A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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DALTON, a township, in the parish of Burton-In-Kendal, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, ½ a mile (S. E. by E.) from Burton-in-Kendal; containing 155 inhabitants. At the time of the Domesday survey, the manor was held by a Saxon chief named Gilmichael, and it was afterwards annexed to the manor of Burton; soon after the time of Richard I. it seems to have been granted to the family of Burton, and the lands were subsequently possessed by various families. The township comprises 2115a. 2r. 2p.; and is a rocky tract abounding in limestone, of which the high hill of Dalton Crag is almost entirely composed: there are two limekilns. Dalton Hall, formerly called Dalton Bank, is the seat of Edmund Hornby, Esq., some time M.P. for Preston; it is beautifully situated, about a mile and a half from the Burton station of the Lancaster and Carlisle railway, and commands fine views. The great tithes have been commuted for £183; the small tithes by a special act.
DALTON, a township, in the chapelry of Up Holland, parish and union of Wigan, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster; containing 483 inhabitants. Dalton was held by a thane, named Uctred, at the Domesday survey; but became the property of the lords of Manchester. In the reign of Edward III. the manor, or part of it, was held by Sir Robert de Holland, and it afterwards passed to the family of Legh. The township comprises 996 acres, whereof 500 are arable, 446 pasture, and 50 woodland. Ashurst Hall, the principal mansion, existed in 1649, and probably at an earlier period; and is a large castellated building, but now used as a farmhouse. The tithes have been commuted for £275. 15. payable to an impropriator, and £88. 15. to the rector. There is a national school. In the time of the French revolutionary war, a beacon was erected on the high hill of Ashurst, to proclaim invasion in this part, should the French attempt it; the building is of strong masonry, with the entire absence of inflammable materials.
DALTON, a township, in the parish of Newburn, union of Castle ward, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 10½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Newcastle; containing 103 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Ponteland to Stamfordham, about five miles distant from Newburn in a north-west direction. The tithes have been commuted for £11. 11. 10. payable to the vicar, and £108. 1. to the Bishop of Carlisle. A chapel of ease was built in 1836.
DALTON, a township, in the parish of Topcliffe, union of Thirsk, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 4½ miles (S.) from Thirsk; containing 327 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1150 acres of fertile land: the York and Newcastle railway passes to the east of the village, which is small and scattered. The tithes have been commuted for £29 payable to the vicar, and £155 to the Dean and Chapter of York.
Dalton, or Dalton-Travers
DALTON, or Dalton-Travers, a township, in the parish of Kirkby-Ravensworth, union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 3½ miles (S. S. E.) from Greta-Bridge; containing 283 inhabitants. It comprises about 2450 acres of land, of which a part is fertile and well wooded, and part high moorland, picturesquely broken into hill and dale. A chapel of ease was erected in 1839, by subscription, aided by a grant from the Ripon Diocesan Society. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. An annuity of £36 is paid by the wardens of Kirkby-Ravensworth hospital for the education of 36 children, and the master teaches three others for £3 per annum, bequeathed for that purpose by Thomas Buckton: a school-house has been built. Within the township is a place called Castle-Steads, where are the remains of a castra æstiva, on a slip of land above the conflux of two rivulets, near which passes the Roman Watling-street.
DALTON, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Heaton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York; containing 3906 inhabitants. This place forms the eastern suburb of the town of Huddersfield, from which it is separated by the river Colne, and has become the centre of a widely extended branch of commerce, consisting of all kinds of fancy goods for waistcoating, trowsers, gowns, &c. The township includes Mold-Green, Dalton-Green, Dalton-Fold, Bradley-Mills, and some other scattered hamlets, and comprises an area of 1242a. 1r. 7p. The tithes were commuted under an inclosure act obtained in 1799. There is a place of worship for Swedenborgians.
DALTON, a township, in the parishes of Rotherham and Thribergh, union of Rotherham, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 3 miles (E.) from Rotherham; containing 228 inhabitants. It comprises about 1400 acres of land, and includes the villages of Dalton Magna, Dalton Parva, and Dalton Brook, situated near the road between Rotherham and Thribergh, to which latter parish Dalton Parva belongs.
