A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Tunstead (St. Mary)
TUNSTEAD (St. Mary), a parish, in the Tunstead and Happing incorporation, hundred of Tunstead, E. division of Norfolk, 3¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Coltishall; containing 488 inhabitants. It comprises 2261a. 1r. 2p., of which 2155 acres are arable, 70 pasture, and 20 wood. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of South Ruston annexed, valued in the king's books at £18. 9. 7.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. T. Mack, who is joint impropriator, with R. Johnson, Esq. The great tithes not held by the landowners have been commuted for £355, and the vicarial tithes for £284; the glebe contains 6 acres. The church is chiefly in the decorated style, with a square embattled tower; on the south side of the chancel are three stone seats with highly decorated canopies, and also a piscina. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
TUNSTEAD, an ecclesiastical district, in the union of Haslingden, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 8 miles (N. N. W.) from Rochdale, on the road to Haslingden; containing about 2700 inhabitants. This was anciently a booth or vaccary in the Forest of Rossendale. The district consists of the whole of Tunstead Booth and a small portion of Bacup Booth, and forms a fine vale rising on each side to high moorland: the soil, generally, is clay. The river Irwell, and a branch of the EastLancashire railway, pass through. The population is chiefly employed in two cotton-mills, three woollen-mills, a foundry, in the large collieries in the vicinity, and in several stone-quarries. Heath-Hill here, a mansion of stone, situated on an eminence, is the seat of Robert Munn, Esq. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Trustees; net income, £110. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was built in 1840, at a cost of £1800, and has a tower. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Baptists; also an excellent national school.
Tunworth (All Saints)
TUNWORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Basingstoke, Basingstoke and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S. E.) from Basingstoke; containing 124 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 1045 acres, of which 548 are arable, 200 down, 160 meadow and pasture, and 137 woodland: the earth rests upon chalk. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 18. 9., and in the gift of G. P. Jervoise, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £175; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 40 acres.
TUPHOLME, a parish, in the union of Horncastle, W. division of the wapentake of Wraggoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (S.) fromWragby; containing 74 inhabitants. It comprises 1795 acres, of which 487 are arable, 1011 meadow and pasture, and 297 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £2. 10. 10.; net income, £89; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Lincoln. An abbey of Præmonstratensian canons, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was founded here in the time of Henry II., by Allan and Gilbert de Nevill, and at the Dissolution possessed a revenue of £119. 2. 8.
TUPSLEY, a township, in the parish of BishopHampton, hundred of Grimsworth, union and county of Hereford, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from Hereford; containing 556 inhabitants. It comprises, with an extraparochial place of 8 acres, 1401 acres, of which 473 are arable, and the remainder meadow and garden.
Turkdean (All Saints)
TURKDEAN (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Northleach, hundred of Bradley, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Northleach; containing 246 inhabitants. It comprises about 2100 acres; the soil is light, and the surface boldly undulated. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £208; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The tithes were commuted for land and annual money payments in 1792; the glebe contains 180 acres.
Turnastone (St. Mary)
TURNASTONE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Dore, hundred of Webtree, county of Hereford, 11 miles (W. by S.) from Hereford; containing 76 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Dore, near the Hay and Hereford road; and comprises 550 acres, a large portion of which is woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £2. 14. 2., and in the patronage of Lady Boughton: the tithes have been commuted for £73, and the glebe comprises 5½ acres. The church is in the Norman style of architecture.
TURNDITCH, a chapelry, in the parish of Duffield, union of Belper, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Belper; containing 405 inhabitants. It comprises 1007 acres, partly clay and partly a sandy soil; with an undulated surface, and very picturesque scenery: there are some well-built farmhouses and neat cottages. The chapel, built in 1631, is a small structure, dedicated to All Saints. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £63; patron, the Vicar of Duffield; impropriator, Lord Beauchamp. Here are places of worship for Baptists and Primitive Methodists.
Turners-Puddle (Holy Trinity)
TURNERS-PUDDLE (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, hundred of Hundredsbarrow, Wareham division of Dorset, 7½ miles (N. W.) from Wareham; containing 122 inhabitants The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 4., and in the gift of J. Frampton, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £168, and the glebe comprises 3½ acres. The church was partly blown down in 1758 and rebuilt in 1759.
