A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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TRAFFORD, BRIDGE, a township, in the parish of Plemonstall, union of Great Boughton, Second division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 4½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Chester; containing 63 inhabitants. It comprises 397 acres, of which 9 are road and waste; the soil is clay. The tithes have been commuted for £46.
TRAFFORD, MICKLE, a township, in the parish of Plemonstall, union of Great Boughton, Lower division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 3½ miles (N. E.) from Chester; containing 334 inhabitants. The area of the township is 1143 acres, including 33 road and waste; the prevailing soil is clay. A rent-charge of £128 has been awarded as a commutation for the tithes, and there is a glebe of 23¾ acres.
TRAFFORD, WIMBOLDS, a township, in the parish of Thornton, union of Great Boughton, Second division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 6 miles (N. E. by N.) from Chester; containing 116 inhabitants; and comprising 517 acres, partly a sand and partly a clay soil. The tithes have been commuted for £63. 11.
TRANMERE, a township and ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Bebington, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester; containing, in 1841, 2554, and in 1848 about 6000, inhabitants. This place lies between the town of Birkenhead on the north, from which it is distant about a mile, and the village of Rock-Ferry on the south; it has the Mersey on the east, and is backed by commanding hills forming an agreeable slope to the river from the west. Its picturesque situation admirably adapts it for building, and much of the land has within the last few years been sold for the purpose at very high prices, varying from 5s. to 15s. and even 20s. per square yard. Several hundred houses have been erected, averaging from £20 to £50 and £100 per annum, with a great number of smaller houses for mechanics and labourers: the rental assessments have increased from £11,027, in 1841, to £18,000 in 1846. Tranmere, like Birkenhead, is becoming of considerable importance, and is now principally the residence of merchants and others whose business lies in Liverpool. A large tract called Clifton Park, at the north end of Holt Hill, has been laid out for building, and is already nearly covered with villas and mansions of the first class, having pleasant drives and lodge entrances; on another plot of ground, at the south end of the hill, called Dacre Park, many residences have also been built, and no doubt in a few years the whole site and the adjacent parts will be similarly occupied. Throughout the township, abundance of good stone of a light-red colour and very durable is to be found, and some of the quarries are now worked to considerable advantage: brick clay also is very abundant.
The township comprises about 1200 acres. The river Mersey from Birkenhead to Rock-Ferry, called the Sloin or Sloyne, is very deep, and affords excellent anchorage for first-class vessels: the Lazzerets lie a little below. There is an ancient ferry; and docks are contemplated. It is said by merchants and shippers that the new docks ought to have been constructed in the bay of Tranmere instead of at Birkenhead, owing to the great depth of water in the Sloin, and to its being so completely backed by the hills, which would afford admirable shelter for the shipping. A bill was in 1846 introduced into parliament for the general improvement of the township, but owing to some opposition it was withdrawn after a considerable expense had been incurred, which fell on the promoters of the measure. The land to the south is principally the property of George Orred and George Chamlain, Esqrs., and northward of various persons, among whom are Mr. Sharp, Miss Thompson, and Mr. Rampling. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of Bebington; net income, £150. The church, dedicated to St. Catherine, was built in 1831, at a cost of £2700; it is of plain exterior, with a tower, but the interior is very neat, has a gallery, and contains a fine painting of the Resurrection, by Le Brun, presented by T. Warrington, Esq. Another church is in contemplation, on land given by Mr. Orred. There are three places of worship for dissenters; also a school in connexion with the Church; a clothing club; and other charities.
Tranwell, with High Church
TRANWELL, with High Church, a township, in the parish and union of Morpeth, W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 2 miles (S. S. W.) from Morpeth; containing 55 inhabitants. This place formed part of the barony of Merlay, and was a member of the manor of Morpeth. Among its various proprietors have been the families of Somerville, Thornton, Mitford, and Greystock, from which last the property has descended to the Earl of Carlisle, its present owner. The township comprises about 1064 acres, of which 646 are arable, 254 meadow and pasture, and the remainder woodland and plantations; the soil in the northern part is a rich loam, producing favourable crops, and in the south a stiff barren clay. The parish church and rectory-house are both situated in the township. The tithes have been commuted for £147.
