A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Newnham (St. Peter)
NEWNHAM (St. Peter), a market-town and parish, in the union and hundred of Westbury, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 11½ miles (W. S. W.) from Gloucester, and 116 (W. by N.) from London; containing, with the tything of Rudhall, 1105 inhabitants. This town appears to have originated in a ford over the Severn, formed by a ridge of rocks and a sandbank, the shifting of which latter, in 1802, rendered the river no longer fordable. Here was anciently a castle, which in the time of our Norman kings constituted one of the fortresses of the Welsh frontier, but there are no traces of it. Newnham had a considerable share in the military events of the seventeenth century, and several engagements took place here between the royalists and parliamentarians, of whose encampment there are still some remains. The town is situated on the western bank of the river, across which is a ferry to Arlingham. A harbour for vessels of 150 tons' burthen was constructed about a century since, and some coasting-trade is carried on, though the difficult navigation of the river near the town has contributed to lessen the traffic, much of which has been transferred to the port of Gatcombe, a few miles to the south. Ship-building affords employment to some of the inhabitants, and in the neighbourhood are extensive iron and coal mines, the carriage of the produce of which is facilitated by the Berkeley canal and the Bullo Pill railway, which latter passes by the marble-works on the Severn, southward of the town, into the Forest of Dean, through a tunnel 1060 yards in extent: some of the coal, which is of very superior quality, is exported. The market, now very inconsiderable, is on Friday; and fairs are held on June 11th and October 18th, chiefly for horses.
The government of the town was vested in a mayor and burgesses in the reign of Edward I., but there are now few relics of its former importance, except a sword of state, said to have been the gift of King John. The lord of the manor holds a court leet annually; and petty-sessions for the Forest of Dean take place here every fortnight. The powers of the county debt-court of Newnham, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Westbury. Newnham was returned as one of the five boroughs in Gloucestershire, on a mandate from the crown, in the reign of Edward I., and, with the others, is said to have formerly sent members to parliament. The parish comprises by measurement 1900 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £140, and is in the patronage of the Corporation of Gloucester, the impropriators, whose tithes have been commuted for £201. The church, which stands on a cliff close to the river, contains some portions of Norman architecture, especially the arched entrance into the chancel, ornamented with zigzag mouldings, and supposed to have belonged to a more ancient edifice; a tower was lately added, at the expense of the parishioners. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. James Jocham, by will dated 1764, gave the interest of £1000 for benevolent purposes.
Newnham (St. Vincent)
NEWNHAM (St. Vincent), a parish, in the union of Hitchin, hundred of Cashio, or liberty of St. Alban's, county of Hertford, 3 miles (N.) from Baldock; containing 161 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 900 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5, and in the patronage of S. Mills, Esq., the impropriator: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £62. 1. 6., and the impropriate for £11; there are nearly 25 acres of glebe.
Newnham (St. Peter and St. Paul)
NEWNHAM (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union and hundred of Faversham, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 6 miles (S. E.) from Sittingbourne; containing 455 inhabitants. It comprises 1293 acres, of which 261 are in wood. A fair is held on the 29th of June. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 6., and has a net income of £138; the patronage and impropriation belong to the family of Hill. The church is principally in the early English style. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Newnham (St. Michael)
NEWNHAM (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Daventry, hundred of Fawsley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 2½ miles (S. S. E.) from Daventry; comprising 2192 acres, and containing 583 inhabitants, partly employed in lace-making. A stream that joins the river Nene at Northampton intersects the parish. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Badby. The church exhibits portions in the various styles of English architecture. Thomas Randolph, the poet and dramatist, was born here in 1605.
Newnham (St. Nicholas)
NEWNHAM (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union and hundred of Basingstoke, Basingstoke and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Hartford-Bridge; containing 337 inhabitants. It comprises 847 acres, of which 24 are common or waste. The London and South-Western railway passes within a very short distance of the church. The living is a rectory, with that of Mapledurwell annexed, valued in the king's books at £17. 17. 1., and in the gift of Queen's College, Oxford: the tithes of Newnham have been commuted for £305, and there are 22 acres of glebe.
