A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Trull (All Saints)
TRULL (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and Taunton-Dean, W. division of Somerset, 1 mile (S. S. W.) from Taunton; containing 547 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Taunton to Honiton, and comprises about 1700 acres, nearly equally divided between arable and pasture: the soil has a substratum of red marl. The Taunton Wesleyan College is situated in the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £98; patrons and impropriators, the Cooper family. John Wyatt, in 1756, gave £210 in support of a school; the annual income is £24.
Trumpington (St. Mary and St. Michael)
TRUMPINGTON (St. Mary and St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Chesterton, hundred of Thriplow, county of Cambridge, 2½ miles (S.) from Cambridge; containing 759 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.; net income, £241; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1801. William Austin, in 1679, gave fourteen acres of land now producing £18 per annum, for teaching eight children. Here are still some remains of the mill celebrated by Chaucer in his Reeve's Tale. At Dam Hill, near the river Cam, several beautiful vases and paterae, urns containing calcined human bones, and other relics of antiquity, have been discovered. Christopher Anstey, author of the poetical Bath Guide, was born here in 1724.
Trunch (St. Botolph)
TRUNCH (St. Botolph), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (N. by E.) from North Walsham; containing 464 inhabitants. It comprises 1353a. 38p., of which about 1161 acres are arable, 106 pasture, and 32 woodland. In the village is a large brewing and malting establishment. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 4., and in the gift of Catherine Hall, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £420; there is a parsonage-house, erected in 1832, and the glebe contains about 21 acres. The church is chiefly in the decorated and later English styles, with a square tower; the chancel is separated from the nave by the remains of a beautiful screen, richly carved and gilt, and the font has a canopy of wood carved with tabernacle-work, supported by columns. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Truro (St. Mary)
TRURO (St. Mary), a borough, port, market-town, and parish, and the head of a union, locally in the W. division of the hundred of Powder, W. division of Cornwall, 43 miles (S. W. by W.) from Launceston, and 250 (W. by S.) from London; containing within the parish of St. Mary 3043 inhabitants, but within the borough, which extends into the parishes of St. Clement and Kenwyn, about 10,034. This place is called in ancient records Triueru, Treuru, Truru, and Truruburgh, and in a receipt given for the payment of a fine to the king in the 15th of Henry VII., the ville de Truro, all terms of similar import, the town being supposed to have derived its name from the three streets of which the town originally consisted. The manor, in 1161, belonged to Richard de Luci, chief justice of England and lord of Truro, who probably built the castle (the site of which is still called Castle Hill), and who invested the inhabitants with numerous privileges, which were confirmed by Reginald Fitz-Henry, Earl of Cornwall, natural son of Henry I. In 1410, a petition was presented to the parliament by the inhabitants, praying that the crown rent, which had been reduced by Richard II. from £12. 1. 10. to £2. 10., for a term of years, in consequence of their sufferings from war and pestilence, might be continued in perpetuity; and stating that, instead of rebuilding their houses, they were about to leave the town, which might be considered as the defence of that part of the country. Here, after the defeat at Naseby, the remains of the royalist army surrendered to Sir Thomas Fairfax; and while the negotiations were pending, Lord Hopton their general, and the Prince of Wales afterwards Charles II., Sir Edward Hyde afterwards Lord Clarendon, Lord Capel, and other royalists of distinction, made their escape and embarked at Falmouth for Scilly, and thence to Jersey.
The town is situated at the confluence of the rivers Kenwyn and St. Allen, which here fall into a creek from the river Fal, forming together an estuary sufficient to enable vessels of 100 tons' burthen to approach the town at spring tides. It is in the centre of a rich and extensive mining district, to which it is principally indebted for its commercial importance. The surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified; and at high tides a beautiful lake, nearly two miles in length, is formed above Mopus. A considerable increase has recently taken place in the number of houses, and great improvements have been made in the streets and approaches; it has consequently become a handsome, well-built town, is paved, lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water by streams flowing through the main streets. Most of the improvements were effected under an act passed in 1790; but the place having outgrown its jurisdiction, a new act was obtained in 1835, and to the exertions of the commissioners the town is indebted for its general neatness and cleanliness, and comparative exemption from disease.
