A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Tonbridge, or Tunbridge (St. Peter and St. Paul)
TONBRIDGE, or TUNBRIDGE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the lowey of Tonbridge, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 14 miles (W. S. W.) from Maidstone, and 30 (S. E.) from London; containing, with Southborough, and part of the chapelry of TonbridgeWells, 12,530 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have been originally called "Town of Bridges," from the stone bridges crossing the five streams into which the river Medway here branches. It probably owes its origin to a castle of formidable strength, considered by some to have existed before the Conquest, but more generally thought to have been erected very soon after that period by Richard, Earl of Clare, a relation of the Conqueror's. This castle, which was frequently an object of contention, was besieged by William Rufus, the proprietor having declared in favour of Robert, Duke of Normandy. It was taken by King John in his war with the barons; and subsequently was besieged by Prince Edward, son of Henry III., on which occasion the town was burned by the garrison to prevent its giving shelter to the assailants. Edward having become king, was sumptuously entertained here by Gilbert, Earl of Clare; and during his absence in Flanders, his son, afterwards Edward II., when administering the government of the country, resided in this castle. Having been crowned, he took possession of it, in consequence of the rebellion of its owner; after which it became, with three others, the depository of the national records. The lordship, some time after, was the property of the Staffords; and on the attainder of the Duke of Buckingham, the last powerful member of that family, in the reign of Henry VIII., it was seized by the crown, with his other possessions, and the castle was suffered to fall into decay.
The town consists mainly of a long spacious street, paved, and lighted with gas, and containing some good houses. Its situation on the declivity of a hill contributes greatly to its cleanliness. The only public buildings, besides the church and grammar-school, are the town-hall and market-house: the principal bridge was erected in 1775, by Mr. Milne, at an expense of £1100. Tonbridge ware, and gunpowder, are manufactured here, but both to a less extent than formerly. The river Medway, on which are convenient wharfs for the accommodation of the trade (which is considerable), was made navigable to the town about the middle of the last century, and a large quantity of coal and timber is brought by it from Maidstone. The South-Eastern railway passes near the town, on the south, where a station is established. The weekly market, on Friday, is now discontinued; but there is a cattle-market on the first Tuesday in every month, which is numerously attended, and a fair is held on October 12th. The powers of the county debt-court of Tonbridge, established in 1847, extend over the sub-registration-district of Penshurst; the parishes of Capel, Hadlow, and Tudely; and part of those of Bidborough and Tonbridge. The county magistrates meet on the second and fourth Wednesdays in each month. Two representatives were sent to parliament from the town in the 23rd of Edward I., but it has not since exercised the elective franchise. The parish comprises 15,234a. 3r. 35p., of which 5284 acres are arable, 4636 pasture, 5313 woodland, and 89 common or waste.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20. 3. 4., and in the gift of John Deacon, Esq.: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £1077, and the impropriate for £873. 7. The church, a spacious and handsome structure with a square embattled tower, was some years since repaired and enlarged. District churches have been erected at Southborough and Hildenborough, and there are three incumbencies in Tonbridge-Wells. The grammar school was founded by Sir Andrew Judd, alderman of London, in the 7th of Edward VI.; and by letters-patent of that monarch, it was ordained that, after the death of the founder, the management should be vested in the Skinners' Company, London. A salary of £500 is paid to the head-master, and one of £200 to the under-master, both having also rent-free residences; and sixteen exhibitions of £100 a year each, for four years, are maintained from the income, for boys going to either of the universities. In addition to these exhibitions, the pupils are eligible to a fellowship at St. John's College, Oxford, instituted by Sir Thomas Whyte; to six exhibitions of £10 per annum each, tenable at any college in either university, founded by Sir Thomas Smith; to a scholarship of £17. 9. 6. a year, at Brasenose College, Oxford, founded by Mr. Henry Fisher; to an exhibition of £2. 13. 4. per annum, at either of the universities, by Mr. Thomas Lampard; to two exhibitions of £6 per annum each, at St. John's College, Cambridge, by Mr. Worrall; to an exhibition originally £4, now £8, a year, at either university (in default of scholars from SevenOaks school), established by Mr. Robert Holmedon; and to two exhibitions, of £75 per annum each, at Jesus College, Cambridge (also in default of scholars from Seven-Oaks), instituted by Lady Mary Boswell. The school premises, which have been repaired and enlarged, form an elegant range with a frontage of 130 feet: attached is a play-ground of about 12 acres. The poor-law union of Tonbridge comprises 10 parishes or places, containing a population of 23,814.
