A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Halton (St. Michael)
HALTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Aylesbury, county of Buckingham, 2 miles (N. by E.) from Wendover; containing 198 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, and valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8.; net income, £200; patron, Sir J. D. King, Bart.
HALTON, a chapelry, and formerly a market-town, in the parish and union of Runcorn, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester; comprising the townships of Halton, Norton, and Stockham; and containing 1734 inhabitants, of whom 1397 are in the township of Halton, 3½ miles (N. N. E.) from Frodsham. This place was anciently the head of a barony, or fee, which, with the constableship of Chester, was conferred by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, upon his cousin, Nigel, whom he also appointed his earl marshal. These offices were held for a long period by Nigel's successors, barons of Halton, who, among other privileges granted by the earls of Chester, had the power of holding courts for the trial of all offenders within the barony, and for the determination of all pleas, except such as belonged to the earl's sword; they had also a prison, and a master-serjeant and eight under-serjeants, within their fee. The barony became annexed to the crown in the reign of Henry IV., through the descent of that monarch from Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster and eleventh baron of Halton: it is now held under lease from the crown by the Marquess of Cholmondeley. Halton is traditionally said to have been a favourite hunting-seat of the great John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. The castle, occupying a commanding situation on the brow of a hill overlooking a great part of Cheshire, with an extensive view across the river Mersey into Lancashire, was built soon after the Conquest; and the town which arose under its protection, obtained the grant of a weekly market and two annual fairs, which have been long discontinued. During the civil war, the castle was garrisoned for the king, in the early part of 1643; but in the following year it was taken by the parliamentarians. There are few remains of the building; the only habitable part, apparently rebuilt since the Restoration, has been converted into an inn, in which an apartment has been fitted up for holding the courts for the honour. A distinct coroner is appointed. The township comprises 1614 acres, the soil of which is clay and loam. The Mersey and Irwell and the Duke of Bridgewater's canals pass through. In 1837 an act was passed for lighting the place with gas. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rev. John Collins; net income, £157. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary. A chapel is mentioned by Sir Peter Leycester, as having existed previous to 1625; it was rebuilt about the close of the seventeenth century. In 1733 a library was founded by Sir John Chesshyre, an eminent lawyer in the reign of Queen Anne, the representative of an ancient family seated at Hallwood, in the township: this library now contains several hundred volumes. A school is endowed with £36 per annum, and an almshouse for six "decayed and honest old servants," founded in the year 1767 by Pusey Brooke, Esq., with £54. 12. per annum.
Halton (St. Wilfrid)
HALTON (St. Wilfrid), a parish, in the hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Lancaster, on the mountain road to Kirkby-Lonsdale; containing, with the chapelry of Aughton, 694 inhabitants. A votive altar, for a body of Roman soldiers, discovered in the churchyard, would seem to indicate the immediate presence of the ancient conquerors in the neighbourhood. The manor was formerly of great extent. At the time of the Domesday survey, Halton had no fewer than twenty-two dependent townships, the property of the Saxon Earl Tosti; but the modern parish contains only those of Halton and Aughton. It is situated on the north bank of the Lune, and comprises 3738 acres, of which 1292 are arable, 2123 meadow and pasture, and 247 woodland. The surface is hilly; in the lower parts the soil is fertile and well-wooded, but a great portion of the rest is moorish: from the higher grounds are beautiful views of Lancaster town and castle, and Morecambe bay. There are several good stone-quarries, for building; and two cotton-mills are in operation. The Lancaster canal is carried over the valley by a magnificent aqueduct of seven arches. The sole right of the fishery on the Lune, for two miles here, from Escow beck to Denny beck (in the township of Quernmore), was granted in 1837 by the Queen to John Walmsley, Esq., of Richmond House, Lancaster.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 0. 7½., and in the patronage of John Thompson, Esq., of Holme Island: the tithes have been commuted for £480. The body of the church is the third recorded erection on the site, and was built in 1792; the tower, a large square massive pile, is very ancient. In the churchyard stands a Saxon cross, mounted upon three steps: the sides are rudely carved with foliage, human figures, a cross, and a horse; and on the top is a dialplate, inscribed "For St. Wilfride church at Halton, 1635." Thomas Withers, in 1747, gave property now producing £11 a year for instruction. On inclosing Halton moor, an elegantly-chased silver cup, bearing leaves, and the figures of a bull and a panther, probably copied from a Roman vase, was disinterred. It had two ears, like the diota of the Romans, and was filled with nearly 800 silver coins of Canute, among which was a beah, or neck-collar of thin gold, having in high relief the figure of a lion: nothing was more common than the use of this kind of ornament, among the AngloSaxons.
HALTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Corbridge, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) from Hexham; containing 46 inhabitants. The chapel was rebuilt in 1706, principally by the subscriptions of John Douglas, Esq., and the freeholders of Whittingham. Near it is Halton Tower, an ancient edifice with four turrets, on the north side of which the remains of a much larger building may be traced.
Halton, East, or Halton-upon-Humber (St. Peter)
HALTON, EAST, or Halton-upon-Humber (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7½ miles (E. by S.) from Barton, and 5 miles (S. E.) from Barrow; containing 627 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Humber, and comprises by measurement 3500 acres; the soil, though various, is moderately fertile. Communication is maintained with the port of Hull by a marketboat from Halton-Skitter, twice every week. The village, which is irregularly built, forms a line of considerable length, and commands some fine views of the river and of the opposite coast of Yorkshire. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 4., and has a net income of £161: patron and impropriator, the Earl of Yarborough: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1801; the glebe comprises 160 acres. The church was erected prior to the Conquest. There are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
HALTON, EAST, a township, in the parish and union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Skipton; containing 120 inhabitants. The township comprises 1244 acres, chiefly excellent pasture land, but including 300 acres of waste or common; the surface is mountainous, and the scenery romantic. Good grit and limestone are abundant. The tithes have been commuted for £20.
HALTON-GILL, a chapelry, in the parish of Arncliffe, union of Settle, wapentake of Staincliffe West, W. riding of York, 11½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Settle; containing 90 inhabitants. This chapelry, which was formerly part of the neighbouring township of Litton, includes Upper and Nether Hesleden, and Foxup, and comprises 7176a. 3r. 28p., of which 5881 acres are meadow and pasture, 1200 common, and 8 woodland. The river Skirfare has its source about five miles above, in several mountain streams, which, uniting in one channel, flow through the vale here, and join the Wharfe. Small coal is dug in summer to burn lime. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Arncliffe, with a net income of £80; impropriators, the Master and Fellows of University College, Oxford. The township is all abbey land, and is exempt from tithes when in the hands of owners; the tithes, subject to that exemption, have been commuted for £109. 18. The church is a neat edifice in the later English style, erected in 1626. At a place called the Giants' Graves, fenced by huge limestone pillars set upright, human bones have been found.
Halton-Holegate (St. Andrew)
HALTON-HOLEGATE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, E. division of the soke of Bolingbroke, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 1½ mile (E. S. E.) from Spilsby; containing 544 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 17. 11½.; net income, £352; patron, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby. There are several benefactions, producing £7. 14. per annum, for the poor.
HALTON-SHIELDS, a township, in the parish of Corbridge, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Hexham; containing 59 inhabitants. It is situated on the line of the Roman wall, eastward of the station called Hunnum, or Halton-Chesters, anciently garrisoned by the Ala Saviniana, and the walls, ditches, and interior offices of which now appear in confused heaps of ruins. Inscriptions have been found, with copper coins, stags' horns, and a quantity of muscleshells; and in 1803 a ring of pure gold, weighing nearly half an ounce, was discovered in the neighbourhood.