The Royal Institution of Cornwall, to the support of which Her Majesty subscribes £50 per annum, is established here. It possesses a museum, handsomely fitted up, and enriched with objects of natural history, geological and mineralogical specimens, antiquities, coins, and various productions of China, America, Africa, the South Sea Islands, &c. In the same building is the County library, very liberally supported, and containing at present about 4000 volumes: the Truro Institution holds its meetings in the lecture-room, promoting the diffusion of knowledge by means of lectures on literary and scientific subjects; and the Royal Horticultural Society of Cornwall has its museum and library in the building. The town has a very handsome assembly-room, which is occasionally converted into a theatre, and to which an elegant subscription billiard-room is added. At the top of Lemon-street, a Doric column of granite has been erected to commemorate the discovery of the termination of the river Niger, or Quorra, in the sea at the Bight of Benin, by John and Richard Lander, natives of Truro.
The port exercises jurisdiction over the several creeks of Newham, Tresillian, Restronguet, Devoran, Tregoney, Pill, and Mylor. The principal exports are tin and copper ore. The former, which is made into blocks weighing four cwt., into ingots of from 60 to 70 lb., and bars of from 4 to 6 oz. each, is shipped chiefly to France, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic; the copperore is principally from the neighbourhood of Redruth, and is shipped at Devoran, about a mile above Restronguet, where is a ferry for horse and foot passengers, making the distance from Truro to Falmouth only seven miles and a half. The imports are iron, coal, timber, and other commodities. The number of vessels of above 50 tons registered at the port, is 25, of the aggregate burthen of 1879 tons; they are chiefly employed in the coasting-trade. An act was passed in 1846 for a railway from Falmouth, by Truro, to Plymouth; and another act, for a railway from near Truro to Redruth and Penzance. A large carpet and woollen manufactory has been established more than fifty years; and an ironfoundry, two tanneries, and two small potteries for the coarser kinds of earthenware, afford employment to part of the population. The smelting of tin is carried on extensively, and there are now four smelting-houses in the town and its immediate vicinity, viz. at Calenick, on the Falmouth road, where the best crucibles in Europe for assaying are made; at Carvedras, containing four reverberating furnaces, with a chimney 110 feet high, with which the flues from the furnaces communicate; a third near Garras Wharf, on the south side of the town; and a fourth lately established at the eastern entrance to the town, where an elegant chimney 120 feet high has been erected, forming one of the chief ornaments of the neighbourhood. This place, and Helston and Penzance, were the principal stannary towns in the county: the custom of coining the tin, as it was called, has been recently abolished. The jurisdiction of the ancient stannary courts having been confined to cases in which tin or tinners were concerned, and this being found a serious inconvenience to persons engaged in raising other minerals, by an act passed in the 6th and 7th of William IV. it was declared expedient to unite the court of equity of the vice-warden with the courts of common law of the stewards of the stannaries, and to extend the jurisdiction of the court to all metals and metallic minerals in the said stannaries, and to all transactions connected therewith in the county. This court is held quarterly at Truro, and has proved of the greatest usefulness to the mining interests. The coinage-hall, in which the tin received the duchy stamp, is an ancient edifice, at the east end of Boscawen-street. The first stone of a new market-house was laid by the mayor early in 1846. The markets are on Wednesday and Saturday, the former for corn, and both are abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds: a cattle-market has been established, on the first Wednesday in every month; and fairs for cattle are held on the Wednesday after MidLent Sunday, the Wednesday after Whit-Sunday, on November 19th, and December 8th.
The original charter granted to the inhabitants by Earl Reginald has no date, but it must have been bestowed between 1140 (5th of Stephen) and 1176 (22nd of Henry II.). Other charters were obtained from Edward I., in 1284; Edward III., in 1369; Henry IV., in 1402; Edward, Prince of Wales, as Duke of Cornwall (afterwards Edward V.), in 1477; Henry VII., in 1488; and Elizabeth, in 1589; all which are among the muniments of the corporation. The government is now vested in a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; the municipal boundaries are co-extensive with those for parliamentary purposes, and the borough is divided into two wards. The average income of the corporation is about £1200 per annum. The mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, with three others appointed by the crown. Truro first sent members to parliament in the reign of Edward I.: the right of election was extended in 1832 to the £10 householders of an enlarged district, comprising 1235 acres: the mayor is returning officer. The charter of Elizabeth describes the mayor of Truro to be also mayor of Falmouth, and as such he exercised jurisdiction over Falmouth harbour, receiving its dues and customs; but this claim was in part successfully resisted by the inhabitants of that town, and the mayor has now jurisdiction only over a small part of the harbour. The Easter quarter-sessions for the county were formerly held at this place; but at the Midsummer sessions held at Bodmin in 1839, the magistrates voted that for the future they should be held there. The powers of the county debt-court of Truro, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Truro. Petty-sessions for the Western division of the hundred take place on the first Thursday in every month.