The remains of the once celebrated castle consist only of the entrance gateway, flanked by two round towers, and of an artificial mount, on which the keep stood. At some distance, on the opposite side of the river, are the ruins of a priory of Black canons founded by Richard de Clare, about the end of the reign of Henry I. Upon its dissolution in 1525, the revenue,amounting to £l69. 10. 3., was intended to form part of the endowment of Wolsey's colleges at Ipswich and Oxford; but the cardinal's disgrace occurred before the grant was confirmed. Little remains besides the refectory, or hall, converted into a barn. About a mile from the town is a well of mineral water of the same quality as that of Tonbridge-Wells.
Tonbridge, or Tunbridge, Wells
TONBRIDGE, or TUNBRIDGE, WELLS, a market-town and chapelry, partly in the parish and lowey of Tonbridge, and partly in the parish of Speldhurst, hundred of Washlingstone, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent; and partly in the parish of Frant, hundred of Rotherfteld, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex; 20 miles (S. W.) from Maidstone, and 36 (S. E. by S.) from London; the whole containing 8302 inhabitants. This attractive and fashionable town owes its importance to its medicinal springs. These were first discovered in 1606, by Dudley, Lord North, who was then staying at Eridge House, in the vicinity, for the benefit of his health; and in consequence of the benefit he derived from the use of them, Lord Abergavenny, the owner of Eridge, was induced to fit up the wells, and make such improvements as might lead to their becoming a public resort. The springs soon acquired such celebrity that Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I., retired hither to enjoy the benefit of the waters, after the birth of her eldest son, Prince Charles; on which occasion, there being no suitable residence, she and her suite were lodged in tents upon Bishop'sDown. Their increasing reputation continuing to attract many visiters, various retail dealers constructed standings, on which they exhibited their wares, under a row of trees in the road by which the company usually passed to the Wells; and finally, lodging-houses were erected. Soon after the Restoration, in 1664, the place was visited by Charles II. and his Queen Catherine, who, residing here for some time, with the gay court of that monarch, gave it additional attraction. It was also a very favourite residence of Queen Anne prior to her accession to the throne, and has continued ever since to attract a great concourse of company during the season, from May to November. The waters, which are chalybeate, are of nearly equal strength with those of the German Spa, and are considered very efficacious in cases of weak digestion, or where tonics are necessary.
The town is irregularly but beautifully built, consisting of clusters of houses in different situations. An act for its internal regulation was obtained in 1815; and in 1835 a new act was passed for lighting, watching, and improving the town, for regulating the supply of water, and establishing a market. In 1846 another act was obtained for its better paving and lighting, and for effecting further improvements in the place. The Well is situated close to the Parade; the water, which rises into a stone basin, is served by women called "Dippers," who receive a certain sum for the season from each person drinking it. Near the Well, which is 300 feet above the level of the sea, are the principal shops and places of amusement; and a spacious building called the Bath House has been erected, containing both hot and cold mineral baths. The Parade, which is broad and handsome, is bounded on one side by the assemblyrooms, libraries, and by shops in which Tonbridge-ware and fancy articles of every kind are sold; on the opposite side is a row of trees, with an orchestra in the midst, where a band usually plays during a portion of each day in the season. With the Parade is connected what are called the Upper and Lower walk, divided by palisades of iron. The other parts of the town are situated on detached eminences, at short distances from the Wells, called Calverley, Mount-Ephraim, Mount-Sion, MountPleasant, Bishop's-Down, Grove-Hill, and Nevill-Park, which, being interspersed with shrubberies and pleasuregrounds, and connected with the Wells by walks regularly disposed, present a combination of interesting scenery. About a mile south-west of the town, is a beautifully romantic spot called the High Rocks, which, with the surrounding scenery, resembles parts of Derbyshire, and forms a point of strong attraction to the numerous visiters. A market-house has been erected by John Ward, Esq., near Calverley Park; it is a fine range of building, with an area in front, in the centre of which is a fountain, and contains an elegant and spacious room for assemblies and public meetings. The inns, and boarding and lodging houses, are generally of a superior description. A branch railway from near the Tonbridge station of the South-Eastern railway, was opened to this place in September 1845: it traverses a beautiful district; and from the inequalities of the surface, the engineering difficulties were considerable. In 1846 an act was passed for a railway, in continuation, to Hastings and Rye, in Sussex.