Trawden, or Trawden-Forest
TRAWDEN, or Trawden-Forest, a township, in the parochial chapelry of Colne, parish of Whalley, union of Burnley, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 1¾ mile (S. E.) from Colne; containing 2900 inhabitants, and comprising 6400 acres. This place, anciently called Trawden ("the hollow valley") and Troghden Chase, stretches from near Colne to the foot of Boulsworth Hill, which is 1689 feet above the level of the sea. It anciently consisted of five vaccaries, which in the reign of Henry VII. were reduced to three, Berdshaie-Booth, Over and Nether Wycoller, and Wynewall: the first is now obsolete. The district, like other forests in the kingdom, was rejected as of little value, at the time of the original distribution of land, the face of the country being wild and mountainous. The population consists principally of small farmers and of hand-loom weavers; there is also a cotton-factory, but not many hands are employed in it. The entire township, with the exception of the village of Wynewall, was constituted an ecclesiastical district in August 1845, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37; and on the consecration of a church in July 1846, the district, conformably with the provisions of that act, became an ecclesiastical parish. The edifice is dedicated to St. Mary, is in the early English style with a tower, accommodates 500 persons, and cost about £1200: the site was given by James Foulds, Esq., of Trawden House. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester, alternately; net income, £150, besides fees, &c. A national school-house, built in 1840, was licensed, previously to the erection of the church, for the performance of divine worship. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and the Society of Friends; and schools, supported by subscription.
Trayford, county Sussex.—See Treyford.
Treales, with Roseacre and Wharles
TREALES, with Roseacre and Wharles, a township, in the parish of Kirkham, union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 1¼ mile (N. E.) from Kirkham; containing 709 inhabitants. In Domesday book Treueles is accounted to contain two carucates of land. This and other places were in the possession of the Countess of Ormonde, 25th Edward III. The ninth Earl of Derby in 1673 married Elizabeth Butler, first daughter of Thomas, Lord Ossory, and thus acquired the greater part of this district, which is subject to the manor of Weeton. The township comprises 4015 acres, of which 53 are common or waste. The Lancaster canal passes on the east. Roseacre lies about two miles north from the village of Treales; and the hamlet of Wharles separates those two places. The pasture and arable land are in equal portions. The tithes have been commuted for £572 payable to the Dean and Chapter of ChristChurch, Oxford, and £232. 13. 4. to the vicar. A school, now conducted on the national plan, was established in 1814, from the surplus funds of an estate bequeathed in 1725 for charitable purposes.
Treborough (St. Peter)
TREBOROUGH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Williton, hundred of Carhampton, W. division of Somerset, 6 miles (S. by E.) from Dunster; containing 138 inhabitants. This place, which belonged in ancient times to Cleeve Abbey, supplied that institution with fuel, and the prior had a residence here. The parish comprises 1798 acres, of which 376 are common or waste land. Limestone is procured, and there are extensive quarries of slate of very good quality. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 5.; net income, £137 per annum; patron, Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Bart.: the glebe contains 31 acres. In the churchyard is a fine cross.
TREBRODIER, a township, in the parish of Bettus, union of Knighton, hundred of Purslow, S. division of the county of Salop; containing 139 inhabitants. It comprises 1894 acres, of which about 1150 are common or waste land.
