A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Newington-Bagpath (St. Bartholomew)
NEWINGTON-BAGPATH (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Tetbury, Upper division of the hundred of Berkeley, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 4¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Tetbury; containing 278 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2122 acres. Stone for inferior buildings is quarried. The living is a rectory, with the living of Owlpen annexed, valued in the king's books at £14, and in the gift of Col. Kingscote: the tithes of the parish have been commuted for £291, and the glebe comprises 46 acres. The church is an ancient structure.
Newington-Next-Hythe (St. Nicholas)
NEWINGTON-NEXT-HYTHE (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Elham, hundred of Folkestone, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 2½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Hythe; containing 475 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3140a. 1r. 2p., of which 302 acres are in wood: the South-Eastern railway passes through it, and the Grand Military canal intersects a detached portion. From an eminence near the fine mansion of Beachborough, is a noble prospect over the adjacent country, and across the channel to the coast of France. The living is a vicarage, united to the rectory of Cheriton, and valued in the king's books at £7. 12. 6.; impropriator, the Rev. W. Brockman. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £490, and the vicarial for £235; the impropriate glebe contains 40 acres, and the vicarial one acre and a half. The church is an embattled structure, partly in the decorated style. The ancient chapel of St. Nicholas, every vestige of which has disappeared, was famous as the resort of fishermen to make offerings at the shrine of their patron saint, on escaping imminent dangers at sea. Roman coins have been dug up in the village; and in 1760, three human skeletons, with beads of agate, some pebbles, glass, coral, and red earth, were discovered in levelling a fence.
Newington, South (St. Peter)
NEWINGTON, SOUTH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Banbury, hundred of Wootton, county of Oxford, 5¾ miles (S. W. by S.) from Banbury; containing 434 inhabitants. It comprises 1389 acres, of which 674 are arable, and 715 pasture; the soil is partly a fine sandy loam, and partly a strong clay. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £231; patrons, the Rector and Fellows of Exeter College, Oxford. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1794. The church, which is situated on an acclivity, has a stately embattled tower crowned with pinnacles, and a beautiful south porch, also embattled and pinnacled.
Newington, Stoke (St. Mary)
NEWINGTON, STOKE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hackney, Finsbury division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 3 miles (N. by E.) from London; containing 4490 inhabitants. The village consists principally of a long street extending from Kingsland-road to Stamford-hill, and forming a portion of the road from the metropolis to Cambridge. The eastern side of this thoroughfare is within the parish of Hackney; and from the western side, near the centre, branches off a street leading to the church of Newington, and comprising the most agreeable part of the village. These streets are paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are supplied with water from the New River, which pursues a serpentine course through the parish, and near which are a continuous line of respectable private houses, and several detached residences. Among the latter is a modern mansion close to the church, the grounds around which, on the bank of the stream, are laid out with much taste; and numerous good houses have been erected of late years in Parkstreet, Albion-road, and other parts. Here are some extensive nursery-gardens. The trade of the place depends on the supply of the population, and on its situation as a thoroughfare. The New River Company have a large reservoir and a steam-engine in the parish.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £438; patron, the Bishop of London. The church is a handsome edifice, built by William Patten, lessee of the manor in 1563, and since repeatedly enlarged; considerable alterations were made a few years ago, a new gallery was erected, and a spire added. It contains several good monuments. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Unitarians. To the north of Church-street and west of the principal thoroughfare, is the Abney-Park public cemetery; in the centre of the grounds is a handsome chapel, and the cemetery contains a monument to Dr. Watts, by Mr. Baily, the sculptor, erected by subscription in 1845: the grounds of Sir Thomas Abney's mansion are comprised in the burial-ground. Near the Friends' meeting-house, which is a handsome building, are almshouses for ten widows, founded and endowed under the will of Michael Yoakley, in 1835. A brick gateway with a pointed arch, on the north side of Churchstreet, is the only part now standing of the buildings belonging to the old manor-house. Near the church is a walk between trees, called Queen Elizabeth's walk; and at Newington resided her favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, and his contemporary, Edward Vere, Earl of Oxford. Dr. Isaac Watts, the eminent poet and dissenting divine, having passed the last 30 years of his life at the mansion of Sir Thomas Abney, died here November 25th, 1748. Among other residents in the parish were, the republican general, Fleetwood; Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe; Adam Anderson, who wrote the History of Commerce; Thomas Day, author of the History of Sandford and Merton, and other popular productions; Howard, the philanthropist; Dr. John Aikin, compiler of the General Biography; and his sister, the celebrated Mrs. Barbauld.