Halton, West (St. Ethelreda)
HALTON, WEST (St. Ethelreda), a parish, in the union of Glandford-Brigg, N. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8½ miles (W.) from Barton-upon-Humber, and 12 (N. N. W.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing, with the township of Gunhouse, and part of the hamlet of Coleby, 424 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated upon the road to Whitton Ferry on the Humber, comprises 2942 acres, of which two-thirds are arable, and onethird meadow, pasture, and woodland; the surface is rather undulated, and the soil of various kinds, but fertile. Stone of moderate quality is quarried for the roads and for building cottages. The ferry affords facility of communication by steam-packets, daily; and at Brough, on the opposite side of the river, is a station on the Hull railway. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16, and in the gift of the Bishop of Norwich: the tithes of West Halton and Gunhouse have been commuted for £401. 12., and certain impropriate tithes for £35; the glebe comprises 340 acres. The church is a small edifice in the later English style, erected in 1695, with the materials of a larger structure, which was destroyed by fire; it was repaired and repewed in 1840, and the altar has been beautified, a new porch and vestry built, and a gallery added, during the incumbency of the present rector. The chapel of ease at Gunhouse was rebuilt in 1838. There are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
HALTON, WEST, a township, in the parish of Long Preston, union of Settle, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 7 miles (S. by E.) from Settle; containing 166 inhabitants. The township is on the western acclivity of Ribblesdale, and comprises 2209a. 3r. 16p., of which 1995 acres are meadow and pasture, 77 arable, and 109 woodland. Halton Place is situated in a highly improved demesne. The appropriate tithes have been commuted for £25. 1., and the vicarial for £26. 10.
Haltwhistle (Holy Cross)
HALTWHISTLE (Holy Cross), a town and parish, and the head of a union, in the W. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland; comprising the townships of Bellister, Blenkinsopp, East Coanwood, Featherstone, Haltwhistle, Hartley-Burn, Henshaw, Melkridge, Plainmellor, Ridley, Thirlwall, Thorngrafton, and Wall-Town; and containing 4655 inhabitants, of whom 984 are in the township of Haltwhistle, 36 miles (W.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and 315 (N. N. W.) from London. The place is of considerable antiquity, though mention of it does not occur at a very early period. About the year 1416, a tower existed here, which was perhaps the same as that described in 1542 as the inheritance of Sir William Musgrave; the Blenkinsopps also had a tower in 1568, and there are still remaining in the market-place two houses of this kind, partly modernised, and occupied as inns. Among the few events of importance connected with the history of the town, may be mentioned the sojourn of Edward I. in 1306, and it was probably during that monarch's stay in the neighbourhood that he granted to William de Roos, of Yolton, the privilege of a market and fair at Hautewysill. The town was anciently styled a borough, and governed by a bailiff. The manor seems to have been given by the kings of Scotland to the family of Roos, of Hamlake and Wark, and from them to have passed to the Musgraves, of Hartley Castle and Edenhall, who held it in the time of Elizabeth; in 1663 it belonged to Mr. William Pearson, and it was till lately the property of the Cuthbertson family.
The parish is divided into two nearly equal parts by the South Tyne and its tributary the Tippal, or Tippalt, and is also intersected by two roads, both between Newcastle and Carlisle. It is about 12 miles in length, and of very irregular breadth, extending along the courses of the South Tyne, the Tippal, and Pow-Charney, which form gradually steep and narrowing valleys, principally in a direction from south-east to north-west. Along the streams are slips of arable land, but the moors and mountains produce scarcely any corn, and are mainly depastured by sheep and black cattle: the soil is clay in the higher grounds, and mostly gravel in the valleys, where the scenery in some places is luxuriant and beautiful, while, above, little else is seen than dark heathy fells, and a dreary and treeless waste. A series of whinstone crags commences from the top of the ascent above Glen-Whelt, near the Roman station CaerVoran, and stretches to the north-east almost across the county; as seen from Gilsland on the north, these crags present a singular and striking termination of the landscape, forming a continuous serrated line as far as the eye can reach. The geological features are peculiarly interesting in the pass between Greenhead and GlenWhelt, indicating some great convulsion of nature, supposed to have been the effect of internal fire at a remote and unknown era. Ironstone is found in abundance, and there are veins of lead-ore; but neither mineral is wrought. Extensive collieries have been long in operation; the principal are at Blenkinsopp, Hartley-Burn, Melkridge, Thorngrafton, Coanwood, and Fell-End. There are also several quarries of limestone and freestone, the latter used for building, and the former burnt for sale at Blenkinsopp. The manufacture of plaids, flannels, blankets, druggets, and coarse cloths, is carried on in two establishments, one of which has a branch at Bardon-Mill; but the sale being chiefly in the neighbourhood, the number of hands employed is not considerable. The Newcastle and Carlisle railway passes through the parish, and attains its summit level between the head of Pow-Charney and the river Irthing, near the farmhouse called the Gap; it has a station in the town, with a convenient carriage-shed, and other stations at Bardon-Mill, Greenhead, and Rose-Hill.
