A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Trimdon (St. Mary Magdalene)
TRIMDON (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Sedgefield, S. division of Easington ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 9 miles (S. E.) from Durham; containing 382 inhabitants. The soil is a strong clayey loam, with a substratum of limestone. Large pieces of lead-ore have been dug up in the neighbourhood, though no mine has yet been opened; coal is raised, and shipped at Hartlepool. The village is situated on the summit of a hill, aud commands extensive and beautiful views. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £96; patron and impropriator, William Beckwith, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for £175. 14.: there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 120 acres. A lectureship was endowed before 1730, with £21. 5. a year, by John Smith, Esq. A national school is endowed with £12 per annum; and an estate purchased with various bequests, and let for £32 per annum, is applied in apprenticing children and relieving poor persons.
Trimingham (St. John the Baptist)
TRIMINGHAM (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 4½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Cromer; containing 222 inhabitants. It is situated on the coast, and comprises by admeasurement 550 acres, all arable with the exception of 50 acres near the sea, consisting of waste, common heath, and recent plantations. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6, and in the patronage of the Duchy of Lancaster: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £134, and the glebe comprises 4 acres; there is also a rent-charge of £7. 10. payable to the rector of Sidestrands, who has a glebe here of one acre. The church, a small ancient edifice, formerly dependent on Brankholm Abbey, is in the early English style, with a low square tower; the nave is separated from the chancel by the remains of a beautifully carved screen, containing in the lower compartments representations of the Apostles. In papal times it was pretended that the head of John the Baptist, the patron saint of the church, was deposited here, and rich offerings were made.
Trimley (St. Martin)
TRIMLEY (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Colneis, E. division of Suffolk, 8½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Ipswich; containing 496 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 2000 acres, and its western boundary is washed by the river Orwell. The living is a discharged rectory, with the living of Alleston consolidated, valued in the king's books at £12. 0. 5., and in the gift of J. Ambrose, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £500; there is a parsonagehouse, and the glebe consists of 21¾ acres. The church is situated in the same churchyard with that of Trimley St. Mary, and contains a mausoleum for the family of Sir John Barker, Bart.: the walls of the burial-ground were repaired with the stones of Felixstow Castle and priory. No remains exist of Alleston church. Grimston Hall, in the parish, the site of which is now occupied by a farmhouse, was the seat of Thomas Cavendish, celebrated as the first English circumnavigator, who was born here.
Trimley (St. Mary)
TRIMLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Colneis, E. division of Suffolk, 9 miles (S. E. by E.) from Ipswich; containing 430 inhabitants. Here seems to have been anciently a considerable town, which was plundered by the Danes. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Orwell, and comprises by admeasurement 1823 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 13. 4. and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £470, and the glebe contains 7 acres. The steeple and part of the nave of the church are in ruins.
TRING (St. Peter and St. Paul)
TRING (St. Peter and St. Paul), a market-town and parish, in the union of Berkhampstead, hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, 30 miles (W. by N.) from Hertford, and 31 (N. W. by W.) from London; containing, with the hamlet of Wilstone, and the ehapelry of Long Marston, 4260 inhabitants, of whom 2772 are in the town. This place is of remote antiquity. The opinion that it is of Roman origin receives confirmation from the fact that the lkeneld-way from Dorchester to Colchester passed in its vicinity; and at the time of the division of the county by Alfred, it was considered of sufficient importance to give name to the hundred in which it was situated, being then called Treung. Antiquaries have attributed the derivation of its name to the form of the town, which they suppose to have been originally triangular. It consists principally of two streets, the larger crossed at the top by the other, and both containing good houses, generally of modern style. Contiguous to it is the elegant mansion of Tring Park (built by Charles II., for his favourite mistress, Eleanor Gwynn, and since modernised), with the hills rising in the back-ground, clothed with fine beech-trees. The general appearance of the town is exceedingly neat, the atmosphere salubrious, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water.