Dalton-In-Furness (St. Mary)
DALTON-IN-FURNESS (St. Mary), a markettown and parish, in the union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (S. W.) from Ulverston, and 265 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing, with the port of Barrow, the chapelries of Ireleth, Ramsyde, and Walney, and the townships of Yarleside and Hawcoat, 3231 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation in a dale in the lower part of the district of Furness, of which it was formerly the chief town. According to Tacitus, Agricola, when he had conquered that district, erected a fort here for its protection; and the remains of a Roman road, discovered in 1803 by some workmen, at a considerable depth from the surface, confirm the probability of Dalton having been a Roman station, though there are no other vestiges except some slight traces of the fosse by which it was surrounded. The mount whereon the fort was built, upon examination, was found to be of artificial construction: it was defended on the south and west by steep precipices, and on the east by a rampart and ditch; and a brook which flowed at the base supplied the garrison with water.
The town derived its principal importance from the erection of the magnificent Abbey of Furness, founded in 1127, by Stephen, afterwards king of England, for monks of the Cistercian order, whom he removed from Tulketh, in Amounderness, to this valley, where, obtaining valuable grants, they continued for more than four centuries. The abbots were invested with extensive privileges, and enjoyed large possessions; they held in their own right the woods, pastures, fisheries, and mills of the district, and had considerable shares in the salt-works and mines. At the Dissolution, the revenue was valued at £966. 7. 10. The abbey formed a vast pile of buildings, the character of which was more that of simple magnificence arising from their extent, than of richness and beauty resulting from their style. The body of the church, with the lower portion of the transepts, is in the Norman style; the chancel, with the additions to the transepts, is early English, and the stone of better quality. The chapels, and the vestry on the east of the transept, are of less ancient date, and, together with the chapter-house and refectory, and conveutual buildings, of more elaborate execution: the stone of these parts, with the exception of being covered with a light-coloured lichen, is as perfect as when first used. The western tower, though very massive, is of the same elegant style, and built with the same kind of stone. A large portion of the ruins was cleared from the rubbish by which their features were concealed, and protected from further injury, by the late Earl of Burlington; but there is much still unexplored. The remains occupy a considerable part of an area of 65 acres, called the Deer Park, inclosed with a stone wall, in the sequestered vale of Bekang's Gill, about a mile and a half south of the town; the approaches are strewed with memorials of the abbots, and mutilated tombs. In the reign of Edward III., a castle, in which, during peaceable times, the abbots held their secular courts, was erected in the town, probably as a place of retreat for the inhabitants, and for the protection of their property, from the frequent predatory incursions of the Scots, of whose approach numerous beacons in this part of the country were kept in constant readiness to give notice. In the reign of Henry VIII., Lambert Simnel, the pretended earl of Warwick, landed at the Pile of Fouldrey, whence he proceeded to assert his claims to the throne; and during the war in the reign of Charles I., the town and neighbourhood were the scenes of frequent engagements between the hostile parties.
DALTON is situated on the acclivity of a gradual eminence, and consists principally of one street, at the western extremity of which is the market-place; the houses, in general old, have in many instances given place to buildings of modern erection, and other improvements have been made, but the inhabitants are still indifferently supplied with water. The environs are pleasant, and favourable for the sports of the chase; the Dalton Hunt, established in 1703, has been discontinued since 1789. The trade is chiefly in malt, which is sold to a great extent; and the iron-mines in the vicinity, which have been worked for more than four centuries, produce annually many thousand tons of excellent ore. The market is on Saturday; the fairs are on April 28th, June 6th, and Oct. 23rd, the last a statute-fair. The castle, supposed to occupy a portion of the site of the fort built by Agricola, is at present appropriated to the holding of the manorial courts; it is a massive quadrilateral building of three stages, having the principal entrance on the south side, over which is a central window of three lights, surmounted by another of four lights with flowing tracery, in the decorated style. The parish comprises by computation 15,594 acres, of which about 12,344 are arable, 1549 pasture, and 1676 woodland, waste, &c.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown, in right of the duchy of Lancaster; net income, £150, with a house; impropriator, the Earl of Burlington. The church, a structure of considerable antiquity, built on the declivity of a hill within the precincts of the ancient castellum, was enlarged in 1826 by the addition of an aisle and vestry, extending the whole length of the north side, of early English character, with a porch in the centre, having an enriched Norman arch; the south side has also been restored, and the whole, with the exception of the tower, has a very handsome appearance. There are chapels at Ireleth, Barrow, and in the Island of Walney; and a chapel at Ramsyde, lately rebuilt, in the later English style. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. The free grammar school was founded in 1622, by Thomas Boulton, who bequeathed £220, whereof £20 were to be laid out in the erection of a room, and the remainder in the purchase of land; the land produces £95 per annum. Another school is endowed with £10 per annum; and there are various charitable bequests for distribution among the poor. On High Haume, an eminence near the town, is a circular intrenchment, which appears to have been a fortified beacon; and on the Pile of Fouldrey, a rocky island separated from the Isle of Walney, are the ruins of a castle, thought by Camden to have been erected in the reign of Edward III., by the abbots of Furness, to defend the approach to the harbour. George Romney, the eminent historical and portrait painter, was born in the parish, in 1734.