TREDEGAR, a market-town, in the township of Ushlawrcoed, parish and division of Bedwelty, union of Abergavenny, hundred of Wentlloog, county of Monmouth, 12 miles (W. by S.) from Abergavenny; containing nearly 8000 inhabitants. This place, which, previously to the year 1800, contained only three houses, has since that period rapidly increased in importance, and is now a flourishing market-town. It is indebted for its prosperity to the persevering efforts of Messrs. Samuel Homfray, R. Fothergill, W. Thompson, W. Foreman, and the Rev. Matthew Monkhouse, who, appreciating its advantageous situation in a district abounding with coal and ironstone, established some extensive iron-works, which have been progressively enlarged and improved. Coal of excellent quality is obtained on the spot. The mines of ironstone are vast, and appear, from scoria frequently found on the hillsides, to have been worked at an early period. Limestone is found in the adjoining parish of Llangynidr, in the county of Brecon. A tramroad was constructed from the works in 1802, leading down the valley of Sirhowy to Newport, a distance of twenty-four miles; and at Risca this line is joined by several other tramroads, and is conducted across the valley and the river by a viaduct of thirty-two arches, nearly a mile and a quarter in length, from which the tramroad is continued in a direction parallel with a canal for some distance. On the line are locomotive steam-engines belonging to the Ebbw Vale Company, who in 1832 carried a tunnel through the centre of the Manmoel mountain, nearly two miles in length, joining their works to those of Tredegar and Sirhowy. Connected with the district are the following iron-works, with their respective populations:—Tredegar, 7324; Sirhowy, and part of Beaufort, 2221; Ebbw Vale, 2300; Victoria, 1979; and Rumney, 5582. An excellent turnpike-road, adjoining the tramroad, has been constructed from Tredegar to Newport; and the mail-road from Merthyr to Abergavenny, intersecting a singularly wild and romantic tract of country, passes close to the town.
The town is situated on the west bank of the Sirhowy river, and comprises a square, from which diverge four principal streets; a long and wide street leading to the Sirhowy works; several smaller streets, and some detached houses. The whole is on land belonging to the Tredegar Iron Company, by whom it was arranged and the buildings were erected, and who, under the direction of Samuel Homfray, Esq., of Bedwelty House, the resident proprietor, built a very handsome townhall, market-house, shambles, and slaughter-houses, in 1833. The market, on Saturday, is well supplied with provisions and necessaries of all kinds; and fairs are held on the 19th of April, September 23rd, and November 18th. The powers of the county debt-court of Tredegar, established in 1847, extend over the parishes of Bedwelty and Aberystwith. The parochial church is eight miles distant; but a church has been built in the town, towards the erection of which the Parliamentary Commissioners granted £1000, the Incorporated Society £450, and upwards of £600 was subscribed by private individuals: it contains 1020 sittings, half of which are free. The living is in the gift of the Incumbent of Bedwelty. There are places of worship for English and Welsh Baptists, Independents, and English and Welsh Wesleyan and Calvinistic Methodists.
Tredington (St. John the Baptist)
TREDINGTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Tewkesbury, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Tewkesbury; containing 163 inhabitants. It is situated on the Swilgate rivulet, and comprises 900 acres, of which the surface is level, and the soil a stiff clay. The Birmingham and Bristol railway runs through the eastern part of the parish. The living was formerly reputed a vicarage, and belonged to the priory of Llanthony: it is now a perpetual curacy; gross income, £54; patron, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol; impropriator, the Vicar of Tewkesbury. The church is a small structure, erected in the middle of the 12th century, and having a wooden tower: the nave is separated from the chancel by a low semicircular arch with exquisitely chiselled ornaments. In the tympanum of a semicircular arch over the north door, is a very ancient relievo-carving representing three figures, the central one seated, and holding a pastoral crook in the left hand; on either side is a kneeling figure holding a book. The interior of the edifice was renovated and much improved in 1845. In the churchyard is the shaft of an ancient cross, resting on a basis of four steps. Many of the springs here are impregnated with saline particles.