The estate of Calverley was purchased in 1828, by John Ward, Esq., who opened the mansion as an hotel, and laid out the grounds with great elegance and taste, forming a park, with a terrace, parade, and promenade, to which 24 villas have been added, conferring upon the locality the appearance of a new town. A library and baths are attached to the promenade; and the splendid hotel, with its ornamental appendages and beautiful adjacent scenery, is justly considered as elevating this delightful spot to a rivalry with any establishment of the same kind in the kingdom. Calverley House was frequently occupied by Her present Majesty while Princess Victoria, and by the Duchess of Kent; and the inhabitants, as a proof of their grateful remembrance of royal patronage, in 1835 planted a grove on the common named Victoria Grove, which consists of elms, limes, and sycamores, disposed in three rows, and measures 550 feet in length and 50 in breadth.
A literary and scientific institution and a horticultural society have been established; there is a small theatre near the Wells, and races are held in August, on the common. The manufacture of wooden toys and articles for domestic use, commonly denominated Tonbridgeware, is carried on to a considerable extent. The government is vested in commissioners chosen under the local act of 1835, which embraces a district of one mile beyond the town. Constables are appointed at the court leet for the "hundred of Southborough and manor of Rusthall," and petty-sessions are held every alternate Wednesday: the powers of the county debt-court of Tonbridge-Wells, established in 1847, extend over part of the parishes of Tonbridge and Bidborough, and over eight other parishes. The chapel, dedicated to King Charles the Martyr, was erected about 160 years since, by subscription, on ground given by the lady of the manor; it is a plain Grecian building, fitted up and wainscoted with fine old oak, which, with the ornamented ceiling, is much admired. The living is in the gift of Trustees. A district church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected in 1829, at an expense of £12,000, by subscription, aided by a grant from His Majesty's Commissioners; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, accommodating between 1500 and 1600 persons, and a finely-painted window has lately been erected at the east end. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of John Deacon, Esq. The church called Christ-church, in the Norman style of the 12th century, was erected in 1835, but was not opened until 1841, when it became the property, by purchase, of the Rev. Thomas Ward Franklyn, in whom the patronage is vested. There are places of worship for the Connexion of the Countess of Huntingdon, Independents, and Wesleyans; and a Roman Catholic chapel in the Grecian style, erected in 1838. Richard Cumberland, the celebrated dramatist, was for many years a resident on Mount-Sion, and frequently attracted hither some of the most eminent literary characters of the day.
TONE, a hamlet, in the township of Colwell with Swinburn, parish of Chollerton, union of Hexham, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 10 miles (N.) from Hexham. It comprises 1121 acres, lying on a high elevation; and contains a good modern mansion.
Tong (St. Giles)
TONG (St. Giles), a parish, in the union and hundred of Milton, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Sittingbourne; containing 212 inhabitants. It consists of 1618 acres, of which 45 are in wood. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 6. 8.; patron, W. Baldwin, Esq.; appropriator, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The great tithes have been commuted for £522. 10., and the vicarial for £205; the glebes comprise respectively 7 and 2 acres. The church has a steeple on the south side. Here was a castle in which Hengist surprised King Vortigern and his nobles, the latter of whom he massacred, and the former kept prisoner till he surrendered his kingdom: of this fortress the ditch and keep-mount still remain, at a short distance south of the church. At Pukeshall, in the parish, was an hospital dedicated to St. James.