Dalton-Le-Dale (St. Andrew)
DALTON-LE-DALE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Easington, N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham, 11 miles (E. by N.) from Durham, and 7 (S.) from Sunderland; comprising the townships of Dalton, Dawdon, Cold-Hesleton, and East Murton; and containing 2709 inhabitants, of whom 88 are in the township of Dalton. The parish is situated on the road from Sunderland to Stockton-upon-Tees, and bounded on the east by the German Ocean. The surface is undulated, but the scenery, though enlivened with about 100 acres of plantations, is in other respects bleak and of harsh character; the soil of the arable land is fertile, and the system of agriculture improved. Coal is abundant in the vicinity, and a new mine has been opened at Murton, by the South Hetton Company, at an immense expense; limestone of good quality is quarried, and burnt into lime for manure. The village lies in a deep narrow valley, within 2 miles of the sea, and the inhabitants are employed in agriculture and in the mines and quarries. Two railways for conveying coal from the adjacent collieries to Seaham harbour pass through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 0. 7.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham, who have augmented the income to £300. The great tithes of the township of Dalton have been commuted for £70, and the small for £35; there is a vicarial glebe of 26 acres. The church is an ancient structure, in the early English style, with a Norman doorway now built up. The vicaragehouse was erected in 1841, and is a neat edifice, situated on rising ground, a little to the west of the turnpikeroad.
Dalton, North (All Saints)
DALTON, NORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Driffield, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Driffield; containing 450 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which signifies North Dale town, comprises about 3890 acres, chiefly arable land: the village is romantically situated in a deep vale in the Wolds. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of James Walker, Esq. (the impropriator), with a net income of £75. The church is an ancient edifice, having a tower of more recent date; the south door is Norman, with clustered cylindrical jambs, and the north door of the chancel, though plainer, is of the same style: in the interior is a Norman arch with zig-zag ornaments, and at the west end a beautiful pointed window. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
DALTON-PIERCY, a township, in the parish of Hart, union of Stockton-upon-Tees, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 8½ miles (N. by E.) from Stockton; containing 78 inhabitants. In 1370, Henry, Lord Percy, sold this manor to Sir John Nevile, of Raby; and it remained with the descendants of that proprietor until the forfeiture by the family, since which time the lands have been divided. In 1684 the families of Chilton, Boyes, Watson, and others, held the freeholds. The township comprises by computation 960 acres, and is situated east of the road from Stockton to Hart.
Dalton, South (St. Mary)
DALTON, SOUTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Beverley, Hunsley-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 6 miles (N. W.) from Beverley; containing 269 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1800 acres, principally arable, with a small portion of woodland; the soil is partly clay and partly chalk, the surface generally level, and the scenery in many situations highly picturesque. Dalton Hall, the seat of Lord Hotham, is a noble mansion. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12; net income, £328; patron, Lord Hotham. Under an inclosure act in 1822, the tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents; the glebe consists of 35 acres. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower, and contains a handsome monument to Sir John Hotham. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
DALTON-UPON-TEES, a township, in the parish of Croft, union of Darlington, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York, 5 miles (S.) from Darlington; containing 219 inhabitants. It is situated south of the Tees, on the road from Great Smeaton to Croft; and comprises by computation 1440 acres of land: the Dean and Chapter of York are lords of the manor. The York and Newcastle railway passes to the east of the village.
DALWOOD, a chapelry, in the parish of Stockland, union and hundred of Axminster, S. division of Devon, 3¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Axminster; containing 513 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. Peter. The great tithes have been commuted for £230, and the vicarial for £140. A fair is held on the Wednesday after Aug. 24th.
Damerham, South (St. George)
DAMERHAM, SOUTH (St. George), a parish, in the union of Fordingbridge, S. division of the hundred of Damerham, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Fordingbridge; containing 728 inhabitants. It is situated on the road to Shaftesbury, and comprises by computation 5000 acres. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £25. 10. 5.; net income, £383; patron, the Earl of Chichester: the glebe comprises 97 acres. The church is an ancient structure, in the early and later English styles. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents.