Tredington (St. Gregory)
TREDINGTON (St. Gregory), a parish, in the union of Shipston-upon-Stour, Upper division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Blockley and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, locally in the Kington division of the hundred of Kington, county of Warwick, 2¼ miles (N.) from Shipston; containing 667 inhabitants, of whom 287 are in the township. The parish was divided under an act passed in the 6th of George I., when the townships of Shipston and Tidmington were separated from it; and in 1833 an act was obtained for a further division, by forming into a distinct parish the hamlets of Newbold and Armscott. The present parish includes the hamlets of Blackwell and Darlingscott, and comprises 2564 acres, of which 84 are common or waste: the surface, with some slight exceptions, is flat; the soil partly sandy, and partly a cold clay. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books (for the whole of the ancient parish) at £99. 17. 6.; net income, £539; patrons, the Principal and Fellows of Jesus College, Oxford. The old rectory-house, supposed to have been the remaining part of a religious establishment, or an episcopal palace, has been taken down and rebuilt. The church, situated on the east side of the village, is an ancient stone edifice, with a tower surmounted by a spire, and contains sittings for 400 persons. A school was endowed by Thomas Eden with £12 per annum; and John Jordan, in 1830, bequeathed an annuity of £50 for founding and endowing a free school for the whole of the then parish.
Tredunnock (St. Andrew)
TREDUNNOCK (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Newport, division of Caerleon, and hundred of Usk, county of Monmouth, 4½ miles (S.) from Usk; containing 156 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 0. 5., and in the gift of Capel Hanbury Leigh, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £180, and the glebe comprises 46 acres. In the church is the monument of a Roman soldier of the Second legion, which was discovered near the foundation of the building.
Treeton (St. Helen)
TREETON (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Rotherham, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Rotherham; containing, with the township of Brampton-en-le-Morthen, and part of Ulley, 661 inhabitants, of whom 419 are in Treeton township. The parish comprises 3154a. 1r. 16p., of which two-thirds are arable, 110 acres woodland, and the remainder pasture. About 1290 acres are in the township of Treeton, and the property chiefly of the Duke of Norfolk, who is lord of the manor: a portion of this area, containing 400 acres, detached from the rest of the township, is locally in the parish of Wales. The surface is varied, and the scenery in some parts beautifully picturesque. There are quarries of good building-stone, and also of stone used for the Sheffield furnaces. The river Rother bounds the parish on the west; and on its banks is a very extensive flour-mill, belonging to Mr. Robert Taylor, which is noticed in the Domesday survey. The Midland railway has a station at Treeton. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12; net income, £674; patron, the Duke of Norfolk. The glebe comprises about 140 acres. The tithes of Treeton township have been commuted for £372. The church, which is of great antiquity, and the only one in Hallamshire noticed in the Domesday survey, contains many old monuments, with the effigy of an armed knight, supposed to represent " Earl Gilbert." At Spa House is a strong chalybeate spring.
Tregare (St. Mary)
TREGARE (St. Mary), a parish, in the division and hundred of Raglan, union and county of Monmouth, 6½ miles (W. S. W.) from Monmouth; containing 294 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Monmouth to Abergavenny; the soil is a stiff clay, and the surface is diversified with hills, which command fine and extensive views. Charles I. slept a night at Llwyn-y-Gare, an old moated mansion here. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Dingestow: there are about 10 acres of glebe. The church is an ancient structure, with a tower, and contains a font curiously sculptured.
TREGAVETHAN, a manor and extra-parochial district, in the parish of Kea, union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall; containing 52 inhabitants. The manor comprises 1024 acres, of which 389 are common or waste land. It is situated on the borders of Kenwyn parish, and an aisle in that church is appropriated for its population. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £70. 16. 8., and the vicarial for £22. 16. 8.
Tregoney cum St. James
TREGONEY cum St. James, a market-town and parish, in the union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 41½ miles (S. W.) from Launceston, and 248 (S. W. by W.) from London; containing 995 inhabitants. The original town of Tregoney, situated at the base of the hill on which the present is built, was of very great antiquity, and a place of considerable importance. It was distinguished for its castle, probably erected in the reign of Richard I., the site of which, and of the moat that surrounded it, is still plainly discernible. A priory is supposed by some writers to have existed here, as a cell to the convent of Merton, in Surrey; but this opinion rests solely, according to Bishop Tanner, on the erroneous mention of the advowson of the priory of Tregoney having been appropriated to the convent of Merton, instead of the advowson of the rectory of St. James in Tregoney, which was actually so given by the abbot of De Valle, in Normandy, to whom it previously belonged.