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £16; net income, £135; patron, the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe, one of the high lords of the manor. The church, a handsome structure partly of granite and partly of freestone, in the later English style, was mostly built in 1518; the tower, which is surmounted by a spire, was not erected until 1769. The edifice was judiciously restored in 1844-6. It contains some remains of ancient stained glass, and elegant monuments to the families of Robarts, Vivian, Pendarves, and others. A church dedicated to St. John, in the Grecian style, with a campanile turret, has been erected in Lemon-street by subscription, aided by a grant of £700 from the Parliamentary Commissioners: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Kenwyn. There are places of worship for Baptists, Bryanites, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Methodists of the Old and New Connexion. Near the site of the castle is St. Mary's burial-ground, with a chapel for the performance of the funeral service.
The free grammar school has two exhibitions of £30 per annum each to Exeter College, Oxford, founded by the Rev. St. John Elliot, rector of St. Mary's, who died in 1760: Sir Humphrey Davy, Lord Exmouth, Sir Hussey Vivian, Polwhele, Henry Martyn, and other distinguished characters, received the rudiments of their education in the establishment. An hospital for ten people was founded in 1631, by Henry Williams, who endowed it with lands now producing about £200 per annum. The county infirmary, situated on an elevated and healthy spot near the town, was opened in 1799, under the patronage of George IV., then Duke of Cornwall; and is liberally supported by subscription. The poor-law union of Truro comprises twenty-four parishes or places, containing a population of 43,137. A convent of Black friars was founded here in the latter part of the reign of Henry III., by an ancestor of Rauf Reskmyer, who was a great benefactor to the establishment in the reign of Edward IV.; it flourished till the Dissolution. The site was granted by Edward VI. to Edward Aglionby, and is now partly occupied by a tanyard in Kenwyn-street, in sinking the pits of which, about forty years since, many stone coffins, with bones, and urns containing various coins, were discovered. Samuel Foote, of dramatic celebrity, was born in 1720, in the house now called the Red Lion hotel; the Rev. Richard Polwhele, author of histories of Cornwall and Devon, and many other works, was born here in 1760, and died here in March 1838.
TRUSHAM, a parish, in the union of NewtonAbbott, hundred of Exminster, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Chudleigh; containing 213 inhabitants, and comprising 655 acres by computation. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 9½., and in the gift of Sir W. T. Pole, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £130: there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 60 acres. The church contains a very rich wooden screen. A school, and an almshouse for widows, were endowed by Mr. Storke in 1687.
Trusley (All Saints)
TRUSLEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 7 miles (W.) from Derby; containing 105 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1076a. 2r. 4p., of a strong fertile soil; about one-third is arable, and the remainder pasture, with 7 acres of wood. The surface is undulated, and the scenery, improved by the hedge-rows being well wooded, is very pleasing. Grangefield House here, is a large half-timbered mansion, with many gables. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and in the patronage of John Coke, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £100; and the incumbent has a house, with a glebe of 46¼ acres. The church is a small brick edifice in the Grecian style, with stone dressings, and consists of a nave, chancel, and low tower; the entrance door is of stone, very handsomely carved: there are several elegant tablets to the Coke and other families.
Trusthorpe (St. Peter)
TRUSTHORPE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (N. E.) from Alford; containing 273 inhabitants, and comprising 1370 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 10. 2½.; net, income, £212; patrons, the Rycroft family: the tithes were commuted for land in 1811. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Trysull (All Saints)
TRYSULL (All Saints), a parish, in the union, and S. division of the hundred, of Seisdon, S. division of the county of Stafford, 5 miles (S. W.) from Wolverhampton; containing, with the township of Seisdon, 541 inhabitants. This place takes its name from John de Tressel or Trysull, to whom the manor, with that of Seisdon, belonged in the reign of Edward II. The living is a vicarage not in charge, annexed to that of Wombourn: the small tithes were commuted for land in 1773. The church, a handsome structure with a square tower, was nearly rebuilt in 1844, at a cost of £1000, and contains 400 sittings, of which 180 are free; on the north wall is a carved figure of a bishop. Thomas Rudge bequeathed £200, with which land was purchased now producing, with other bequests, £16. 10. per annum, for instruction.