The town, formerly called Haltwesel, is pleasantly situated on an eminence, on the high road, and commands a fine prospect of the surrounding country, including the windings of the Tyne. The buildings are irregular, and there are but few good houses; the inhabitants are plentifully supplied with water from wells, and from brooks situated to the north. The town is overlooked by the remarkable feature called the Castle Hill, a natural bank cut off from the ground to the north-east by the glen of Haltwhistle burn, and having apparently had its west end made steep by human labour, and certainly a breast-work or dyke of gravelly earth, about 3 or 4 feet high, added round its margin on the east, north, and west. Its summit is a plain of about 190 feet from east to west, and 74 from north to south; on which last side the escarpment seems to have been terraced, probably for cultivation. The market, in which grain is sold, is on Thursday. Fairs are held on May 14th and November 22nd, for horses, cattle, and general merchandise; statute-fairs on the Thursday before 12th May, and on the 11th November; and a tryst, principally for sheep, and recently established, on 17th September. The powers of the county debt-court of Haltwhistle, established in 1847, extend over the greater part of the registration-district of Haltwhistle. The township comprises 2759 acres, of which 1350 are waste or common.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 3. 1½., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Durham, with a net income of £593, and a glebe; impropriator, Sir Edward Blackett, Bart. The vicarial tithes for the townships of Melkridge and Henshaw were commuted on the inclosure of common land upwards of 35 years ago, for a farm called the Vicar's Allotment. The church is an ancient structure in the decorated English style, situated on a slope, between which and the river an alluvial plain or haugh of no great breadth intervenes; it contains a monument to the memory of a crusader. At Beltingham is an ancient endowed chapel, a handsome edifice; and at Greenhead another chapel, erected in 1828: the livings of both are perpetual curacies in the patronage of the Vicar. There are places of worship in the parish for Independents, Presbyterians, Primitive Methodists, Wesleyans, and the Society of Friends. A school, now conducted on the national system, was endowed in 1721 by Lady Capel, with the twelfth part of an estate at Faversham, in Kent. The poor law union of Haltwhistle includes the whole of the western division of Tindale ward, and contains five parishes, comprising eighteen townships, with a population of 5949. The Roman wall intersects the parish from east to west, and in some places may be distinctly traced, with the ditches on both sides, on a line with the ancient road from Newcastle to Carlisle; it is carried along the verge of the crags before mentioned, its stations, castles, and towers once mingling with their saw-like and spiral forms. The martyred Bishop Ridley was a native of the parish.
Halvergate (St. Peter and St. Paul)
HALVERGATE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Blofield, hundred of Walsham, E. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Acle; containing 495 inhabitants. It is intersected by the Norwich and Yarmouth railway, and comprises 2649a. 3r. 28p., of which about 1892 acres are marsh ground: the sea formerly came up to Halvergate, which was a port before Yarmouth. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; net income, £325; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Ely. Under an inclosure act, 15½ acres have been allotted to the poor for fuel.
