A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Habberley (St. Mary)
HABBERLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Atcham, hundred of Ford, S. division of Salop, 9 miles (S. W.) from Shrewsbury; containing 125 inhabitants. It comprises about 900 acres, distributed into five farms. The soil is generally of a clayey nature, and of great fertility; the surface is rather flat, though relieved with occasional hills, and is watered by a small rivulet, and by numerous excellent springs. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 0. 2½., and in the patronage of the Heirs of the late John Mytton, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £126, and the glebe comprises 20 acres.
HABERGHAM-EAVES, a township, in the parochial chapelry and poor-law union of Burnley, parish of Whalley, N. division of the hundred of Blackburn and of the county of Lancaster; including part of the town of Burnley, and containing 8526 inhabitants. As early as the year 1201, Habergham gave name to a local family, of whom the last male heir, born in 1650, married the daughter of Nicholas Townley, of Royle, and died without issue, when the estate came, by the foreclosure of a mortgage, to the family of Halsted. This important manufacturing township comprises 2396 acres of land, chiefly pasture; the scenery is mountainous, and the soil for the most part a stiff clay. The lower lands are watered by the river Calder, and the township is intersected by the Leeds and Liverpool canal, the roads to Blackburn and to Bury, and the East Lancashire railway. It has extensive and valuable coal-mines, numerous cotton-mills, and some large print-works: here, also, are barracks for cavalry and infantry, capable of accommodating 500 men, besides officers. Townley Hall, the seat of the ancient family of Townley, originally stood on a lofty knoll, southward of the present mansion; when this elevated situation was abandoned is not known, but the existing structure may lay claim to high antiquity. It is a large and venerable building with two deep wings and two towers, embattled, and supported at the angles by strong projecting buttresses; and is seated in the centre of a well-wooded park.
A district church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and containing 1090 sittings, was erected in 1835, by Her Majesty's Commissioners, at a cost of £3000: it was originally a very plain edifice, but was greatly improved in 1845–6, when a new pulpit and reading-desk were put up, and numerous embellishments added to the timber-roof and other parts of the building, at a cost of £500, defrayed by the inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Hulme Trustees, who must present a graduate of Brasenose College, Oxford; net income, £150, with a commodious glebehouse. The ecclesiastical district or parish of All Saints, Habergham, was formed in 1845, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, c. 37, and consists of part of this township, with adjacent portions of other townships: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Chester, alternately; net income, £150. The church is situated near the village of Cheapside, and is in the early decorated style; it was built by subscription, and cost about £4000: the first stone was laid by J. P. Kay Shuttleworth, Esq., assisted by James Dugdale, Esq., on new-year's day, 1847. Another portion of Habergham-Eaves has been formed, under the same act, into the district of St. Paul, Lane-Bridge, which see. There are some places of worship for dissenters. Charles Townley, Esq., the distinguished virtuoso and collector of marbles, who died in 1805, was of the family connected with this place.
Habrough (St. Margaret)
HABROUGH (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Caistor, E. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Limber; containing 334 inhabitants. This parish, which formed part of the endowment of the abbey of Newsham, comprises by measurement 2500 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, united in 1740 to that of Killingholme, and valued in the king's books at £8. At the inclosure in 1810, an allotment of land was made in lieu of tithes; the land comprises 180 acres, valued at £144 per annum. The church is an ancient edifice. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists.
HABTON, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Kirkby-Misperton, union of Malton, Pickering lythe, N. riding of York, 5¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Malton; containing 156 inhabitants. It is situated north of the river Rye, and comprises about 990 acres of land. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
HABTON, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Kirkby-Misperton, union of Malton, Pickering lythe, N. riding of York, 5 miles (N. W. by N.) from Malton; containing 57 inhabitants. It is situated at the confluence of the rivers Seven and Rye, and comprises by computation 490 acres. The tithes have been commuted for £10. 1. 6.
Haccombe (St. Blaize)
HACCOMBE (St. Blaize), a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Wonford, Teinbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Newton-Abbott; containing 14 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25; net income, £253; patron, Sir W. P. Carew, Bart. The church was formerly collegiate, being endowed with the great tithes of Haccombe and Quethiock (in Cornwall) for the support of an arch-priest and five inferior priests. It contains some curious screen-work, and a pulpit and communion-table carved in stone, also a painting of the Descent from the Cross, and some ancient monuments of exquisite beauty to the Haccombe family and others; the windows are of coloured glass, representing the Ascension and other scriptural subjects.