Newland (All Saints)
NEWLAND (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Monmouth, hundred of St. Briavell's, W. division of the county of Gloucester; containing, with the chapelries of Bream, Clearwell, and Coleford, and the tything of Lea-Bailey, 4127 inhabitants, of whom 627 are in the tything of Newland, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Monmouth. The parish is bounded on the west by the navigable river Wye, and comprises by computation 8000 acres, the soil of which rests on limestone: the surface is strikingly diversified; the hills in some parts have an elevation of 800 feet above the sea, and the valleys are watered by numerous rapid rivulets. Redbrook, formerly the site of the earliest copper-smelting furnaces in England, is now celebrated for the manufacture of tin plates, of which from 400 to 500 boxes are produced weekly; there is also an iron-foundry. In these works about 120 men are constantly employed. Coal and iron-ore are obtained in the neighbouring Forest of Dean, and stone of good quality for building is extensively quarried. Facility of conveyance is afforded by the Wye, which flows up to Redbrook; by the tramroads from Coleford to Monmouth; and by numerous tramroads from various parts of the Forest to Gloucester and other places. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 6. 10½.; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Llandaff: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £525. The church is a large structure, with a handsome tower ornamented by pinnacles and open-worked battlements. There are chapels of ease at Clearwell and Redbrook; and chapels, forming separate incumbencies, at Coleford and Bream. The Baptists and Wesleyans have places of worship. Adjoining the churchyard are, a free school, and an almshouse for four persons of each sex, both founded by Edward Bell, who in 1651 endowed them with an annuity of £20: the income, with subsequent donations, has been raised to upwards of £180. Almshouses for 8 aged men and 8 women were founded in 1615, by the family of Jones, who also endowed a lectureship with £68 per annum. The remains of High-Meadow House, which was garrisoned by the troops of Charles I. when the parliament had possession of Gloucester, are still visible here. In Birchamp is a spring of water which in purity is not inferior to St. Ann's well at Malvern.
Newland, a township, in the chapelry of Egton, Lancashire.—See Egton.
Newland (St. Leonard)
NEWLAND (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Upton-upon-Severn, Lower division of the hundred of Pershore, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 5¾ miles (S. W.) from Worcester; containing 143 inhabitants. This place was a grange or farm belonging to the priory of Malvern. The parish consists of 850 acres, and is intersected by the road from Worcester to Ledbury. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60; patron, the Vicar of Malvern. The impropriation belongs to the Rev. Edward Woodyatt.
NEWLAND, a hamlet, in the parish of Cottingham, union of Sculcoates, Hunsley-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Hull. This place is on the road from Hull to Beverley, and is bounded on the north-east by the navigable river Hull; the surface is level, interspersed with plantations, and the soil a strong clay. A brick and tile manufactory employs a number of persons. The land is mostly divided into small dairy-farms. A chapel, dedicated to St. John, was erected in 1833, at an expense of £1606, inclusive of £326 for the site, the whole raised by subscription, aided by a grant of £240 from the Incorporated Society; it was consecrated on the 7th November. There is a place of worship for Methodists.
NEWLAND, an extra-parochial liberty, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3 miles (N. E.) from Wakefield; containing, with Woodhouse Moor, 55 inhabitants. An old chapel here, near the mansion-house, was taken down about 60 years since. Courts leet and baron are annually held, under the styles of "the Court Leet of our Sovereign Lady the Queen," and "the Great Court Baron of the Manor of Newland cum Woodhouse Moor." The manor was parcel of the possessions of the Knights Hospitallers, who in the reign of John established a commandery here, eventually valued at £202. 3. 8. per annum.
NEWLAND, a township, in the parish of Drax, union of Selby, Lower division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 4½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Snaith; containing 305 inhabitants. It is situated on the north bank of the Aire, near its confluence with the Ouse; and comprises 2195a. 1r. 27p. of productive land, including the hamlet of Little Armin, and the small island of Hasleby, consisting of about ten acres encompassed by the Ouse.