Tong (St. Bartholomew)
TONG (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Shiffnall, Shiffnall division of the hundred of Brimstree, S. division of the county of Salop, 3¼ miles (E. by S.) from Shiffnall; containing 566 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Birmingham to Chester, and comprises by admeasurement 3466 acres. The river Worf commences from the union of two brooks at the western extremity of the parish. Tong Castle, the seat of the family of Durant, a magnificent mansion remodelled in the last century, is crowned with numerous turrets, pinnacles, and eight lofty domes, producing a striking effect: it contains many valuable pictures and cabinets. There are several quarries of red and white stone for building. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Durant family: the stipend of the incumbent was originally £14 per annum, with board, &c, at the castle; but Lord Pierrepoint, who built the present handsome parsonage-house, endowed the benefice with £80 per annum. The glebe comprises two acres, valued at £6 a year. The church is in the decorated style, with a spire rising from the centre, and is a fine specimen of ancient monastic architecture. It originally belonged to the abbey of Shrewsbury, and was purchased in 1411 by Isabel, relict of Sir Fulk Pembridge, Knt., who, with others, rebuilt the edifice, and made it collegiate for a warden, four secular chaplains, a number of priests, and two clerks, with an hospital for thirteen poor persons; the revenue at the Dissolution, according to Dugdale, was £22. 8. 1. Within the choir are some splendid altar-tombs with statues of the Pembridges and Vernons, ancient lords of the manor; also a monument in memory of Sir Thomas Stanley, which formerly stood in the chancel, and the inscription upon which is said to have been written by Shakspeare. There are some bequests for the poor. Charles II. is stated to have found refuge in a farmhouse in the parish.
TONG, a chapelry, in the parish of Birstal, union of Bradford, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of the county of York, 6½ miles (W. S. W.) from Leeds; containing 2515 inhabitants. The manor, including the hamlets of Cutler-Height, Far-Street, Rycroft, Holme, and Westgate-Hill, comprises by admeasurement 2643 acres, principally the property of Col. John Plumbe Tempest. The surface is hilly, and the scenery enriched with extensive woods of native growth; the soil is fertile, and the substratum abounds with coal and ironstone. Tong Hall, the seat of Col. Tempest, is a stately mansion, erected by Sir George Tempest, on the site of an ancient Hall occupied by the De Tonge, Mirfield, and Tempest families for more than 750 years; it is situated in a finely-wooded demesne, comprising much beautiful scenery, and commanding extensive views. The village is neatly built, and though in the centre of a populous manufacturing district, is rural and retired; the inhabitants are mostly employed in agriculture, in woolcombing, and the making of rope and twine. The chapel, dedicated to St. James, was rebuilt in 1727, chiefly at the expense of Sir Geo. Tempest: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £166; patron and impropriator, Col. Tempest. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A school was built by Sir Geo. Tempest in 1737.
Tonge, with Haulgh
TONGE, with Haulgh, a township, in the parish and union of Bolton, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 1¼ mile (E. N. E.) from Bolton; containing 2627 inhabitants. In the reign of John, lands were held here by Gilbert de Tonge. The township comprises 1030 acres, forming table-land situated between two valleys, and contains several good houses; it is separated from the township of Great Bolton by the river Croal. The soil belongs to the Earl of Bradford, by whom the coal here is worked. Messrs. Heyes and Hamer, and other firms, have extensive bleachworks; and the paper-mill of Messrs. W. and W. Mangnall, established in 1817, employs about 100 hands: these gentlemen have adopted the patent of making straw into paper. The ingenious Samuel Crompton resided at Hall-i'-th'-Wood, in the township, the ancient seat of the Norris family and afterwards that of the Starkies, where he completed his invention of the spinning-mule, which he sold for not more than £100. He received, however, a grant from parliament of £5000, and a subscription was opened by the cotton-spinners and others of Bolton and Manchester for the purchase of an annuity, which he enjoyed during the remainder of his life. The hamlet of Haulgh is in the ecclesiastical parish of Lever-Bridge. The church district of Tonge was formed in July 1845, under the provisions of the act 6th and 7th of Victoria, cap. 37: its estimated area is 750 acres. Divine service is at present performed in a commodious licensed schoolroom. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester alternately. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and about £15 per annum, part of Highstill charity founded by Mr. Mather, are applied to the instruction of children.