Hacconby (St. Andrew)
HACCONBY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 3½ miles (N. by E.) from Bourne; containing, with the hamlet of Stenfield, 406 inhabitants. It comprises 3500 acres of land, and has a neat and pleasant village. The living is a discharged vicarage, united in 1732 to the vicarage of Morton, and valued in the king's books at £5. 17. 6. The church has portions in the early English style, with insertions in the decorated and later English. Here is a school with a small endowment; and about £5 are annually distributed among the poor.
HACEBY, a parish, in the union of Grantham, wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 8¼ miles (E.) from Grantham; containing 64 inhabitants. It comprises 730 acres of land. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 11., and in the gift of Sir W. E. Welby, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £139, and the glebe comprises 58 acres. The church is a small neat edifice, with a tower at the west end. £7 per annum, arising from a bequest by Lady C. Fox in 1786, are distributed among the poor. On the north side of the village were discovered in 1818, very considerable Roman antiquities, consisting of tessellated pavements and the foundation walls of a bath and other buildings.
Hacheston (All Saints)
HACHESTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Plomesgate, hundred of Loes, E. division of Suffolk, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Woodbridge; containing, with the hamlet of Glevering, 518 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 1726 acres. Glevering Hall is a handsome mansion pleasantly situated. A fair is held on the 2nd and 3rd of November, The living is a discharged vicarage, consolidated with that of Parham, and valued in the king's books at £6. 1. 10.: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £278, and the vicarial for £169; the glebe contains 3 acres. The church is partly in the early and partly in the decorated style, with a tower; the font is of Caen stone, beautifully sculptured, and the entrance into the church on the north is through a Norman doorway: a fine-toned organ was erected in 1841. Roman pottery has been found at different times.
HACKENTHORPE, a hamlet, in the parish of Beighton, union of Rotherham, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 5 miles (S. E.) from Sheffield. This place is seated in a district abounding with finely varied scenery; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the manufacture of sickles and reaping-hooks, which is carried on to a very considerable extent. The Berley spa, a mineral spring of great power, is situated here: an open elliptical building formerly erected has been formed into extensive accommodations for hot and cold bathing; the water is a strong chalybeate, very successful in rheumatic complaints. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Hackensall, with Presall.—See Presall.
Hackford (All Saints)
HACKFORD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk; comprising the principal part of the town of Reepham, and containing 694 inhabitants. It consists of 815a. 3r. 12p., of which upwards of 620 acres are arable, 166 pasture, and 21 woodland; the surface is undulated, and the scenery in some parts picturesque. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Whitwell united, valued in the king's books at £14. 10. 5.: net income, £328; patron, James Hunt Holley, Esq. The church, which was situated in the same churchyard as the churches of Reepham St. Mary and Whitwell, was destroyed by fire in 1600; the tower was taken down in 1790, but part of the west gable still remains. The inhabitants attend the church of Whitwell, now used for both parishes.
Hackford (St. Mary)
HACKFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Forehoe, E. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Wymondham; containing 264 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Norwich to Hingham, and comprises 754 acres, of which 617 are arable, and 118 pasture and meadow. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 15. 10., and in the patronage of T. T. Gurdon, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £213, and the glebe contains about 24 acres. The church, which was lately thoroughly repaired, is an exceedingly neat edifice; and contains, on the south side of the chancel, a piscina, discovered in 1840, and in the south porch, a stoup of elegant design: the font, also, is handsome.
HACKFORTH, a township, in the parish of Hornby, union of Bedale, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 3¾ miles (S.) from Catterick; containing 140 inhabitants. This township, which comprises about 1000 acres, is situated on the Leeming-Lane, and is the property and manor of the Duke of Leeds: the village is on the eastern verge of Hornby Park.