NEWLANDS, a chapelry, in the parish of Crosthwaite, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from Keswick; containing 133 inhabitants. This place was formerly celebrated for its valuable mines of copper, which, from the great proportion of gold and silver they contained, were claimed as royal property in the reign of Elizabeth, who instituted against the Earl of Northumberland, on whose lordship they were discovered, a suit at law, which was decided in favour of the crown. The mines were destroyed, and most of the workmen killed, during the parliamentary war; and the ruins of smelting-houses and other buildings connected with the ancient works may still be traced on the banks of the river Bure. Immense quantities of lead-ore have also been raised in the neighbourhood, though the mines are at present comparatively unproductive; a quarry of fine slate for roofing has been opened, and at Stairs is a mill for carding wool. The village of Little Town is seated under a mountainous elevation, which from November till February precludes it from the rays of the sun. A fair for sheep is held on the first Friday in September. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £80; patron, the Vicar of Crosthwaite. The chapel is situated near the village. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
NEWLANDS, a hamlet, in the district of Riddings, parish of Alfreton, union of Belper, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby; containing 117 inhabitants. It lies about 4 miles southsouth-east of Alfreton, and abounds in coal and ironstone, like the other parts of the parish. The place is charged with the payment of £12. 8. 8. annually to a school at Ashford, in this county.
NEWLANDS, a township, in the parish of Bywell St. Peter, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 12½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Hexham; containing 168 inhabitants. It is situated on the borders of the county of Durham, between the township of Whittonstall and the river Derwent, and is the property of Greenwich Hospital. The Roman Watling-street passes on the north.
NEWLAND-SIDE, a township, in the parish of Stanhope, union of Weardale, N. W. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Stanhope; containing 347 inhabitants. This place, with Bishopley and Frosterley, constitutes a quarter in the parish, comprising about 9820 acres of land, in the vale of the Wear. At Bollihope is a smelting-house for lead-ore.
NEWLAY, a hamlet, partly in the chapelry of Horsforth, parish of Guiseley, Upper division of Skyrack wapentake, and partly in the chapelry of Bramley, parish of St. Peter, Leeds, W. riding of York, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Leeds. It is beautifully situated in the valley of the river Aire, over which a cast-iron bridge was constructed in 1819, by the late J. Pollard, Esq., at an expense of £1500. The woollen manufacture is carried on here, in a spacious mill called St. Helen's, and there are two large dye-houses.
Newlyn (St. Newlyn)
NEWLYN (St. Newlyn), a parish, in the union of St. Columb Major, hundred of Pyder, W. division of Cornwall, 8 miles (N.) from Truro; containing 1451 inhabitants. This parish was anciently the occasional residence of the bishops of Exeter, who had a palace at Cargol, and one of whom in 1312 obtained the grant of a market for Newlyn, which is now discontinued, and of a fair, which is still held on November 8th. The area of the parish is 7371 acres, of which 2273 are common and waste land; the surface is hilly, and in parts intersected with deep valleys. The prevailing timber is oak and elm, of which there are some stately trees in the grounds of Trerice, the seat of Sir T. D. Acland, a handsome Elizabethan mansion formerly belonging to Lord Arundel. The substratum is rich in mineral wealth; here is a lead-mine called East Wheat Rose, one of the most valuable in the county, in which about 40 ounces of silver are found in one ton of ore. The petty-sessions for the West division of the hundred are held in the village. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16. 13. 4.; patron, the Bishop of Exeter; impropriator, J. Hawkins, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £755; and the vicarial for £470, with a glebe of 9 acres. The church is a spacious structure, with a lofty embattled tower crowned by pinnacles; it has undergone much repair, and been partly rebuilt. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a national school with a small endowment. In the parish are some chalybeate springs: on the downs in the vicinity are several barrows.
