the mouth of the Tees. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £5. 0. 5.; patron, the Marquess: the tithes have been commuted for £400, and the glebe consists of 180 acres. The church is an ancient structure with a square embattled tower, and is on rising ground, conspicuous in the landscape; it contains an elegant font. In the register is the signature of Lord Byron, whose marriage was solemnized at Seaham Hall. The parsonage-house is a handsome building in the Elizabethan style.
SEAHAM-HARBOUR, a sea-port, and an ecclesiastical district in the parish of Dalton-le-Dale, union of Easington, N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham, 6½ miles (S. by E.) from Sunderland; containing 2017 inhabitants. This place was the property of Sir Ralph Milbank Noel, Bart., from whom it was purchased in 1822 by the Marquess of Londonderry, its present owner. The peculiar advantages of its situation on the coast had suggested the formation of a harbour to Mr, Taylor, the steward of Sir Ralph, and some plans for its construction had been drawn out by Mr. Chapman, engineer, of Newcastle, in 1820; but the transfer of the property delayed the commencement of the works till 1823, when the marquess employed Mr. Chapman to carry into execution part of the original design. After great perseverance, and a vast outlay of capital, one of the safest and most commodious harbours on this portion of the English coast was completed; and thus was laid the foundation of the present importance and increasing prosperity of the town. Being on a prominent part of the shore, the harbour has an easy outlet to the south, enabling vessels sailing in that direction to clear the Yorkshire coast in northeasterly winds, when those from the river Tees are too deeply embayed to sail. The outer harbour to the north is more than 2½ acres in extent, and forms an entrance to the inner harbour, which is of larger size; the harbours to the south, of which the outer is nearly of the same dimensions as that to the north, together comprise an area of 11½ acres. Spacious quays have been formed, with wharfs and jetties for facilitating the shipping of coal and other produce; and every requisite arrangement has been made for the safe anchorage and protec tion of vessels entering the port. The foundation stone of the harbour was laid by the marquess, on the 28th of November, 1828; the first stone of the first house in the town was laid by the marquess's second son, Viscount Seaham, on the same day, and the first shipment of coal was made on the 25th of July, 1831.
From the opening of additional mines in the adjacent districts, the town is rapidly increasing in importance. Railways from the various collieries meet at the harbour; there are several inns, and the place is abundantly supplied with provisions of every kind, and with stores for the use of vessels. A large corn-mill here is driven by steam, and a pottery has been established. The amount of export duty on coal shipped from the port, during the year ending on the 5th of January, 1843, was £573. The ecclesiastical district comprises the whole township of Dawdon. The church, erected in 1837, and dedicated to St. John, is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains 400 sittings, of which half are free. The interior is neatly arranged, and the windows are embellished with the armorial bearings of the Marquess of Londonderry, and of the several families with which his lordship is connected by birth or alliance. The insertion of the stained glass, the erection of a small gallery, and the purchase of a clock and a good barrelorgan, were effected by aid of the surplus proceeds of a bazaar held under the patronage of Lady Londonderry, for the liquidation of a balance of £433 due for the erection of the church. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Trustees; net income, £250. An infirmary was erected in 1844, under the auspices of the marchioness, with funds arising from the publication of a volume of travels by her ladyship.
Seal (St. Peter)
SEAL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of SevenOaks, hundred of Codsheath, lathe of Sutton-atHone, W. division of Kent, 2¼ miles (N. E.) from Seven-Oaks; containing 1618 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4374 acres, of which 450 are in wood. Its surface is partly hilly, and partly level. The soil is chiefly sand and clay, and the substratum abounds with ragstone, which is quarried, and with layers of sand of various quality, some of which, consisting almost entirely of crystals of pure silex, are well adapted for the manufacture of glass. These layers are intersected in several instances by veins of ironstone. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Kemsing: the tithes have been commuted for £152 and £458, payable to the impropriator and the vicar respectively.
Seal (St. Peter)
SEAL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Ashby, hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 5¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Ashby; containing, with part of the chapelry of Blackfordby, and part of the hamlet of Donisthorpe, 1281 inhabitants, of whom 535 are in Nether Seal, and 513 in Over Seal. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 8. 11½.; net income, £950; patron, Sir T. Gresley, Bart.
SEAL, a parish, in the hundred of Farnham, W. division of Surrey, 3½ miles (E. by N.) from Farnham; containing, with the hamlet of Tongham, 428 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 2967 acres, of which 1258 are arable, 236 woodland, 43 in hop-grounds, and 691 waste: there are some very extensive chalk-pits. It is intersected by a high ridge called the Hog's Back, commanding a fine view over the surrounding country. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £44; patron, the Archdeacon of Surrey: the tithes have been commuted for £377. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, containing several monuments of the Long and Woodroffe families.