NEWNHAM, a hamlet, in the parish of Lindridge, union of Tenbury, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, though locally in the Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Hundred-House and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4 miles (E.) from Tenbury. It is situated on the left bank of the river Teme, and on the road from Tenbury to Lindridge; and is distant about two miles from the village of Lindridge. The mansion of Newnham Court is in the hamlet.
Newnham, King's (St. John the Baptist)
NEWNHAM, KING'S (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Rugby, Rugby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, 4¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Rugby; containing 156 inhabitants. The prefix to the name was given to this place on account of its having anciently belonged to the king. The canons of Kenilworth enjoyed the property from the time of Henry I. to the Dissolution; in the 7th of Edward VI. the manor was granted to John, Duke of Northumberland, on whose attainder, in the 1st of Mary, that queen bestowed it on Sir Rowland Hill, from whom Sir Thomas Leigh, alderman of London, afterwards obtained it. Francis Leigh, of this family, was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Dunsmore, and subsequently became Earl of Chichester. The parish is situated on the right bank of the Avon, which bounds it on the south; and consists of 1489 acres of productive land. The Oxford canal crosses the north-eastern angle. On the bank of the river is a once celebrated bath, to which the water is conveyed from a chalybeate spring about a mile distant. The living is a vicarage, united to the rectory of ChurchLawford, and valued in the king's books at £5.
Newnham, Murren (St. Mary)
NEWNHAM, MURREN (St. Mary), a parish, in the parliamentary borough and poor-law union of Wallingford, hundred of Langtree, county of Oxford, 1 mile (S.) from Wallingford; containing 254 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 1500 acres. The living is annexed to the vicarage of North Stoke.
Newnton, Long (Holy Trinity)
NEWNTON, LONG (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Tetbury, hundred of Malmesbury, Malmesbury and Kingswood, and N. divisions of Wilts, 1½ mile (E. S. E.) from Tetbury; containing 305 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road from Gloucester to Portsmouth, and bounded on the west by a branch of the Avon, comprises by measurement 2289 acres. There is a quarry of good hard building-stone. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 5., and in the gift of T. G. B. Estcourt, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £365, and the glebe comprises 23 acres. The church has been rebuilt at the expense of the landholders.
Newnton-Longville (St. Faith)
NEWNTON-LONGVILLE (St. Faith), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Fenny-Stratford; containing 565 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 9. 7.; net income, £273; patrons, the Warden and Fellows of New College, Oxford, by whose predecessors the church was erected, about 1415. In the chancel are two piscinæ, one of them bearing the arms of William of Wykeham. An alien priory of Cluniac monks, subordinate to the abbey of St. Faith, at Longueville, in Normandy, was founded here in the reign of Henry I., and suppressed in 1415, when it was granted to New College. The learned Grocyn, tutor to Erasmus, and one of the revivers of classical literature in the sixteenth century, was rector of the parish.
NEWPARKS, a liberty, in the parish of Thurlaston, union of Blaby, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 6½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Leicester; containing 25 inhabitants.
NEWPORT, formerly a borough, in the parish of St. Stephen, union of Launceston, N. division of the hundred of East, E. division of Cornwall. This place, which is divided from Launceston by a small rivulet, appears to have been at one time joined with that borough in the parliamentary representation, under the name of Dunheved. It separately returned two members from the time of Edward VI., but was deprived of the privilege by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, and again incorporated with Launceston.
NEWPORT, a populous hamlet, in the parish of Bishop's-Tawton, union of Barnstaple, hundred of South Molton, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, ¼ of a mile (S. by E.) from Barnstaple. This village is beautifully situated near Barnstaple bay, of which, with the bridge of Barnstaple and the river Taw, it commands some pleasing views; it is surrounded by handsome villas and the seats of opulent families. The manufacture of lace is carried on, and a mill has been built, in which about forty persons are employed; there are also a brewery and a foundry. A chapel was erected in 1828 at an expense of £1300, a neat building containing 600 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £87; patron, the Vicar.