The present town, which has materially lessened in importance since the increase of Truro, is pleasantly situated on the road from St. Austell to St. Mawcs, and consists principally of one street. It is watered by the river Fal, which was formerly navigable to a mile above the town, for small barges, and over which a neat bridge has been erected. The market is on Saturday, and is well supplied with meat and provisions; fairs are held on Shrove-Tuesday, May 3rd, July 25th, Sept. 1st, and November 6th. The inhabitants received a charter of incorporation from James I. in 1620, by which the government was vested in a mayor, recorder, and eight capital burgesses or aldermen; the mayor and senior aldermen are justices of the peace. The borough first returned members to parliament in the reign of Edward I., and, after having discontinued for many years, in 1559 regained the elective franchise, which it continued to exercise till by the act for "amending the representation" it was totally disfranchised. The parish comprises about 130 acres, under tillage; the soil is rich, and rests upon marl. The living is a rectory, with the vicarage of Cuby annexed, valued in the king's books at £10. 4. 2.; net income, £311; patron, J. Gurney, Esq. The church, dedicated to St. James, stood in a meadow, near the site of the original town: it was taken down more than fifty years since. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; also an hospital for decayed housekeepers founded in 1696, by Hugh Boscawen, who endowed it with lands now producing £90 per annum.
TRELEIGH, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Redruth, hundred of Penwith, W. division of Cornwall, 2 miles (N. E.) from Redruth; containing about 3000 inhabitants. This district was constituted in December 1845 under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37. It is three miles in length, and one and a quarter in breadth; is of undulated surface; and much of it waste and barren, being full of the debris of old mines. The Wheal-Mary, North Downs, and WhealRose mines are in the district, and largely employ the population, whose cottages are built on the waste. The Truro and Penzance road bounds the district on the south, and the West Cornwall railway passes through it. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Exeter, alternately. There are three places of worship for Dissenters. Near an old well in a field called Chapel field, stood a chapel, of which no vestiges now remain.
Trelleck (St. Nicholas)
TRELLECK (St. Nicholas), a parish, chiefly in the union of Monmouth, but partly in that of Chepstow, division of Trelleck, hundred of Raglan, county of Monmouth; containing 1122 inhabitants, of whom 135 are in the township of Trelleck, 5 miles (S.) from Monmouth. This place derives its name, anciently written Tre lech, from three massive upright stones, which, though called by the inhabitants Harold's Stones, are supposed to be Druidical. The parish embraces some very elevated ground, and contains about 5500 acres; the village is on the old road from Monmouth to Chepstow. The scenery is diversified with wildly romantic features. The living is a vicarage, with the living of Penalth annexed, endowed with the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the patronage of the Crown in right of the duchy of Cornwall; net income, £430. The church is in the early English style, and consists of a nave, chancel, and aisles, with a square tower surmounted by a lofty spire. Zacharias Babington, in 1689 and 1691, bequeathed property for maintaining a school and a lectureship; the school, upon the national system, has about £15, and the lecturer receives about £30, per annum. Near the village are several springs strongly impregnated with iron, which mineral, from the cinders of ancient blomeries, appears to have been wrought here at an early period. In the garden of a house in the village is a large tumulus surrounded by a deep fosse, about 450 feet in circumference, supposed by some to be the site of a castle that belonged to the earls of Clare. By others it is thought to be a barrow raised over the bodies of the Britons slain in some battle near the spot, and to have been subsequently occupied by the English, previously to the battle of Craig-y-Dorth, in which Owain Glyndwr defeated the royal forces and pursued them to the gate of Monmouth.
TRELLECK-GRANGE, a chapelry, in the parish and division of Trelleck, union of Chepstow, hundred of Raglan, county of Monmouth, 6 miles (N. W. by N.) from Chepstow; containing 163 inhabitants. It comprises 1805 acres, the property of the Duke of Beaufort. Stone is quarried for building, and for mending the roads. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £74; patron and impropriator, the Duke: there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 85 acres. The church belonged to Tintern Abbey.