Seamer (St. Martin)
SEAMER (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Stokesley, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 2¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Stokesley; containing 247 inhabitants. The manor was held after the Conquest by Gospatric, Earl of Northumberland, till that nobleman joined in rebellion against the king, and his estates were forfeited, when a grant was made of the place to the Earl of Morton. Afterwards, it appears to have passed to the Meinells; and among other families that have held lands here, occur those of D'Arcy and Wyndham. The parish is separated from the parish of Stokesley by the river Tame, and comprises 3232 acres, of which 2178 are arable, and the remainder pasture and meadow: the surface is varied; the soil around the village is a rich sandy loam, and in other parts of inferior quality. The village, which is neatly built, occupies an elevated situation, and from the churchyard is obtained a distant view of the ocean. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £56; patron and impropriator, Colonel Wyndham: the great tithes have been commuted for £367. 13., and the perpetual curate's for £16. 10. The church, built in 1822, is a neat edifice in the later English style, with a square tower, and contains a marble font brought by Sir Cuthbert Herring from Alexandria.—See Newby.
Seamer (St. Martin)
SEAMER (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Scarborough, Pickering lythe, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of East Ayton and Irton, 1121 inhabitants, of whom 625 are in Seamer township, 4½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Scarborough. An insurrection headed by the parish-clerk and two others, broke out here in 1549, having for its objects the restoration of the Roman Catholic religion, and the abolition of monarchy. The rebels, to the number of 3000, after committing great excesses, laid down their arms, upon being offered the king's pardon; but the ringleaders were taken, and executed at York, in September of the same year. The parish is situated on the Wold road to Driffield and York, is bounded by the river Derwent on the north-west, and comprises about 7760 acres, forming a level champaign country, chiefly of a gravelly soil. Good stone is obtained for building, and for making lime. A fair, the grant of Richard II., is held on July 15th; and a market on the first Monday in every month, for cattle and sheep. The living is a vicarage, with the living of Cayton annexed, valued in the king's books at £18. 16. 5½.; net income, £243; patron and impropriator, W. J. Denison, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for land in 1809. The church is a handsome cruciform structure; the tower was struck by lightning, and taken down, in 1710. At East Ayton is a chapel of ease. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. Here are the ruins of a Cistercian monastery which was connected with the abbey of Whitby.
Searby (St. Nicholas)
SEARBY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Caistor, S. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6 miles (E. by S.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing, with the merged parish of Owmby, 234 inhabitants, of whom 126 are in Searby proper. The parish comprises by measurement 4600 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln (the appropriators), valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £200. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents, under acts of inclosure, in 1764 and 1795; the glebe comprises 227 acres. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
Seasalter Liberty (St. Alphage)
SEASALTER LIBERTY (St. Alphage), a parish, in the union of Blean, hundred of Whitstable, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 5¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Canterbury; containing 1064 inhabitants. On the sea-shore is an extensive oyster-bed called the Pollard, belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, who let it to the Whitstable company of free dredgers. Four annual fairs were held here, but they have been long discontinued. The parish comprises 1320a. 3r. 33p., whereof 308 acres are arable, 983 meadow, nearly 19 woodland, and 11 in gardens, &c. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11, and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter, who are also appropriators: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £160, and the appropriate for £225. A new parish church has been erected. There is a place of worship for Independents. Mrs. Francis Fagg, in 1794, bequeathed £800 three per cents, for the support of a school.
Seasoncote, or Sezincote (St. Bartholomew)
SEASONCOTE, or Sezincote (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Stow, Upper division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2 miles (W. by S.) from Moreton-in-theMarsh; containing 67 inhabitants, and comprising 1432 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, united to the vicarage of Longborough, and valued in the king's books at £9. 12. 11. The church was demolished about a century since.
SEATHWAITE, a chapelry, in the township of Dunnerdale and Seathwaite, parish of KirkbyIreleth, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 17 miles (N. by W.) from Ulverston; containing 202 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises about 2000 acres of good land, of which 500 are arable and meadow in nearly equal portions, 35 wood, and the remainder pasture. There is also a considerable portion of waste land. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60; patrons, the family of Millers. The tithes have been commuted for £40 payable to the Dean and Chapter of York, and £1 payable to the incumbent of the chapelry; there is a glebe of about three-quarters of an acre. Robert Walker, who was born in the valley here in 1709, became incumbent in his 26th year, and continued to hold the benefice to the day of his death, when he had attained the age of 93: his wife died in the same year at the same age.