Newport (St. Mary)
NEWPORT (St. Mary), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Saffron-Walden, hundred of Uttlesford, N. division of Essex, 3½ miles (S. S. W.) from Saffron-Walden; containing 813 inhabitants. This manor, in the time of Edward the Confessor, belonged to Earl Harold, and afterwards, forming part of the demesnes of William the Conqueror, continued in the possession of the crown till the reign of Edward VI., when it was granted, as parcel of the duchy of Cornwall, to Richard Fermor; it shortly after passed to the family of Warren, connected by marriage with the Protector, and has since been held by other families. The parish is about three miles in length and a mile and a half in breadth, and comprises 1654 acres, of which 30 are common or waste. The village was once a town of importance, and from an early period had the privilege of a market and fairs; it contained a castle and an ancient market-cross, and at the northern extremity of the village is a spacious prison and bridewell. Here is a station of the railway from London to Cambridge. In the hamlet of Birchanger is a handsome residence, erected on the site, and incorporated with a considerable portion, of the ancient hospital of St. Leonard. Fairs are held on the Thursday in Easter-week, and the 17th of November. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown: the impropriation belongs to Mrs. Cranmer, whose tithes have been commuted for £399. 10.; the vicarial tithes produce £115, and there are 25 acres of glebe. The church, a fine structure in the later English style, has a lofty tower crowned with embattled turrets. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. A free grammar school was founded in 1586, by Joyce Frankland and William Saxie, who endowed it with property now producing an income of about £230.
NEWPORT, a village, in the parish, and Upper division of the hundred, of Berkeley, union of Thornbury, W. division of the county of Gloucester. It is a well-known posting-place on the road from Bristol to Gloucester, distant 18 miles from the former city, and 16 from the latter; and contains two good inns, besides smaller ones. There is a place of worship for Independents.
NEWPORT, a sea-port, market-town, and borough, and the head of a union, in the parish of St. Woollos, hundred of Wentlloog, division of Newport, county of Monmouth, 24 miles (S. W.) from Monmouth, and 146 (W.) from London; containing 10,815 inhabitants, of whom 8225 are in the town. This place, called by Giraldus Novus Burgus, or New Town, in contradistinction to the ancient city of Caerleon, arose out of the declining greatness of that celebrated station. Here Robert, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I., erected a castle for the defence of his possessions, denominated Castell Newydd, or New Castle: from him it descended through several noble families, till, on the execution of Edward, Duke of Buckingham, it was seized, together with the lordship, by Henry VIII. The town is pleasantly situated on the river Usk, which is navigable for vessels of large size, and crossed by an elegant stone bridge, about four miles from its junction with the Severn; there are several streets, and the town is on the mail-road from Bristol to Milford Haven. The streets are paved, and an act was passed in 1843 for the improved lighting of the town; the inhabitants are supplied with water under an act of parliament obtained in the 7th of George IV., and another act obtained for a better supply in 1846. Several new and handsome buildings evince the rapid improvement of the town. Book-clubs and a reading-room have been established; races are held in the first week in September.