HALWELL, a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 6 miles (N. E. by N.) from Launceston; containing 319 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Oakhampton to Holsworthy, and comprises 2881 acres, of which 1605 are waste land or common; the soil is clayey, and the cultivated lands are chiefly arable. Good freestone is obtained. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 3. 9., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £210. The glebe comprises about 75 acres. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Halwell (St. Leonard)
HALWELL (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Totnes, hundred of Coleridge, Stanborough and Coleridge, and S. divisions of Devon, 5¼ miles (S. by W.) from Totnes; containing 445 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3000 acres, whereof 815 are common or waste land. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Harberton: the appropriate tithes have been commuted for £417. 10., and the vicarial for £182. 10.
Ham (St. George)
HAM (St. George), a parish, in the union and hundred of Eastry, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 2 miles (S.) from the town of Sandwich; containing 24 inhabitants. It comprises 320a. 3r. 18p., of which about 224 acres are arable, 62 pasture, and 13 wood; a small quantity of hops is grown: the surface is undulated, and the soil chalky. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 5½.; and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £181. The glebe contains about 9 acres.
HAM, a tything, in the parish of Baughurst, union of Kingsclere, hundred of Barton-Stacey, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 7¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from the town of Basingstoke; containing 35 inhabitants.
HAM, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Kingston, First division of the hundred of Kingston, E. division of Surrey, 10 miles (S. W. by W.) from London; containing, with Hatch, 1391 inhabitants. The hamlet is pleasantly situated between Kingston and Richmond, and comprises by admeasurement 1921 acres, of which 450 are arable, 1050 pasture, 115 wood and plantations, and 216 common, &c. It contains several handsome villas: Ham House, a noble mansion, is in the parish of Petersham, which see. There is a pleasure-fair on May 29th and the two following days, which is much frequented. A district church built on the common, in 1832, is dedicated to St. Andrew; it is of yellow brick, with stone dressings, and has 400 sittings: there are several monuments. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £101; patron, the Vicar of Kingston. Here is a place of worship for Independents.
Ham (All Saints)
HAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Hungerford, hundred of Elstub and Everley, though locally in the hundred of Kinwardstone, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 4 miles (S.) from Hungerford; containing 215 inhabitants. It comprises 1604a. 2r., of which upwards of 1000 acres are arable, 170 pasture, 269 down, and 113 wood; the arable portion consists of sweeps of open land, lying under a range of chalk hills. The soil in some parts is chalk, and in others a sandy loam. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester: the tithes have been commuted for £430, and the glebe comprises 19 acres.
Ham, East (St. Mary Magdalene)
HAM, EAST (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of West Ham, hundred of Becontree, S. division of Essex, 6 miles (E.) from London; containing 1461 inhabitants. This parish, which, previously to the Conquest, formed part of the endowment of Westminster Abbey, is bounded on the south-east by the river Thames, and on the west by Bow creek, which separates it from the county of Middlesex. It comprises 2520 acres, whereof about 1456 are upland, and 1000 marsh. In the hamlet of Greenstreet is a handsome mansion with a tower of brick, which was occasionally the residence of Henry VIII. and his queen, Anna Boleyn. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 3. 9.; patron, the Bishop of London; impropriator, T. Wilson, Esq.: the great tithes have been commuted for £320, and the vicarial for £1000; the glebe comprises one acre. The church is an ancient structure in the Norman style, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a Lady chapel; the eastern extremity is semicircular: on the south side of the altar is a double piscina, with a bracket. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. An almshouse for three men was erected, and endowed with £40 per annum, by Giles Breme, in 1621; besides which, considerable benefactions have been made for charitable purposes by the Latimer family and others. Stukeley, the antiquary, who died in 1765, was buried in the churchyard.
Ham, High (St. Andrew)
HAM, HIGH (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Langport, hundred of Whitley, W. division of Somerset, 3 miles (N.) from Langport; containing, with the chapelry of Low Ham, the tything of Beer, the hamlet of Henley, and part of the hamlet of Paradise, 1281 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Langport to Bristol, and comprises by measurement 4230 acres. Blue and white lias are extensively quarried for building, burning into lime, and for the roads. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £38. 19. 2., and in the gift of Worcester College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £450, and the glebe comprises 55 acres. The church is a spacious and handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains a richly-carved oak screen in excellent preservation. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Ham, Long, Dorset.—See Hampreston.