TURNHAM-GREEN, a hamlet, in the parish of Chiswick, union of Brentford, Kensington division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 5 miles (W. by S.) from London. The great western road passes through. The village contains many handsome houses occupied by genteel families; it is lighted with gas, and supplied with water from the West London water-works. On the south side is the Horticultural Society's garden, the principal entrance to which is from the green here. A cruciform church in the early English style, with a handsome tower surmounted by a lofty spire, has lately been erected; it is a district church, and dedicated to Christ. The living is in the gift of the Bishop of London.
Turnworth (St. Mary)
TURNWORTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Blandford, hundred of Cranborne, Blandford division of Dorset, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Blandford; containing 89 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1560a. 1r. 39p., of which 528 acres are arable, 805 pasture, 95 woodland, 17 orchard and garden, and 88 waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 12. 3., and in the gift of the Bishop of Salisbury: the tithes have been commuted for £125, and the glebe contains 25 acres.
TURTON, a township and chapelry, in the parish and union of Bolton, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 4½ miles (N.) from Bolton, on the road to Blackburn; the township containing 3577 inhabitants. This is a highly interesting locality, abounding in romantic scenery, and remarkable for its antiquity, its traditionary legends, and as being a seat of active industry. The chapelry includes the townships of Edgeworth, Entwisle, Quarlton, and part of Bradshaw. The township of Turton contains 4471 acres of land, mostly pasture and meadow; the soil is of various quality, and there are several coal-mines and stone-quarries. The Eagley, a rivulet tributary to the Irwell, separates the chapelry on the west from Sharpies, and on the east side of Turton township is another rivulet, called Bradshaw brook, over which the Blackburn, Darwen, and Bolton railway has a splendid viaduct. A Roman road also passes through. Among the extensive manufactories are the Eagley Mills, first established for carding cotton about 1790, at which time nearly all the cotton used in the neighbourhood was carded at these mills; they are now the property of Messrs. John Chadwick and Brothers, and employ about 750 hands in manufacturing small wares. The New Eagley Mill, belonging to Messrs. Henry and Edmund Ash worth, erected in 1803, and subsequently enlarged, is for cotton-spinning and power-loom weaving; it is worked by a large water-wheel and two steam-engines, and affords employment to about 370 hands. The Egerton mill, the property of the same firm, is also for spinning cotton, and has a water-wheel sixty feet in diameter and twelve feet broad, an object of curiosity and interest from its magnitude and the superiority of its construction: in this mill about 500 hands are employed. The Egerton dye-works form part of the same premises, and give employment to about 120 persons in addition. At Dunscar (which see) are the old established bleaching-works of Messrs. George and James Slater; and there are other works, of a minor character, in the chapelry. Fairs for cattle, horses, &c, are held at Chapel-Town on September 4th and 5th. Turton Tower, an embattled structure four stories high, the residence in succession of the Orrell, the Chetham, and the Green families, is now the seat of James Turton, Esq. The Oaks, surrounded by plantations, is the property and residence of Henry Ashworth, Esq.; Egerton Hall is the seat of his brother, Edmund Ashworth, Esq., and Dunscar that of James Slater, Esq. All these houses command fine views of the country.
For ecclesiastical purposes the chapelry is divided into two districts. At Chapel-Town is the church of St. Ann, rebuilt in 1841 at a cost of £2500; it is in the early English style, with a square tower surmounted by a graceful spire: the eastern window is of stained glass. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £155, with a glebe-house; patron, G. M. Hoare, Esq. Christ Church, at Walmsley, close by the Blackburn road, was built in 1839, in lieu of an ancient chapel, at a cost of £3500; it is also in the early English style, with a tower and pinnacles. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £70, and a house; patron, the Vicar of Bolton. A school was endowed in 1746 by Humphrey Chetham, of Turton Tower; and another, endowed by Abigail Chetham, has property producing £30 per annum: Humphrey Chetham was founder of Chetham College, Manchester, and twelve poor boys from Turton are regularly received and educated at that institution. This munificent benefactor also left the rental of a small farm, called Goose-Coat Hill, for distribution in linen or other clothing among aged and necessitous persons belonging to the township, not receiving parochial relief. In Christ-Church district is a national school. On the Roman road are the remains of a Druidical temple, and the copper head of an old British standard has been found here.