Newport possesses a good haven, and, by means of its river, and a canal which communicates with it, has become a place of great trade. A harbour act was passed some years ago; and a dock, formed on a grand scale, was opened in October 1842: it is 795 feet long and 240 wide, with a depth, according to the state of the tide, of from 18 to 30 feet. The entrance lock is 220 feet long and 61 wide, with a depth of water, at spring tides, of 36 feet; when the gates are open, it is capable of admitting the largest ships in the British navy, and vessels can pass through inwards and outwards at the same time. This extensive undertaking was completed at an expense of £166,000. The number of vessels of above 50 tons registered at the port is 46, and their aggregate burthen 6612 tons. Two iron-foundries and an iron-factory have been established; and several sail-lofts have been erected on the side of the canal; also three or four large anchor and chain-cable manufactories. Five or six shipyards are in full work, and there are timber-yards in different parts of the town. The chief articles of export are, iron and coal from the counties of Monmouth and Brecknock, and tin-plate from the neighbouring districts: these, with other commodities, are shipped for Bristol, Liverpool, London, and the adjacent counties; also for Ireland, France, the Mediterranean, Spain, Holland, India, and America. Of iron, 185,000 tons were exported in a recent year, and of coal 600,000 tons. The imports consist of provisions and other articles of general consumption, and of very large quantities of timber from America. Two branches diverge from the canal, one of which unites with the Brecon and Abergavenny canal. The Sirhowy tramroad, for which an act was passed in 1802, connects the place with the Sirhowy and Tredegar iron-works: it is twenty-eight miles in length, joins the Rumney line of similar construction, and has likewise a branch diverging from it to Trevile. In 1845, an act was passed for a railway to Pont-y-Pool, and another act authorising the construction of the great South Wales line, to run past Newport. The markets are on Wednesday and Saturday; and a market for the sale of cattle and sheep is held on the third Monday in every month. Fairs are held in the principal streets (there being no cattle-market), on Ascension-day, April 30th, Sept. 19th, and Nov. 6th, for cattle of all kinds. A large pleasure-fair, called Stow fair, is held every WhitThursday.
The first charter bestowed upon the inhabitants, appears to have been granted by Edward II., and confirmed by Queen Elizabeth; another was obtained in the 21st of James I. The government is now vested in a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, which also divided the borough into two wards, and made the municipal boundaries co-extensive with those for parliamentary purposes: the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, with two others. The freedom is obtained by apprenticeship. Newport returns one member to parliament, conjointly with Monmouth and Usk: in 1832 a district was added to the borough, the limits of which now comprise by estimation 1007 acres; the old borough contained only 252 acres. The mayor of Monmouth is the returning officer at elections, but the mayor of Newport sits as his deputy in this town. The borough court has been lately revived, and is now regularly held: petty-sessions take place every Monday and Thursday before the borough magistrates. The powers of the county debt-court of Newport, established in 1847, extend over nearly the whole of the registration-district of Newport. The burgesses are entitled to £90 per annum, the produce of a piece of land called the Marshes.
The parochial church of St. Woollos, situated at the outskirts of the town, exhibits specimens of various styles of architecture; the nave is Norman, and is entered by a fine arch of that style. The tower is said to have been built by Henry III., as a reward for the successful resistance of the inhabitants to Simon Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and was formerly ornamented with the statue of that monarch, part of which is still preserved. A mariners' church has been built on the side of the canal; and in Commercial-street is a district church dedicated to St. Paul, a handsome structure containing 1600 sittings, half of which are free: net income of the incumbent, £150; patron, the Bishop of Llandaff. Here are also places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans; and a Roman Catholic chapel. The union of Newport comprises 40 parishes or places, of which 38 are in the county of Monmouth, and 2 in that of Glamorgan, South Wales, the whole containing a population of 33,051. The only vestiges of the ancient castle, now converted into a large brewery, are the external walls and three strong towers.
Newport (St. Nicholas)
NEWPORT (St. Nicholas), an incorporated markettown, a parish, and the head of a union, in the Newport division of the hundred of South Bradford, N. division of Salop, 19 miles (E. N. E.) from Shrewsbury, and 139 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 2497 inhabitants. This town is situated near the line of the Roman Watling-street, on the north-east border of the county, and contains some respectable dwelling-houses: it sustained a loss, estimated at £30,000, from a fire in the year 1665. The inhabitants are supplied with water from large cisterns, filled from a neighbouring spring. In the vicinity are mines of coal and iron, and quarries of limestone; and a branch canal, which connects the Birmingham and Liverpool with the Shrewsbury canal, passes a little to the north of the town. The market is on Saturday; and fairs are held on the first Tuesday in February, the Saturday before Palm-Sunday, on May 28th, July 27th, September 25th, and December 10th, principally for live-stock. The earliest municipal privileges were granted by Henry I., whose charter was confirmed by succeeding sovereigns, until the time of Edward VI.: the corporation consists of a high steward, deputy steward, two bailiffs, and about twenty-five burgesses. Courts leet are held by the joint lords of the manor; as are also petty-sessions by the magistrates, for the Newport division of the hundred. The powers of the county debt-court of Newport, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Newport. Under the provisions of an act passed in the 4th of George III., a trust was formed for the purpose of inclosing a tract of waste land, 112 acres in extent, on which each householder had the right of pasturage for one milch cow; and the rental was directed to be appropriated to the repairs of the street, the market-hall (erected at the expense of William Adams), and the market-cross. There is also a bridge trust, formed in 1750, and having the control of funds which arise from inclosures, and are applied to general improvement.