A silk-mill, worked partly by water and partly by steam, gives employment to upwards of 300 persons, and the manufacture of canvas and straw-plat is carried on. The Grand Junction canal passes within about a mile of the town; and in the parish are four large reservoirs, to supply water to that navigation. At Wilstone is one of the sources of the river Thames, and a station on the London and Birmingham railway is fixed at Tring, where the line attains its summit level, 332 feet above the Euston-square terminus. The market, granted by charter of Charles II. in 1681 to Henry Guy, Esq. (upon whom that monarch had, the year before, bestowed the manor), is held on Friday, for straw-plat, corn, meat, and pedlery; cattlefairs are held on Easter-Monday and Old Michaelmasday. The market-house, the property of the lord of the manor, is on the north side of the principal street. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £157; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of ChristChurch, Oxford: the tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1797. The church, situated near the market-house, is a handsome embattled structure in the ancient English style, with a large tower at the west end, surmounted by a low spire; the font is in the later English style, highly enriched. At Long Marston is a chapel of ease. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents. Two allotments of land, containing together about 110 acres, let for £71 per annum, were awarded to the parish under the inclosure act, and the rent, with the produce of some small bequests, is appropriated to supplying the poor with coal, &c. A Roman helmet was found in digging the Grand Junction canal, near Northcote Hill, between this town and Berkhampstead. Robert Hill, a remarkable self-taught linguist, was born here in 1699.
Trippleton, Hereford.—See Whitton.
TRITLINGTON, a township, in the parochial chapelry of Hebburn, union, and W. division of the ward, of Morpeth, N. division of Northumberland, 4¾ miles (N.) from Morpeth; containing 131 inhabitants. This place was the property of the Threlkelds, whose ancient mansion of stone has a well-sheltered garden adjoining it on the north. In the west wall of the courtyard is an ornamented gateway, of which the four pillars are crowned with vases of stone, and two of them, higher than the others, with circular fruit-baskets. The township comprises 1027a. 3r. 1p.; 817 acres are arable, 159 meadow and pasture, and 51 woodland. The surface is watered by the small stream of the Line, on whose south bank the retired village of Tritlington is chiefly situated. The tithes have been commuted for a yearly rent-charge of £147. 7.
Troston (St. Mary)
TROSTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thingoe, hundred of Blackbourn, W. division of Suffolk, 7 miles (N. N. E.) from Bury St. Edmund's; containing 409 inhabitants. It comprises 1760 acres; the surface is flat, and the soil, with slight exceptions, light and sandy. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 4. 7., and in the patronage of the Crown; there is a parsonage-house; the glebe contains 33 acres, and the tithes have been commuted for £332. 10. The church is in the early and decorated styles, with an embattled tower. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. An allotment of about 15 acres, awarded under an inclosure act in 1806, is let for £22 per annum, which are expended in coal for the poor. Capel Lofft had a seat here.
Trostrey (St. David)
TROSTREY (St. David), a parish, in the union of Pont-y-Pool, division and hundred of Usk, county of Monmouth, 2¾ miles (N. by W.) from Usk; containing 196 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1200 acres, on the eastern bank of the river Usk; and the road from Usk to Abergavenny runs through it. The living is a discharged perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £3. 8. 11½.; net income, £72; patron and impropriator, Sir S. Fludyer, Bart.; the tithes have been commuted for £205. 10. The church is ancient.
Trotterscliffe, or Trosley (St. Peter and St. Paul)
TROTTERSCLIFFE, or Trosley (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Malling, hundred of Larkfield, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Wrotham; containing 305 inhabitants. It comprises 1160 acres, of which 168 are in wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 2. 11., and in the alternate patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Rochester; net income, £287 per annum. The Rev. Paul Baristow, in 1711, bequeathed land producing £8 a year, for teaching children.
Trotton (St. George)
TROTTON (St. George), a parish, in the union of Midhurst, partly in the hundred of Easebourne, but chiefly in that of Dumpford, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 3½ miles (W. by N.) from Midhurst; containing, with the chapelry of Milland, 481 inhabitants. The parish lies on the river Rother, and comprises 3877 acres, of which 494 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9, and in the gift of S. Twyford, Esq.: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £414, and £35. 15. are paid to the Dean and Chapter of Chichester; the glebe consists of 39 acres. The church is principally in the decorated style, and contains a beautiful monument of brass inlaid with Sussex marble, to Lord and Lady Camois. There is a chapel of ease at Milland, near the border of Hampshire. Otway, the poet, was born at Trotton in 1651.