Turvey (All Saints)
TURVEY (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Willey, union and county of Bedford, 4 miles (E.) from Olney; containing 960 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Ouse (which here separates the county from that of Buckingham), and is situated on the road from Northampton to Bedford. It comprises by admeasurement 3960 acres, of which about half are under tillage, and the remainder pasture and woodland. In the parish are quarries of limestone and of stone for building. Most of the females are engaged in lace-making. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £l6; patron, T. C. Higgins, Esq.; appropriator, the Bishop of Ely: the appropriate tithes have been commuted for £253, and the incumbent's for £458. 9. The church contains portions in various styles, and has several fine monuments to the noble family of Mordaunt; the remains of the celebrated Earl of Peterborough are deposited in the family vault. The glebe-house was lately rebuilt in the Elizabethan style. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. A national school has an endowment of £40 per annum, and an infant school is supported by subscription. The ancient mansion called Turvey Abbey, situated here, was formerly a convent, dependent on the abbey of St. Neot's, Huntingdonshire: the moats and foundations of Turvey Hall, the residence of the lords Peterborough, are still visible. The Rev. Legh Richmond, author of the 'Annals of the Poor,' the Dairyman's Daughter, &c., was rector from 1805 till his death in May 1828. The parish confers the title of Baron on the Duke of Bedford.
Turville (St. Mary)
TURVILLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wycombe, hundred of Desborough, county of Buckingham, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) from Marlow; containing 476 inhabitants, several of whom are employed in lace-making. The parish comprises 2275 acres, of which 120 are common or waste land. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 9. 9½.; present income, under commutation, £90, with 40 acres of glebe; patron, Joseph Bailey, Esq.; impropriators, the landed proprietors. The celebrated French general, Dumourier, resided at this place during the last two or three years of his life, and died here.
Turweston (St. Mary)
TURWESTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Brackley, hundred and county of Buckingham, ½ a mile (E.) from Brackley; containing 361 inhabitants. Before the reign of Edward I. the manor belonged successively to the families of Fulgeres, Stovill, and Baynell. Having then escheated to the crown, it was given to the monks of Westminster, and after the Reformation formed a part of the endowment of the Dean and Chapter. The parish lies on the borders of Northamptonshire, and comprises about 1150 acres, the chief part of which is arable; the soil is clayey, with a substratum of limestone. The river Ouse rises in the vicinity. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 16. 3.; net income, £300; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1813.
Turwick, county of Sussex.—See Terwick.
Tushingham, with Grindley
TUSHINGHAM, with Grindley, a township, in the parish of Malpas, union of Nantwich, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 3½ miles (E. S. E.) from Malpas; containing 320 inhabitants. It comprises 1288 acres, of strong land, with peat. The tithes have been commuted for £120.—See Chad, St.
TUSMORE, a parish, in the union of Bicester, hundred of Ploughley, county of Oxford, 6 miles (N. by W.) from Bicester; containing 19 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 5.; net income, £15; patrons, the Trustees of Mrs. Ramsay. The church has been destroyed.
Tutbury (St. Mary)
TUTBURY (St. Mary), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Burton-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 4¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Burton; containing 1835 inhabitants. On the division of lands after the Conquest, Tutbury, anciently Tuttesbury, was included in the domain allotted to Henry de Ferrers, a Norman nobleman, who rebuilt and enlarged the castle of this place. His descendant Robert, joining the Earl of Leicester in rebellion against Henry III., was fined £50,000, and being unable to pay so large a sum, forfeited the castle to the king, who granted it to his son, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster. After the attainder of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, who, with the Earl of Hereford, had attempted the dethronement of Edward II., this fortress was suffered to fall to ruin, and so remained till the year 1350, when John of Gaunt, becoming its possessor, rebuilt the greater part of it, with the gatehouse, and surrounded it on three sides by a wall, the precipitous declivity on the fourth rendering further security unnecessary. Mary, Queen of Scots, was for some time imprisoned here. At the commencement of the civil war it was garrisoned for the king, but was surrendered to the parliament in April 1646, and by its order nearly demolished in July the following year. The ruins, however, are still sufficient to indicate its former extent and magnificence, and exhibit good specimens of the early and later English styles. On the declivity of the commanding eminence upon which the castle stood, a Benedictine priory in honour of the Blessed Virgin was established in 1080 by Henry de Ferrers, which, though a cell to the abbey of St. Peter super Divam, in Normandy, survived till the general Dissolution, when its revenue was £242. 15. 3.