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £275: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £180. The church originally belonged to the abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul, in Shrewsbury, and was alienated, by permission of Henry VI., to Thomas Draper and his heirs, by whom it was made collegiate, for a warden and four lay chaplains. It is principally in the ancient English style, with a square tower; the aisles were cased with brick on the outside many years since, and in 1838 the building was repaired and repewed at a cost of above £2000, by subscription and by grants from the Incorporated and Diocesan Societies. There is a place of worship for Independents; also a Roman Catholic chapel at Salters Hill. The present free grammar school was built at the expense of the above-named William Adams, a native of the place, who by indenture dated November 27th, 1656, assigned land for the support of a master and usher, the endowment of four exhibitions, the erection and endowment of four almshouses, and other purposes. The land in 1820 comprised about 883 acres, yielding an income of £957, which, by dividends on stock, was raised to £1330 per annum. The master receives a salary of £150, the usher one of £75, each of the four exhibitioners £22. 10., the resident minister £60, each of the four almspeople £19. 10., each of three boys apprenticed £18, and twenty poor persons free of the Company of Haber-dashers £3. 15. each, various incidental charges increasing the expenditure to about £815. An English school, originating in a free grammar school founded prior to the time of Edward VI., is endowed with an annual income of £49. The Town's almshouses, for four females, built in 1446 at the expense of William Glover, are endowed with £70 per annum; and various other benefactions, amounting to nearly £200 a year, are distributed amongst the poor. The union of Newport comprises 16 parishes or places, 10 of which are in the county of Salop, and 6 in that of Stafford, the whole containing a population of 14,717. Tom Brown, a witty but licentious poet of the seventeenth century, was educated at the free school.
Newport (St. Thomas à Becket)
NEWPORT (St. Thomas à Becket), a borough and market-town, in the liberty of West Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 18 miles (S. S. E.) from Southampton, and 84 (S. W.) from London; containing 4052 inhabitants. The situation of Newport, on the principal branch of the Medina river, being more advantageous for commercial purposes than that of Carisbrooke, which was once a market-town, the former place superseded the latter as the capital of the island. The town stands on a gentle ascent, and is bounded on the east by the chief branch of the river, and on the west by a small stream which unites with the main stream at the quay, whence the Medina is navigable to the Solent Sea channel at Cowes. Newport has five parallel streets crossed by three others at right angles, and several additional streets have been formed within the last thirty years; it is well paved, lighted with gas under an act of parliament, and kept in excellent order. The inhabitants are abundantly supplied with water, by means of pumps, as well as from the Carisbrooke stream. There is a small theatre; and assemblies are held occasionally. A library and newsroom called the Isle of Wight Institution, was established in 1810; monthly meetings are held during the winter, by a philosophical society, in a room adjoining the library, which also contains a museum of natural and artificial curiosities. A mechanics' institute was founded in 1825. The manufacture of thread-lace occupies a considerable number of persons, and furnishes an article for exportation; some commerce is carried on in timber, iron, and malt, and large quantities of wheat and flour are shipped. The market for corn and provisions is on Saturday, and from the central situation of the town is numerously attended; there is a cattle-market every Wednesday. Fairs are held on Whit-Monday and the two following days, and a statute-fair at Michaelmas.