TROUGHEND-WARD, a township, in the parish of Elsdon, union of Bellingham, S. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Bellingham; containing 314 inhabitants. This ward is sixteen miles in length, and two and a half in average breadth; and comprises by measurement, 26,010 acres, of which 236 are arable, 96 woodland, and the remainder pasture, principally sheepwalks, on which the purest breed of Cheviot sheep are kept. It comprehends that part of the parish west of the river Rede. The old tower of Troughend, long the seat of the Buttycombe family, and which is mentioned in the records of a very early period, stood a little to the west of the modern mansion, and its foundations, of strong masonry, though overgrown with grass, are still traceable. The present house was built in the last century by EIrington Reed, Esq., who also greatly improved the place by planting, and whose ancestors were settled in the township at a remote date. The common, which contained 2500 acres, was inclosed, agreeably with an act of parliament, in 1769.
TROUTBECK, a chapelry, in the parish of Windermere, union and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 5½ miles (S.E. by E.) from Ambleside; containing 299 inhabitants. The chapelry is intersected by a rivulet, from which it derives its name: in the neighbourhood are quarries of fine blue slate. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £43; patron, the Rector of Windermere, whose tithes here have been commuted for £34. The chapel, called Jesus' chapel, was consecrated in 1562; and adjoining is a school built in 1639, with an endowment of £8 per annum. There were formerly two cairns, supposed to be British, on the removal of one of which a rude stone chest was discovered, inclosing a quantity of human bones.
TROUTSDALE, a township, in the parish of Brompton, union of Scarborough, Pickering lythe, N. riding of York, 8 miles (W.) from Scarborough; containing 96 inhabitants. The township comprises about 1000 acres, partly waste land, and of which the substratum has excellent beds of freestone. It is situated in a deep and narrow dale in the high moors.
Troway, county of Derby.—See Ridgeway.
Trowbridge (St. James)
TROWBRIDGE (St. James), a market-town and parish, in the union and hundred of Melksham, Westbury and N. divisions, and Trowbridge and Bradford subdivisions, of Wilts, 30 miles (N. W.) from Salisbury, and 99 (W. by S.) from London; containing, with the chapelry of Staverton, 11,050 inhabitants. The origin of this place, and the etymology of its name, are involved in much obscurity: Camden says it was called by the Saxons Truthabrig, "a strong and faithful town." It is not mentioned in Domesday book; but a place called Little Trowle, now a hamlet in the parish, is therein recorded, and hence the present name is by many supposed to be a corruption of Trowlebridge, under which term the town is mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth. Leland writes it Throughbridge, or Thorough-bridge. It was anciently a royal manor, forming part of the duchy of Lancaster, having been granted by the crown to John of Gaunt. The estate afterwards reverted to the crown, and was given by Henry VIII., in the 28th year of his reign, to Sir Edward Seymour, Knt., Viscount Beauchamp. Having again lapsed to the crown, Queen Elizabeth in the 24th of her reign assigned it, with the profits of the fairs and markets, to Edward, Earl of Hertford; it afterwards became the property of the dukes of Rutland, who sold it to Thomas Timbrell, Esq., in whose family the manor still continues. The earliest historical circumstance relating to the town is its defence against King Stephen, by Humphrey de Bohun, who held it for the Empress Matilda, at which period the castle is supposed to have existed, though some writers ascribe its erection to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. The fortress was demolished previously to the time of Henry VIII., as, when Leland wrote, it was in ruins, only two of its seven towers remaining; not a vestige of it now exists, its site being occupied by other buildings.