The town occupies a finely wooded elevation on the west bank of the Dove, which is crossed by a stone bridge of five arches, built in 1815-16, a little lower down the river than a former one, of the date of Henry VI. It was at a very early period erected into a free borough, and possessed many valuable privileges. On a branch of the river are some corn and cotton mills, and there is also a considerable cut-glass manufactory in the town: the country between Tutbury and Needwood Forest abounds with gypsum, used for agricultural and architectural purposes. Fairs for horses and cattle are held on Feb. 14th, Aug. 15th, and Dec. 1st. The manor of Tutbury belongs to the crown, in right of the duchy of Lancaster: the jurisdiction of the honour extends over a great portion of Staffordshire, and into several of the neighbouring counties, and in Her Majesty's name, a court leet is held here once a year, at Michaelmas; also a court of pleas every third Tuesday, for all debts under 40s. contracted within the honour. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7; patron, the Vicar of Bakewell; impropriator, John Spencer Stone, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £400. 10., and the vicarial for £37; there is a small parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 83¼ acres. The church, which was annexed to the priory, is a fine specimen of the Norman style, and was enlarged and greatly improved in 1829, at an expense of nearly £2000, whereof £250 were contributed by the Incorporated Society. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Independents, and Primitive Methodists. A free school was founded by Richard Wakefield, who, about 1730, endowed it with lands producing about £40 per annum; the school-house was rebuilt in 1789. The same person, by his will in 1773, devised land and tithes now producing about £450, to trustees, for charitable uses.
In 1831, some workmen, while digging a quantity of gravel out of the bed of the river, discovered, thirty yards below the bridge, and from four to five feet under the surface of the gravel, about 100,000 valuable coins, chiefly sterlings of the empire of Brabant, Lorraine, and Hainault. Among them were several Scottish coins of Alexander III., John Balliol, and Robert Bruce; coins of Edward I., Henry III., and Edward II.; specimens of all the prelatical coins of the reigns of Edward I. and II.; of Beck, Keller, and Beaumont, bishops of Durham; some others, supposed to have been struck by the abbot of Bury St. Edmund's, bearing the inscription "Rob. de Hadley;" and a few of the archiepiscopal see of York. These coins were the contents of the military chest of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, deposited at Tutbury Castle previously to his retreat from that place, before the army of Edward II., to his castle of Pontefract, in the county of York; and which, with baggage entrusted to his treasurer, was lost in the river Dove, on his attempting to cross it at high flood, in the darkness of the night and with a panic-struck guard. Among the curious customs that formerly prevailed here, was a minstrel fête given by the Duke of Lancaster on Assumption-day, to which all the itinerant musicians of the neighbourhood were invited. There was also a sport called "Bullrunning," which consisted in chasing a bull with a soaped tail; if caught in the county, he was conducted to the market-place and there baited, otherwise he remained the property of the Duke of Devonshire, who held the priory on condition of furnishing a bull annually for the purpose. Ann Moore, who professed the ability to live without food, resided here during the period of her imposture.
Tutnal, with Cobley
TUTNAL, with Cobley, a township, in the parish of Tardebigg, union of Bromsgrove, Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Bromsgrove and E. divisions of Worcestershire, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from Bromsgrove; containing 533 inhabitants, and comprising 3347 acres. The Worcester and Birmingham canal passes through the township.
Tuttington (St. Peter and St. Paul)
TUTTINGTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of South Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (E.) from Aylsham; containing 227 inhabitants. It comprises 813a. 3r. 21p., about one-fifth of which consists of meadow, waste, and woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 0. 7½., and in the gift of the Bishop of Ely: the great tithes have been commuted for £200, and the vicarial for £102. 10.; the glebe contains nearly 16 acres.
Tuxford (St. Nicholas)
TUXFORD (St. Nicholas), a market-town and parish, in the union of East Retford, South-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 30 miles (N. E. by N.) from Nottingham, and 139 (N. by W.) from London, on the great north road; containing 1079 inhabitants. This place, often denominated Tuxford-in-the-Clay, is a small town of modern appearance, having been rebuilt since 1702, when the old village was destroyed by fire. The trade in hops is somewhat extensive, large quantities being grown in the neighbourhood. The market is on Monday; and fairs are held on May 12th, for cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry, and on Sept. 25th, for hops. The parish comprises 2913 acres by admeasurement. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 14. 7.; net income, £260; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The tithes were partly exchanged for land and a money payment in 1799, and under the recent act a commutation has taken place for a rent-charge of £236. 12.; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe consists of nearly 104 acres. The church contains portions in various styles. Here are places of worship for Wesleyans and Independents; also a free school founded in 1670 by Charles Read, who bequeathed £200 for the erection of the building, and endowed it with lands now producing £40 per annum.