TONGE, a township, in the parish of Prestwichcum-Oldham, union of Oldham, hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 5½ miles (N. N. E.) from Manchester; containing 2423 inhabitants. It is probable that the family of Tonge gave name to this place, which in the 43rd of Elizabeth was possessed by a member of it named Christopher Tonge. The township adjoins Middleton, and forms a populous part of the environs of that town. The soil here is various, chiefly sand, gravel, and clay: a coal-mine is in operation. The population is mostly employed in silk hand-loom weaving, and in cotton-mills and print-works. Tonge, with Alkrington, forms an ecclesiastical district: the church, dedicated to St. Michael, was built in 1839, by Her Majesty's Commissioners, at a cost of £1773, and is a plain brick edifice. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of Prestwich; net income, £150, of which £137 are granted by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The tithes of Tonge have been commuted for £20. There are national schools.
TONGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Breedon, union of Shardlow, hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester; with 150 inhabitants.
TONGHAM, a hamlet, in the parish of Seal, hundred of Farnham, W. division of Surrey, 3½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Farnham; with 242 inhabitants.
TOOLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Peckleton, union of Market-Bosworth, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 5 miles (N. E.) from Hinckley; containing 25 inhabitants.
TOOTHOG, a township, in the parish of Cwmyoy, union of Abergavenny, hundred of Ewyaslacy, county of Hereford, 10 miles (N.) from Abergavenny; containing 132 inhabitants, and comprising 2300 acres.
Tooting, Lower, or Tooting-Graveney (St. Nicholas)
TOOTING, LOWER, or Tooting-Graveney (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Wandsworth, W. division of the hundred of Brixton, E. division of Surrey, 7 miles (S. S. W.) from London; containing 2840 inhabitants. The parish comprises 500 acres, of which 50 are common, and the remainder chiefly good pasture. The village, consisting of two streets, is situated on the road from London to Brighton, through Reigate, and is supplied with water from wells formed by boring; the atmosphere is considered very salubrious, and the environs are studded with elegant cottages and villas. Assemblies are occasionally held during the winter months. The parish is under the metropolitan police. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 8. 6½.: net income, £374; patron, the Rev. Richard W. Greaves. The church was rebuilt in 1832-3, in the later English style, by subscription, by a sale of part of Tooting common, and by a grant of £350 from the Incorporated Society: it contains monuments to Sir John Hebden, ambassador to Russia in the reign of Charles I.; Sir James Bateman; and others. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; also national schools, erected on the site of some former ones, in 1828, at an expense of £1800.
TOOTING, UPPER, a hamlet, in the parish of Streatham, union of Wandsworth, E. division of Brixton hundred and of the county of Surrey, 6¾ miles (S. S. W.) from London. This village, which is also designated Tooting-Beck, is well sheltered from the north winds; and the salubrity of the air, the purity of the water, and its dry gravelly soil, have made it the residence of several respectable families. In that part adjoining Balham-Hill, a hamlet in the same parish, is a proprietary episcopal chapel, built by the inhabitants, at an expense of nearly £7000, about the year 1806, and since greatly enlarged; it will accommodate about 1000 persons: over the altar is a painted window.
Topcliffe (St. Columb)
TOPCLIFFE (St. Columb), a parish, in the union of Thirsk, partly in the wapentake of Birdforth, and partly in the wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York; containing 2964 inhabitants, of whom 706 are in the township of Topcliffe, 4½ miles (S. S. W.) from Thirsk. The parish comprises by computation 14,733 acres, and consists of the chapelries of Dishforth and Marton-le-Moor, and the townships of Asenby, Baldersby, Catton, Dalton, Elmire with Crakehill, Rainton with Newby, Skipton, and Topeliffe. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £19. 19. 2.; net income, £600; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of York. The great tithes of Topcliffe township have been commuted for £547, and the small for £97; the dean and chapter have a glebe of 43 acres, and the vicar of 7 acres. The church is of great antiquity. There are separate incumbencies at Dishforth, Marton, and Skipton. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. John Hartforth, in 1588, gave land and money in support of a free grammar school, which, with subsequent bequests, produce £70 a year. Here are some slight vestiges of an ancient baronial mansion of the Percy family called Maiden Bower, in which Henry, fourth earl of Northumberland, was murdered by the populace, in 1489, for enforcing an obnoxious tax. Charles I. was confined in it; and the sum of £200,000, for giving him up to the parliament, was here paid to the Scottish commissioners.