The town is situated upon a rocky hill, near the river Biss, across which is a stone bridge. It is very irregularly built, mostly of stone; the principal street is spacious, and contains some excellent houses, but the other streets are generally narrow, the buildings old, and of rather a mean appearance. The town is paved, lighted with gas, and tolerably well supplied with water. The manufacture of woollen-cloth was introduced at an early period, and must have very soon become a thriving branch of trade, as Camden mentions that Trowbridge was famous for the clothing business; the articles made are chiefly kerseymeres, with some superfine broad cloth. The Kennet and Avon canal passes about a mile on the north, by which a communication is opened with London and Bristol. An act was passed in 1845 for a railway from near Chippenham to Salisbury and to Weymouth, passing by Trowbridge. The markets are on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, the last being the principal, and are well supplied with provisions: there is a fair on the 5th of August, for cattle, cheese, woollen goods, &c. A petty-session takes place on the first Tuesday in the month; and a court leet and court baron are held at Easter, at the former of which constables, tythingmen, a crier, and cornets of the market, are appointed. The powers of the county debt-court of Trowbridge, established in 1847, extend over the parishes of Trowbridge and Hilperton.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 12. 8½., and in the gift of the Duke of Rutland: the tithes have been commuted for £600; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 54 acres. A rent-charge of £16. 16. is paid to the lay impropriator of Staverton, and a modus of £25. 15. out of the same hamlet to the rector. The parochial church, called the New church in consequence of a more ancient one having existed about 70 yards to the south-east, is a large building, with a tower at the west end, surmounted by a lofty spire; the walls of the nave and aisles are crowned with battlements and crocketed pinnacles. In some of the windows are fragments of painted glass; the font is lofty, and covered with a profusion of tracery and paneling. Attached to the eastern extremities of the aisles are chapels, that on the south belonging to the lord of the manor, and that on the north to John Clark, Esq., as owner of Wick House and estate. Holy Trinity district church, of which the first stone was laid April 8th 1837, was consecrated November 1st 1839; it contains 1000 sittings, half free, and the living is a perpetual curacy, in the Rector's gift, with a net income of £150. At Staverton is a district chapel; and in the town are places of worship for Particular Baptists, General Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, Presbyterians, and Irvingites. George Keate, a poetical and miscellaneous writer of some celebrity, was born here in 1730; Crabbe, the poet, was instituted to the rectory in 1814, and held it till his death in 1832. Trowbridge formerly gave the title of Baron to the Seymour family, dukes of Somerset, one of whom is buried here.
Trowell (St. Helen)
TROWELL (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Basford, S. division of the wapentake of Broxtow, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 5½ miles (W.) from Nottingham; containing 380 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Erewash, separating it from Derbyshire; and comprises by computation 1600 acres, about two-fifths of which are arable, and the remainder grass: the soil in general is clay. The road from Nottingham to Ilkeston, and the Nottingham canal, pass through the village, which is situated at the foot of a steep declivity near the river. The living is a rectory in two portions, each valued in the king's books at £4. 14. 4½.; net income, £440; patron, Lord Middleton. The tithes were commuted for an allotment of land in the year 1787. The church is an ancient structure, with a noble tower, and has sittings for about 150 persons.
Trowse-Newton (St. Andrew)
TROWSE-NEWTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Henstead, E. division of Norfolk, 1 mile (S. E. by S.) from Norwich; containing 562 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by the river Yare, and comprises 1121a. 3r., of which 725½ acres are arable, and the rest pasture. The surface is varied, and Crown Point, an eminence in the parish, commands a fine view of Norwich, with the village of Thorpe and the rivers Wensum and Yare. The village is pleasantly situated on the river, and consists of neatly-built houses. There is an extensive flour-mill in Trowse-Millgate (which place, together with Brecondale and Carrow, is within the county of the city of Norwich); and adjoining theTrowse station of the Norfolk railway is an abattoir, with accommodation for slaughtering 100 beasts and 300 sheep daily. The road from Norwich to Beccles and Bungay passes through the parish. The living is a vicarage, with that of Lakenham annexed, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Norwich (the appropriators), valued in the king's books at £5; net income, £314: the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church is in the decorated and later English styles, with a square embattled tower. Trowse-Newton Hall, an ancient building with a chapel, erected by the priors of Norwich, has been converted into a farmhouse.