The first charter was conferred about the year 1193, by Richard de Redvers, second earl of Devon; a more important grant was made by the Countess Isabella de Fortibus, in which the town is styled "The New Borough of Medina," and its burgesses are invested with all the market tolls and other privileges. Henry VII. bestowed the petty customs within all ports and creeks of the island, and the charter containing this gift was confirmed and extended by Edward VI. and Elizabeth. The borough was incorporated by James I.; and Charles I., in the 13th year of his reign, also granted a charter. The government is now vested in a mayor, 5 other aldermen, and 18 councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; the borough is divided into two wards, and the municipal and parliamentary boundaries are co-extensive. The place first returned members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I.; its privileges then ceased until the 27th of Elizabeth: the mayor is returning officer. The mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, and the total number of magistrates is 6. A court of pie-poudre takes place annually; sessions for the island occur quarterly, and a petty-session of magistrates twice every week. The powers of the county debt-court of Newport, established in 1847, extend over the whole island. The guildhall, a very handsome edifice of the Ionic order, with corresponding pillars on the west front, was erected in 1816, from a design by Mr. Nash, at an expense to the corporation of more than £10,000: the upper part comprises the hall, council-chamber, and other offices, and the base forms an excellent marketplace; in the interior is a fine portrait of the late Sir L. T. W. Holmes, Bart., by Owen, presented to the corporation by the inhabitants. There is a common gaol and house of correction for the borough, which is also a bridewell for the whole island.
Newport is ecclesiastically annexed, with Northwood, to Carisbrooke. The church is a spacious building in different styles, with an embattled tower: in the interior were interred the remains of the Princess Elizabeth, second daughter of Charles I., who died a prisoner in Carisbrooke Castle at the early age of fifteen. The burialground was first appropriated to this church in the reign of Elizabeth, in consequence of a plague, the ravages of which were so great, that the churchyard at Carisbrooke was too small to receive the dead. Churches have been erected in the suburbs, at Noda-Hill and Barton's-Village: see Carisbrooke and Barton's-Village. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians; and a Roman Catholic chapel. The free grammar school was founded in 1619, and endowed with 29 acres of land by the Earl of Southampton, then governor of the island; the endowment was augmented by subsequent benefactors, particularly by Sir Thomas Fleming, Knt., and now produces £100 per annum. In the schoolroom, the negotiations between Charles and the parliamentary commissioners were conducted, in 1648. The Blue-school was founded in 1761, for girls, and in 1764 Benjamin Cooke, Esq., devised land to it; it is otherwise supported by voluntary contributions, and the annual income is £84. An almshouse was founded pursuant to the will of Giles Kent, by Sir Richard Worsley, Bart., in 1618, for five or more aged persons; and another, established by the corporation, is inhabited by four families, each of which receives a small sum annually.
About a mile northward of the town is the house of industry, erected under an act of parliament obtained about the year 1770, and the management of which is vested in a corporation, styled "The Guardians of the Poor within the Isle of Wight." The house consists of several ranges of buildings, of sufficient magnitude for the reception and employment of about 750 persons: attached are extensive workshops, a chapel, and an infirmary. The sum borrowed for the erection was £20,000. A little towards the north-west are the Albany barracks and military hospital erected in 1798, and capable of receiving upwards of 3000 soldiers; they consist of parallel ranges of building, the principal of which is 163 feet in length. The hospital has been converted into a house of correction for juvenile offenders.