Danbury (St. John the Baptist)
DANBURY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford, S. division of Essex, 5½ miles (E. by S.) from Chelmsford; containing, with the hamlet of Runsell, and part of that of Bicknacre, 1189 inhabitants. The name is contracted from Danesbury, signifying the town or castle of the Danes. On the summit of Danbury Hill is an ancient encampment, about 680 yards in circumference; the glacis-on the south side is still nearly 30 feet deep, and the lines may be distinctly traced on the other sides. The parish comprises 2624 acres, of which 300 are common or waste: it occupies an elevated situation, commanding fine views, and the general scenery is varied; the soil, though in some parts light and gravelly, is in others of the richest quality. An estate partly in this parish and partly in the parish of Sandon has just been purchased for the residence of the Bishop of Rochester, in lieu of the palace at Bromley, Kent, which is not now within the limits of the see: the cost was £24,700. A fair is held on the 29th of May. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20, and in the gift of Sir B. W. Bridges, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £569, and the glebe contains 22 acres, with a glebe-house. In 1402, the body of the church, and part of the chancel, were destroyed by lightning; and in Feb. 1750, the upper part of the spire was struck down by a like cause. The interior contains many ancient and interesting monuments, and in the walls are several niches, in two of which are effigies of Knights Templars, curiously carved in wood. From the summit of the tower is a remarkably fine panoramic view. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
DANBY, a parish, in the union of Guisborough, E. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 9½ miles (S. E.) from Guisborough; containing 1273 inhabitants. This place, which was formerly of considerable importance, was granted by the Conqueror to Robert de Brus, who held of the king in capite, and who built a castle here; which, with the estate, remained with the family till the time of Henry III. The parish forms part of the district called Cleveland, and comprises by computation 13,860 acres, of which about 400 are woodland: a large tract consists of high moors, and waste; and it includes the romantic dales of Great and Little Fryup, and the hamlets of Ainthorpe and Castleton, at the former of which an ancient stone bridge crosses the river Esk. The general appearance of the parish is rather barren, though much has been effected in the way of improvement; the vale produces good crops, and numerous flocks of sheep are pastured upon the common lands. Coal-mines are wrought, and there are several fine freestone-quarries. An act was passed in 1846, for extending the Whitby and Pickering railway to Castleton, a distance of 10½ miles. A market is held every Friday in that hamlet. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Viscount Downe, lord of the manor, and has a net income of £96: the church is a plain structure built about fifty years since, by a parish rate. There are three places of worship for Wesleyans, and one for the Society of Friends; and of several schools, two have small endowments. On a neighbouring hill are the ruins of Danby Castle, an edifice of uncertain antiquity, though supposed to be that built by Robert de Brus; and on the moors are a number of tumuli.
DANBY-WISKE, a parish, in the union of Northallerton, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Yafforth, 546 inhabitants, of whom 368 are in the township of Danby-Wiske, 4 miles (N. W.) from Northallerton. The township comprises by computation 3247a. 2r.: the village is pleasantly situated on the western bank of the river Wiske; and the York and Newcastle railway passes within a quarter of a mile. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 3. 11½., and in the patronage of the Rev. Edwards Cust, incumbent, with a net income of £450: the glebe consists of 202 acres. The church is an ancient fabric, with a tower at the west end. At Yafforth is a chapel of ease.
DANE-BRIDGE, an ecclesiastical parish, partly in the parish of Davenham, and partly in the parochial chapelry of Witton, parish of Great Budworth, union and hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 1 mile (S.) from Northwich; containing about 2300 inhabitants, of whom 1400 are in the Davenham portion. This place is about seven furlongs in length and two in width; and with the exception of a few acres, the whole is built upon: the river Weaver forms a boundary on the west, and the Dane river on the east; and the road from Northwich to Middlewich passes through. The surrounding country is very beautiful, and studded with the handsome seats of various noblemen and gentlemen. The manufacture of salt is carried on. Dane-Bridge was constituted a district in April, 1846, and a parish in 1847, under the act of 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Chester, alternately; net income, £150. The church, which was built in the latter year, at a cost of between £2000 and £3000, is in the decorated style, and contains 600 sittings. There are places of worship for Calvinists, Ranters, and Wesleyans.