Hackington (St. Stephen)
HACKINGTON (St. Stephen), a parish, in the union of Blean, hundred of Westgate, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 1 mile (N.) from Canterbury; containing 506 inhabitants. A portion of the parish is within the municipal boundaries of Canterbury, and the whole comprises 1984 acres, of which 542 are in wood. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 3½., and in the gift of the Archdeacon of Canterbury: the tithes have been commuted for £620, and the glebe contains 2r. 11p. The church has been greatly improved, and a window of painted glass put up, by the Rev. John White, the incumbent: it contains a handsome monument to the memory of Sir Roger Manwood, who in 1592 gave the great tithes to the vicar, and endowed six tenements for aged people. In the churchyard, in 1187, Archbishop Baldwin began a chapel in honour of St. Stephen and St. Thomas of Canterbury, wherein he proposed to found a noble college for 40 secular priests, the king and all the suffragan bishops to have a prebend, each worth 40 marks a year; but the year after he had settled some canons at the place, the pope, at the instance of the monks at Christ Church, ordered the chapel to be levelled with the ground. The bishop erected a chapel in honour of St. Thomas à Becket at the foot of St. Thomas' hill.
Hacklestone, or Haxon
HACKLESTONE, or Haxon, a tything, in the parish of Fittleton, hundred of Elstub and Everley, Everley and Pewsey, and S. divisions of Wilts, 8¼ miles (W. by S.) from Ludgershall; containing 161 inhabitants. It is bounded by the river Avon, which, flowing southward, falls into Christchurch bay, in the county of Southampton. The General and Particular Baptists have each a place of worship.
HACKLETON, a hamlet, in the parish of Piddington, union of Hardingstone, hundred of Wymmersley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 5½ miles (S. E.) from Northampton; containing 436 inhabitants. It consists of about 1028 acres, and is situated on the road from Northampton to Newport-Pagnell. The Particular Baptists have a place of worship here.
Hackness (St. Peter)
HACKNESS (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Scarborough, liberty of Whitby-Strand, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Broxa, and Suffield with Everley, and the chapelry of HarwoodDale with Silpho, 714 inhabitants, of whom 182 are in the township of Hackness, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Scarborough. The parish comprises 11,892 acres, of which 3001 are arable, 2639 grass, 1488 wood, and 4764 moor and waste. The township of Hackness contains 646 acres, whereof 230 are arable, 248 pasture, 75 wood, and 93 waste or moor. The village is romantically situated in a delightful vale, from which several other vales run in different directions across the country: the hills that inclose the valley are from 100 to 120 yards in perpendicular height, and their steep acclivities are profusely adorned with lofty trees of the richest foliage. Springs of water rushing in cascades from the sides of the hills, or falling with gentle murmurs, contribute to the beauty of the scenery; and the river Derwent, which has its source in the mountainous country to the north, glides past the village. Excellent freestone is quarried, of which Christ-Church and the museum at Scarborough are built. A fair for cattle is held in July. Hackness Hall is a splendid mansion, surrounded with fine gardens and pleasure-grounds planned with exquisite taste. The living is a perpetual curacy, with the chapelry of Harwood-Dale annexed, in the patronage of Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, Bart.; net income of Hackness, £53. The church is a very ancient structure, with a tower surmounted by a spire; the chancel is considered to be of the time of Henry VII., but the nave is of much earlier date: it contains two fine monuments by Chantrey, one of them to the late Mrs. Johnstone. Here was a cell, belonging to Whitby Abbey, which at the Dissolution contained four monks of the Benedictine order.
HACKNEY, a parish, forming a union with StokeNewington, in the Tower division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 2 miles (N. E.) from London; comprising four districts, viz., Hackney St. John, containing, with Lower Clapton, 14,634 inhabitants; South Hackney, 6889; West Hackney, 11,108; and Stamford-Hill, with Upper Clapton, 5140; making in the whole 37,771 persons. This place is almost united to the metropolis by successive ranges of building, many of which are of respectable appearance. It was among the earliest of the adjacent villages inhabited by the more opulent merchants of London; and from its having been the first of those retreats provided with regular conveyances to the city, it is erroneously supposed to have given name to the coaches which ply in the streets of the metropolis, and in the principal towns in the kingdom. Among the various mansions of distinguished persons who anciently lived here, are, Brook House at Clapton, the residence of Lord Brook, now converted into an asylum for lunatics; and the palace of the prior of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, in Well-street, at present let out in tenements to poor families. To the south of Lea bridge are mills once belonging to the Knights Templars, and subsequently to the Hospitallers of St. John; they have been since employed for preparing sheet-lead, but are now unoccupied.