NEWLYN, a hamlet, in the parish of Paul, union of Penzance, W. division of the hundred of Penwith and of the county of Cornwall, ½ a mile (S. W.) from Penzance; containing 1218 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the western shore of Mount's bay in the English Channel, was of much importance previously to its being burnt by the Spaniards in 1595. It is still a very considerable village, with one principal thoroughfare nearly half a mile in length, from which several smaller streets branch off in various directions. The harbour is commodious, and accessible to vessels of 100 tons' burthen, which may ride in safety; it is chiefly frequented by the seine-boats and others employed in the pilchard and mackerel fisheries, which are carried on here and at Mousehole, also in the parish, to a greater extent than on any other part of the coast of Cornwall. There are 300 boats engaged in the fisheries belonging to the port; and not less than 200 cellars are used for the curing of pilchards, of which immense numbers are taken during the season, beginning in July, and ending in October. The mackerel are in high repute, and the London market is supplied with them during the early part of the season, by way of Portsmouth. The coast abounds also with turbot, dories, mullet, cod, ling, haddock, pullings, whitings, soles, plaice, bream, congers, crayfish, lobsters, and crabs. Not far from the village, on the road to Mousehole, is a four-gun battery for the defence of the coast, and near it a furnace for heating shot. A large brewery is carried on. There are a church dedicated to St. Peter, and places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
NEWMARKET, the head of a union, and a markettown, comprising the parish of St. Mary in the hundred of Lackford, W. division of Suffolk, and the parish of All Saints in the hundred of Cheveley, county of Cambridge, 13 miles (N. E. by E.) from Cambridge, and 61 (N. N. E.) from London, on the road to Norwich; the whole containing 2956 inhabitants, of whom 2143 are in Suffolk. The earliest account of this town has reference to the year 1227, when it is supposed to have derived its name from a market then recently established, which is said to have been removed hither, on account of the plague raging at Exning, a village about two miles distant. In the time of Edward III. the place gave name to Thomas Merks or de novo Mercatu, Bishop of Carlisle, who was probably a native. A house called the King's house, was built here by James I., for the purpose of enjoying the diversion of hunting; and the subsequent reputation of the town for horse-racing seems to have arisen from the spirit and swiftness of some Spanish horses, which having been wrecked with the vessels of the Armada on the coast of Galloway, were brought hither. Its celebrity greatly increased in the reign of Charles II., who rebuilt and enlarged the King's house, which had fallen into decay during the civil war, and who frequently honoured the races with his presence. On the 22nd of March, 1683, being the time of the races, the King, Queen, and Duke of York were present; but a sudden conflagration compelled them to return hastily to London, to which event some writers have attributed the defeat of the Rye-house plot. By this fire a great part of the town was destroyed, the damage being estimated at £20,000. A second fire happened about the beginning of the last century. At the close of the civil war, Charles I. was removed on the 9th of June, 1647, from the house of Lady Cutts, of Childerley, to Newmarket, where he remained about ten days.
The town consists principally of one street, the north side of which is in the county of Suffolk, and the south in that of Cambridge; the houses are modern and well built, and some of them, erected for the occasional residence of visiters, are handsome: the inhabitants are supplied with water from springs. Coffee-houses, and billiard and other rooms, are kept for persons attending the races. The race-course and training-ground are the finest in the kingdom: the former is on a grassy heath near the town, and extends in length four miles; the training-ground is more than a mile and a half long, on a gentle acclivity, and admirably adapted to keep the horses in wind. The races are held seven times in the year, and are distinguished as the Craven meeting, commencing on the Monday in Easter-week; the first and second spring meetings, the former on the Tuesday fortnight following, and the latter a fortnight afterwards; the July meeting; the first and second October meetings, and the third October or Houghton meeting, the first of these three commencing on the Monday preceding the first Thursday in that month. The Queen gives two plates annually. The palace erected by King James has been sold, and part of it converted into shops. The additional structure by King Charles is standing: part of it was the residence of the late Duke of York during the meetings, and is now occupied by the Duke of Rutland; the remainder, with its extensive stables, is held under the authority of the crown. The training of race-horses is a source of extensive profit, some of the finest horses in the world being exported, at exceedingly high prices. About 400 are here during the greater part of the year. An act was passed in 1846 for effecting railway communication with Cambridge, and with Chesterford, in Essex; the line was opened in the autumn of 1847. The market, which was granted or confirmed in 1227, is held on Tuesday; and there are fairs on Whit-Tuesday and Nov. 8th, the latter fair being largely supplied with cattle, horses, corn, butter, cheese, hops, &c. The county magistrates preside at petty-sessions, every Tuesday; and a court leet is held occasionally. The powers of the county debt-court of Newmarket, established in 1847, extend over nearly the whole of the registration-district of Newmarket.
The living of St. Mary's is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Wood-Ditton consolidated, valued in the king's books at £4. 15. 2½.; net income, £375; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Rutland. The church is a handsome structure, with a tower and spire. The living of All Saints' is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron, the Bishop of Ely. There is a place of worship for Independents. Queen Anne gave a donation of £50 per annum for the institution of free schools, but a national school having been established, the boys on that sovereign's foundation are instructed in it free. The union of Newmarket comprises twenty-nine parishes or places, twenty-two of which are in the county of Cambridge, and seven in that of Suffolk, altogether containing a population of 27,383. About a mile and a half from the town is a remarkable embankment, raised by means of excavation at one side, and called the "Devil's Dyke," extending nearly in a straight line for seven miles, and being in some places above one hundred feet in width. This work, unquestionably of remote antiquity, has been attributed to the Britons anterior to the time of Cæsar, and by some to Uffa, the first king of the East Angles. It formerly served for the boundary between the dioceses of Norwich and Ely, and is still the boundary of the several parishes that touch upon it. Several Roman coins were found near Newmarket heath, in 1750; and in 1836, three urns, evidently of Roman workmanship, containing ashes of the dead, were discovered.