HAM, LOW, a chapelry, in the parish of High Ham, union of Langport, hundred of Whitley, W. division of Somerset, 2 miles (N. by E.) from Langport; containing 299 inhabitants. Here is a chapel which is presented to by the Mildmay family.
Ham, West (All Saints)
HAM, WEST (All Saints), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Becontree, S. division of Essex, 4 miles (E. by N.) from London; containing 12,738 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Lea, and on the south by the Thames, and contains 4518a. 3r. 23p., of which about two-thirds are pasture, and the remainder arable land in good cultivation; the soil of the latter is generally gravelly, and near Epping Forest are some tracts of heavy loam. The village is large, and pleasantly situated on the London road, near the Eastern Counties railway; it had formerly a weekly market, under a charter granted by Richard de Montfitchet, in 1253. The West Ham waterworks, on the Lea, supply Stratford-Langthorne, Bromley, Bow, Stepney, Bethnal-Green, and the lower part of Whitechapel. Many of the inhabitants are employed as operative chemists, and there are several distilleries, some printing-works, and numerous flour-mills. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £39. 8. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £875: the impropriation belongs to the Countess St. Antonio, and the representatives of the late J. Humphreys, Esq. The church is spacious, with a lofty tower at the west end, and contains some fine monuments. At Plaistow and Stratford-Langthorne are other churches. There are places of worship for Independents and Unitarians; also a school for girls established in pursuance of the will, dated 1761, of Mrs Sarah Bonnel, who left £3000 in the funds for that purpose. The poor-law union of West Ham comprises seven parishes or places, and contains a total population of 26,919.
Ham, West, Sussex.—See Westham.
Hamble-En-Le-Rice (St. Andrew)
HAMBLE-EN-LE-RICE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of South Stoneham, hundred of Mansbridge, Southampton and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4¾ miles (S. E.) from Southampton; containing 398 inhabitants. The parish is situated at the mouth of the river Hamble, which is navigable; it is bounded on the south by the Southampton Water, and comprises 423 acres, whereof 113 are waste land or common. The air is remarkably salubrious, and the scenery is picturesque. In the estuary of the river is a lobster-fishery; and many crabs are brought here from the Scilly Islands and from Cornwall, for the supply of the London market. The quay is accessible to vessels of considerable burthen. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £36, and a house; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College, Oxford, whose tithes have been commuted for £136. The church is a very ancient edifice, with some details of the Norman style, of which the doorway is a finely enriched specimen; the east window is beautifully embellished, and there is a handsome monument to Sir Joseph York. A priory of Cistercian monks, a cell to the abbey of Tirone, in France, and dedicated to St. Andrew, was founded here in the time of Henry Blois, Bishop of Winchester; at the suppression it was granted to Winchester College. On a point of land projecting into the sea are some remains of St. Andrew's Castle.
Hambleden (St. Mary)
HAMBLEDEN (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Henley, hundred of Desborough, county of Buckingham, 4 miles (W.) from Marlow; containing 1241 inhabitants. In 1664, during the civil war, Greenland House, in the parish, was fortified for the king; and after sustaining a long and severe siege from the parliamentary army under Major-General Brown, the garrison surrendered, the place itself having been reduced to a heap of ruins. Here was formerly a market on Monday, granted in 1315, and a fair on the festival of St. Bartholomew, in 1321. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £35, and in the gift of Lord Colborne: the tithes have been commuted for £1200, and the glebe comprises 40 acres. The church is a handsome edifice, containing three stone stalls and a circular font, richly ornamented, together with some interesting monuments. At Lane-End is a separate incumbency. There is a place of worship for Independents. A sum of £18. 10., arising from bequests, is annually divided among the poor.