The parish is lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water: the houses are irregularly built; many of them in detached situations are handsome. On the site of an ancient building in the old churchyard, used as a school-house, a spacious edifice has been erected, and gradually enlarged, containing commodious apartments for the meetings of members of different local trusts, and for other purposes of parochial business. The environs are in many directions pleasant; and there are several nursery-grounds, of which those belonging to Messrs. Loddige and Sons are noted for a great variety of scarce and curious exotic plants. A considerable quantity of land in the neighbourhood is cultivated by market-gardeners for the supply of the London market, and a much larger portion is appropriated to the pasturage of cattle. The old bridge over the river Lea was taken down in 1820, and a good iron bridge of one arch erected at an expense of £4500. A silk manufactory at Hackney-Wick was discontinued a few years since; and the adjoining dwelling-house, which is a handsome building, has since been commodiously fitted up in a superior style for the reception of insane persons. The principal branches of manufacture at present carried on are the making of optical glasses of every description, the preparation of colours, dyeing, calico-printing, and calendering: there is an extensive flour-mill; and a water-mill of very great antiquity is now used for supplying the inhabitants of Clapton with water. A vast number of bricks and tiles are made in the neighbourhood, and several of the fields in which the clay has been exhausted, have been cultivated or built upon. The Regent's canal passes through the western part of the parish, and the Lea river navigation through the eastern.
Hackney formerly constituted one parish, under the designation of St. John's, consisting of a vicarage and a sinecure rectory, valued in the king's books at £20; and for all civil purposes it still continues so. But by an order of the king in council, dated March 1825, it was divided into three districts, called respectively Hackney, South Hackney, and West Hackney, each of which constitutes a distinct rectory, and of which each rector has an exclusive right to such tithes and dues as arise within the limits of his benefice. The livings are in the patronage of D. Tyssen, Esq.; net income of Hackney, £1082; of South Hackney, £399; and of West Hackney, £464. The church of St. John the Baptist, now the church of the central district, or Hackney proper, was erected under an act of parliament obtained in 1791, at a short distance northward of a more ancient one, the tower of which is still standing, the new building not being considered of sufficient strength to receive the bells. It is handsomely built of brick, with a cupola and dome of stone subsequently added: the roof is a singularly fine piece of mechanism, and the arches are of a bolder and wider span than those in almost any other edifice of similar design; the windows in the chancel, and one at the font, are enriched with painted glass. Among the monuments removed from the old church into the vestibules of the present edifice, is that of Christopher Urswick, almoner of Henry VII., and incumbent of the parish, who died in 1521. Dr. Richard Sampson, Bishop of Chichester, and afterwards of Lichfield and Coventry; David Daulben, Bishop of Bangor; and Gilbert Sheldon, Bishop of London, and subsequently Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of the University of Oxford, were incumbents of the parish. The parsonage-house was rebuilt by the late incumbent. A sub-district has been apportioned from the district of Hackney proper, to Stamford-Hill chapel, formerly proprietary, but purchased by the present trustees, and considerably enlarged; an endowment has been assigned to the minister, and a transfer made by the rector of all dues for occasional services performed in the chapel. The living is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Rector. At Homerton is an episcopal chapel built by Mr. Ram, and now in the patronage of Trustees, who appoint the minister, subject to the approval of the Bishop of London; it contains 600 sittings. An ecclesiastical district or parish, named St. Barnabas', Homerton, was constituted in 1846, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37; embracing an extent of 470 acres. The church, erected in the same year, is a structure of stone in the early English style, consisting of a chancel and nave, with a south aisle, and a tower at the west end, and having some beautiful stained-glass windows: owing to the taste and munificence of the family of the late rector, Archdeacon Watson, it is admirably adapted to the purposes of divine worship. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Bishop of London; net income, £150. A church has been erected at Dalston, and another at Clapton, both of which are in the parish of St. John.