NEW-MILL, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Kirk-Burton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 6 miles (E.) from Huddersfield, on the road to Sheffield. A church dedicated to Christ was erected in 1830, by the Parliamentary Commissioners, at an expense of £4000; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains 1120 sittings, of which 500 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Kirk-Burton, with an income of £150. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a national and an infants' school are supported.
NEW-MILLS, a township and manufacturing district, in the parish of Glossop, union of Hayfield, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 8 miles (E. S. E.) from Stockport, and 170 (N. W. by N.) from London; comprising the hamlets of Beard, Ollersett, Thornsett, and Whittle, and containing 3595 inhabitants. It is situated on the north bank of the Guyt, and reaches from Kinder-Scout to Mellor. Formerly, the inhabitants were accustomed to grind their corn at a common mill in Hayfield; but about a century since, when the township was formed, a mill was erected upon the river Kinder, in the hamlet of Ollersett, and the name of New-Mills was, in consequence, conferred on the township, the inhabitants of which ground their corn here. The appellation is more definitely applied to a cluster of factories and houses, which rise one above another from the brink of the river to the summit of the Crags, a height of several hundred feet, and also extend along the turnpike-road, as far as London Place: the whole is lighted with gas. The Kinder derives its source from the mountain of Kinder-Scout, and, separating the county of Derby from that of Chester, falls into the river Guyt at a place called the Tor. The original branches of manufacture in the district were those of paper and cloth, which have been superseded by cotton, calico-printing, and bleaching works, &c.: coal-mines abound in the neighbourhood, which contains also some veins of lead-ore. The township comprises by measurement 5030 acres, of which 4345 are meadow and pasture, 360 arable, and 199 woodland: the soil is various; some small plantations, in different districts, add to the picturesque scenery of the neighbourhood. The great tithes have been commuted for £92. 10., and the vicarial for £15. A local subscription amounting to £1000 having been raised towards the erection of a district church, the sum of £2500 was granted by the Parliamentary Commissioners in aid of the expense, and a piece of ground was given by Lord George Cavendish, for the site. The church is a handsome structure in the pointed style, with a nave, chancel, and aisles, and contains 500 free sittings: it is dedicated to St. George. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patron, the Vicar of Glossop; impropriator, Earl Fitzwilliam. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Primitive Methodists; and the Roman Catholics have a chapel in the decorated style, a perfect revival of an ancient parish church. Several bequests have been made for instruction, and for distribution among the poor.
NEWMINSTER-ABBEY, a township, in the parish and union of Morpeth, partly in the W. division of Morpeth ward, N. division, and partly in the W. division of Castle ward, S. division, of the county of Northumberland; the whole containing 107 inhabitants. In the year 1138, a colony of Cistercian monks having come to Morpeth Castle from Fountains, in Yorkshire, at the invitation of Ranulph de Merlay, lord of Morpeth, he built an abbey for them here, and endowed it with all the lands of this township, and other considerable property. It was not long before the tide of popularity and religious enthusiasm rendered the community one of the richest in the county. Besides the gifts of succeeding barons of Morpeth, many were received from the Bertrams of Mitford, the barons of Bolam and Bolbeck, and the families of Umfraville, Widdrington, Fenwick, Plessis, &c. The site chosen for the abbey (which was dedicated to the Virgin) was very beautiful, in a secluded valley, the rising hills warding off the cold blasts from the east and north, and opening to admit the warm southern sun; the neighbouring stream produced abundance of fish, and an offset from it encircled the walls and turned a mill, while the fertility of the demesne lands yielded a plentiful supply of corn, which was stored in an adjoining grange. The abbot was often summoned to the parliaments of Edward I.; and Edward II. and III. dated many documents hence. Of this once magnificent structure, there only remains the north doorway of the church: the revenue at the Dissolution was £140. The township is situated on the north and south of the river Wansbeck, adjoining the town of Morpeth, and is intersected by the road to Elsdon. It comprises 717a. 2r. 10p., of which 397 acres are arable, 212 pasture, and the remainder wood, &c. The soil is of various qualities, gravelly near the river, but generally a good strong clay, well adapted to the growth of wheat; the surface is hilly, and the scenery beautifully interspersed with trees of large dimensions, particularly beech, which are of remarkable height near the ruin of the abbey. Two handsome bridges have been built over the Wansbeck, by subscription.