Topcroft (St. Margaret)
TOPCROFT (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Loddon and Clavering, hundred of Loddon, E. division of Norfolk, 5½ miles (E. by S.) from Long Stratton; containing 475 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Bishop of Norwich: the tithes have been commuted for £400; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains about 48 acres. The church is chiefly in the later English style, with a tower circular in the lower part and octagonal in the upper. Near Topcroft Hall was formerly a free chapel, dedicated to St. Giles. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Toppesfield (St. Margaret)
TOPPESFIELD (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Halstead, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 8 miles (N. W.) from Halstead; containing 1073 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 3220 acres, of which about 2870 are arable, 300 pasture, and 50 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26; it is in the patronage of the Crown, and the tithes have been commuted for £1100, with a glebe of 20 acres. The church has a modern tower of brick, the original one of stone having been burnt down in 1700: under an arch in the south wall of the chancel is a very ancient tomb, and there are several interesting monuments in the church. The Independents have a place of worship.
Topsham (St. Margaret)
TOPSHAM (St. Margaret), a market-town and parish, in the uinion of St. Thomas, hundred of Wonford, Wonford and S. divisions of Devon, 3½ miles (S. E.) from Exeter, and 170 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 3733 inhabitants. In the civil war of the 17th century, the Earl of Warwick brought some ships up the river Exe, but the vessels being left upon the sands, on the ebbing of the tide, two were captured and one burnt by the army under Fairfax, who remained here a short time. The Duke of Monmouth is also said to have been at this place, one of the streets being called after his name. The town is situated just above the influx of the river Clyst into the Exe, and about six miles from the sea. It is celebrated for the salubrity of its air: it is reported to have lost only one person when the plague was raging at Exeter and in the vicinity, in the reign of Charles II.; and during the desolation produced in the neighbourhood by the cholera, in 1832, it entirely escaped. On the strand are some neat residences, fronted with gardens extending to the water's edge, the view being justly admired for its variety and extent. An act for better cleansing and lighting the town was passed in 1843.
The foreign trade was formerly very great, but has gradually fallen away, and at the present time its vessels are chiefly employed in the coasting-trade. In the time of William III., the number engaged in the Newfoundland fishery exceeded that of any port in the kingdom, with the exception of London; but the vessels were mostly taken in the American revolutionary war, and the little trade that remained was transferred to Teignmouth. The river Exe expands here to a considerable width, forming at high tides a noble sheet of water. About a mile to the south, on the opposite side of it, are the sea-locks, opening into the Exeter canal, which was begun in 1563, and altered at various periods, but especially in 1829, when it was extended to Turf, about a mile below the town. An act was passed in 1840 for improving the navigation of the river, under which seven commissioners have been appointed. A quay built about 1313, by Hugh Courtenay, was purchased by the Chamber of Exeter in 1778, and is capable of receiving vessels of 200 tons' burthen. Ship-building is carried on extensively; chain-cables, anchors, ropes, twine, and sacking are manufactured; a large paper-manufactory is in operation, and there is a considerable trade in coal and timber. An annual fair for three days was granted to the inhabitants in 1257, and, together with a market on Saturdays, confirmed to them by Edward I.; the market is still held on Saturday, and there is a small fair on the Thursday after the 20th of July. The parish comprises 1552a. 2r. of rich loamy land, resting principally on gravel; it is diversified with hill and dale.
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter (the appropriators), with a net income of £227: the glebe consists of about 30 acres. The church was nearly rebuilt in 1794, and was enlarged in 1827 and 1832; it contains some good monuments by Chantrey, among which is one to Sir John Duckworth, Bart., and another to the memory of his son, Lieut.-Col. Duckworth, who fell in the battle of Albuera. A district church, built by subscription, was consecrated in 1838; the patronage is in the incumbent of Topsham, and the living is endowed with £1500 raised also by subscription, to which £200 have since been added, with £100 from the Rev. C. Burne, and £200 from the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. Capt. Burgess, R.N., who was killed at the battle of Camperdown, and to whose memory a public monument was erected in St. Paul's Cathedral, was a native of this place; Capt. Watson, who lost his life in the West Indies under Admiral Rowley, resided here for some time.