The church of West Hackney, containing 1828 sittings, whereof 1192 are free, is situated in Kingslandroad, and was erected by the Parliamentary Commissioners in 1823, at an expense of £15,302; it is a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, with a portico of the Doric order, designed by Mr. Smirke. The site of the church, and an ample allotment of ground for a cemetery, together with an adjoining piece of land for a parsonage-house, were given by the patron: the house was built by subscription, at a cost of about £2000. A church, dedicated to St. Peter, was lately erected and endowed in the parish, at the expense of Richard Benyon de Beauvoir, Esq.; and a district is attached to it, co-extensive with the estate of the founder at Beauvoir-Town. The structure is in the later English style; the altar window is of fine stained glass, and contains a representation of Our Saviour giving the Keys to St. Peter: the building will accommodate about 1000 persons, and the basement is fitted up as schoolrooms. An excellent house for the minister has also been erected. The church of South Hackney (formerly a chapel of ease), situated in Well-street, was built in 1810, on a site given by John Dekewer, Esq.; the erection and subsequent alterations cost nearly £8000, raised by subscription. It is in the Grecian style, with a receding portico of two Ionic columns, and a circular campanile turret surrounded with pillars of the Corinthian order. In this parish is a second church, erected at a cost of about £10,000: the first stone was laid in May, 1845.
There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. Among the ministers of the Independent congregation in St. Thomas's square have been Dr. William Bates, an eminent theological writer, and Matthew Henry, author of a Commentary on the Holy Scriptures; and among those of the Unitarian congregration have been Dr. Price, Dr. Priestley, and the late Rev. Thomas Belsham. Spurstowe's Almshouses, founded in the year 1666, by Dr. William Spurstowe, incumbent of Hackney, who endowed them for six aged widows, were rebuilt in 1819, at an expense of £1352, which sum had accumulated from savings of the original endowment, augmented by subsequent benefactions. Six almshouses were built in Well-street for aged men, by Henry Monger, Esq., who endowed them with an annuity of £12, to which additional bequests have been made. The almshouses at Clapton were founded by Dr. Thomas Wood, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, who endowed them for ten aged widows, with a rent-charge of £55. The Retreat, for eight widows of Independent, and four widows of Baptist, ministers, is a handsome range of buildings near Paradise-fields, comprising six dwelling-houses, and a chapel in the centre, in the ancient English style, erected at the expense of Samuel Robinson, Esq., who supports it. Near St. Thomas's square are twelve almshouses, built in 1828 by the Bakers' Company, for decayed members and their wives; adjoining which are eight additional tenements, erected by the late Mr. Thorne. The Hackney Church of England Grammar school, in union with King's College, London, was formed by a proprietary of shareholders: the building, situated near the old churchyard, is in the English style, and cost upwards of £1300. Another institution, designated the Hackney Grammar school, admits pupils of every religious denomination: the building, situated in the Back-lane, Clapton, is of brick, in the Grecian style, with a portico of four fluted Doric columns, which, with the entablatures and principal front, are finished in Roman cement; the expense was about £1750. The Society for Educating Young Men for the Ministry, instituted in 1730, and entertaining the doctrines expressed in the catechisms of the Westminster Assembly, have a college at Homerton, for the instruction of 20 young men; the present building of brick, which is neat and very commodious, was completed in 1823, on the site of a former one, at an expense of nearly £10,000, defrayed by subscription. The poor-law union of Hackney contains a population of 42,371, and is under the direction of 18 guardians.
Among the Distinguished Persons interred here may be mentioned Henry, Lord Percy, Earl of Northumberland, who died at his house in the parish, June 29th, 1537, being the nobleman who, according to the assertion of Henry VIII., was contracted to Anna Boleyn, under which pretext the sentence of divorce was pronounced between that monarch and her; Edward Vere, Earl of Oxford, a statesman, poet, and dramatist, who flourished in the reign of Elizabeth, and died in 1604; Dr. John Worthington, an eminent divine; and Sir Francis D'Oliveira, a Portuguese emigrant, who wrote against the Inquisition, and died in 1783. Sir Ralph Sadleir, the distinguished statesman in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth, was born here; and Howard, the great philanthropist, is supposed to have been a native of Clapton.—See Clapton and Dalston.