DANTHORPE, a township, in the parish of Humbleton, union of Skirlaugh, Middle division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 10½ miles (E. N. E) from Hull; containing 43 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book called Danetorp, was at an early period the property of a family of the same name; the Wrights and Thorps afterwards possessed it, and in 1753 it passed to the Countess of Coventry. St. John's College, Cambridge, has an estate of above 100 acres. The entire township comprises about 720 acres.
Darenth (St. Margaret)
DARENTH (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Dartford, hundred of Axton, Dartford, and Wilmington, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 2 miles (S. E. by S.) from Dartford; containing, with part of the hamlet of South Darenth, 698 inhabitants. The parish derives its name from the river Darent, on which it is situated. It comprises 2188 acres, of which about 350 are woodland, and 57 common or waste; the soil has mostly a substratum of chalk, but in some parts is of a gravelly quality. The Darent abounds with trout, and in its course through the parish contributes variety to the scenery, which embraces many romantic features. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 18. 11½.; net income, £339; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Rochester. The church is principally in the early English style, and possesses several interesting specimens of the period of its erection, particularly the font, which has attracted much attention. There are vestiges of various tumuli, or barrows; also some remains of the monastery of St. Margaret, founded by the Prior of Rochester, to whom the manor was given by Archbishop Hubert, in 1195.
DARENTH, SOUTH, a hamlet, in the parishes of Darenth and Horton-Kirby, union of Dartford, hundred of Axton, Dartford, and Wilmington, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent; containing 195 inhabitants.
DARESBURY, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Runcorn, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester; containing 2162 inhabitants, of whom 184 are in the township of Daresbury, 5½ miles (N.E.) from Frodsham. The chapelry consists of the townships of Acton-Grange, Daresbury, Hatton, Kekewick, Moore, Newton-by-Daresbury, Preston-on-the-Hill, and Walton Superior. The area of the township of Daresbury is 531 acres; the soil is sandy. The road from Chester to Warrington, and the Liverpool and Birmingham railway pass through the chapelry, which has the advantage, also, of canal communication. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £175; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The chapel, dedicated to All Saints, is said to have been founded in the 11th century; it is a neat and commodious edifice, and is distant about three miles from the parish church; the parsonage is in Newtonby-Daresbury township. A school, founded in the reign of Elizabeth, is endowed with land purchased by aid of several benefactions, and subsequently exchanged for other land, of the yearly value of £40.
Darfield (All Saints)
DARFIELD (All Saints), a parish, partly in the wapentake of Staincross, and partly in the N. division of that of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York; comprising the chapelry of Worsbrough, and the townships of Ardsley, Billingley, Darfield, Great and Little Houghton, and Wombwell; and containing 7519 inhabitants, of whom 648 are in the township of Darfield, 5¼ miles (E. by S.) from Barnsley. This parish, which comprises by computation 11,860 acres, is mainly situated on the river Dearne, and on the road from Barnsley to Doncaster. At Worsbrough are establishments for smelting iron-ore, and some foundries for castings of various kinds, also a glass manufactory; and on the banks of the Dearne and the Dove, which both intersect the parish, are large corn-mills. The linen manufacture is carried on to some extent, and handloom weaving affords employment to several of the inhabitants. The celebrated quarry called the Oaks, and the quarry at Darfield, produce stone of excellent quality for building, and likewise a stone of which much is made into grindstones for the Sheffield manufacturers of cutlery. Facility of conveyance is afforded by the Dearne and Dove canal and the Midland railway, on which last is a station. The village is well built, and situated on a lofty eminence between the Dearne and one of its tributary streams. The living comprises moieties; the first a clerical rectory, valued in the king's books at £53. 1. 8., and in the patronage of the Rev. H. Bowen Cooke; and the second a discharged vicarage, valued at £14. 11. 7., and in the patronage of Trinity College, Cambridge, the impropriators. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £1299. 17. 5., and the rectorial for £1291. 9. 5.; the impropriate glebe contains 27½ acres, and the rectorial 55½, and there are also 45 acres of glebe attached to the vicarage. The rector and vicar officiate alternately: the income of the latter is £200. The church, situated on an eminence, is an ancient structure in the early and decorated English styles, with a square embattled tower, and contains many elegant details and numerous monuments. A chapel at Houghton is licensed by the archbishop, and divine service is regularly performed there by the rector and vicar alternately. The chapel of ease at Wombwell has been considerably enlarged; the chapel at Worsbrough has been rebuilt, and a new church, parsonage-house, and schoolroom have been erected at Ardsley. There are places of worship for dissenters.—See the articles on Worsbrough, Ardsley, &c.