Newport-Pagnell (St. Peter and St. Paul)
NEWPORT-PAGNELL (St. Peter and St. Paul), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 4 miles (E. by N.) from Wolverton, 15 (N. E. by E.) from Buckingham, and 51 (N. W.) from London; containing 3569 inhabitants. The distinguishing addition to its name is derived from the family of Paganell, or Pagnell, to whom the manor descended from William Fitzansculf, a powerful baron who held it at the time of the Conquest. Their castle had fallen to decay previously to the time when Camden wrote. In the early part of the great civil war, Newport was garrisoned by Prince Rupert, but the garrison was withdrawn after the first battle of Newbury, in 1643, when the parliamentary troops under the Earl of Essex entered the town. Sir Samuel Luke, supposed to have been the Hudibras of Butler, was governor in 1645. Newport is pleasantly situated on a gentle eminence, and is well built, particularly the principal street. It is watered by the river Ouse, and by the river Lovett, which falls into the Ouse half a mile distant from the town; there is also a branch of the Grand Junction canal to the town from Great Linford. An elegant bridge of cast-iron, having one arch 58 feet in the span, was constructed across the Lovett, in 1810; and about the same time a very handsome stone one was erected over the Ouse: the expense of both was about £12,000. The races, which had been discontinued for forty years, were revived in 1827. The assizes for the county were occasionally held here, from the reign of Henry III. to that of Henry VI.: the petty-sessions for the three hundreds of Newport are held here on every alternate Wednesday. The powers of the county debt-court of Newport, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Newport, and the parishes of Calverton, Wolverton, and Stony-Stratford. The manufacture of bone-lace was formerly carried on in the neighbourhood to a very considerable extent, the market for its sale being on Wednesday; but of late years the trade has much declined. A grant of a market and a fair was made, or confirmed, to Roger de Somery, in 1270; and a renewal of the charter for the market, which is held on Saturday, was obtained by John de Botetort in 1333. Fairs are held on February 22nd, in March, on April 22nd, June 22nd, August 29th, October 22nd, and December 22nd.
The parish comprises 3230a. 2r. 18p. of rich arable and pasture in nearly equal portions. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £230. The tithes were commuted for land in 1806 and 1807. The church is an ancient and spacious edifice with a square tower, standing on an eminence which affords a fine view of the surrounding country: the sum of £9000 has recently been expended in repairing it. In the north aisle, the body of a man was disinterred in 1619, when it was found that the skull and other hollow bones had been filled with lead, of which that taken from the skull is preserved in the library of St. John's College, Cambridge. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. A school for girls was endowed with £10 per annum from a bequest by Dr. Lewis Atterbury, brother of the celebrated Bishop of Rochester. A Lancasterian school now called the Royal British School, and a national school, are supported by subscription. In 1280, John de Somery founded an hospital, dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, which was refounded by Anne of Denmark, queen of James I., and called Queen Anne's hospital; its revenue is about £297, appropriated to the vicar and to the maintenance of three poor men and three women. Two other hospitals, called St. Margaret's and the New hospital, were founded so early as 1240, but they have fallen to decay. John Revis, citizen and draper of London, endowed an almshouse in 1763, for four men and three women. The union of Newport-Pagnell comprises forty-five parishes or places, containing a population of 22,999. Fulk Paganell, in the reign of William Rufus, founded a convent of Cluniac monks at Tickford, adjoining the town, as a cell to the abbey of Marmontiers, in Normandy; the monastery and lands, valued at £126. 17., were given in the 17th of Henry VIII. to Cardinal Wolsey.
NEWPORT-WALLINGFEN, a township, in the parish of Eastrington, union of Howden, wapentake of Howdenshire, E. riding of York, 6 miles (W. by S.) from South Cave; containing 427 inhabitants. About half a century since this was an uncultivated morass, called Walling Fen; but a bed of clay of very superior quality having been discovered, which is dug to the depth of 30 feet from the surface, the place became noted for the manufacture of bricks, tiles, and coarse earthenware, whereby the value of the land was astonishingly increased, and a thriving village sprang up. The Market-Weighton canal passes in the vicinity. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
NEW-QUAY, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Columb Minor, union of St. Columb Major, hundred of Pyder, E. division of Cornwall. This place is situated on the shore of the Bristol Channel, and has a small harbour, which is secured by a pier, lately enlarged on account of the increasing importance of a pilchard-fishery carried on here by seven independent companies, and employing about forty boats, averaging a burthen of ten tons each. There are seven large cellars or warehouses for curing the fish, which is sent to different ports in the Mediterranean. A mine of lead is worked, though not with any great success; and stone of very superior quality, partaking of the properties of granite, is shipped at the port. A considerable village has arisen since the construction of the harbour and the establishment of a daily post; the cliffs on this part of the coast are lofty and of interesting appearance, and the beach is a firm smooth sand. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans.