A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Tweedmouth (St. Bartholomew)
TWEEDMOUTH (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, Islandshire, N. division of Northumberland; adjoining Berwick, and containing, with the townships of Ord and Spittle, 5202 inhabitants, of whom 2574 are in the township of Tweedmouth. In 1203, King John made an attempt to fortify the town of Tweedmouth, but his progress was twice interrupted by the Scots, and during the occupation of Berwick by William the Lion, the works were entirely demolished. The town or village, which is situated on the south bank of the river Tweed, forms a handsome suburb to the borough of Berwick, with which it is connected by an elegant bridge. The inhabitants of the parish are chiefly employed in agriculture and fishing; in the town are two extensive foundries, a yard for boatbuilding, a brewery, a millwright's establishment, and a mill for crushing bones for manure. The Edinburgh and Newcastle railway, completing the communication with London, passes through the village; and from the abundance of coal, limestone, and stone for building, in the neighbourhood, with facilities of conveyance, and the command of a good harbour, there is every prospect of a great increase in the manufacturing and commercial importance of the place. A part of the parish is included within the boundaries of Berwick; petty-sessions for this portion of Tweedmouth are held every Friday, and for that part of it within the county on the first Wednesday in every month. The parish comprises 4520 acres, chiefly arable. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The church, formerly a chapel of ease to Holy Island, was rebuilt in 1783. There are two places of worship for Presbyterians; and a national school, erected in 1825. An ancient hospital existed here, near the site of which is a slightly impregnated mineral spring; and in the neighbourhood of Ord are vestiges of a British intrenchment, close to which fragments of military weapons have been found.
TWEMLOW, a township, in the parish of Sandbach, union of Congleton, hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 5¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Middlewich; containing 241 inhabitants. The township comprises 877 acres, the soil of which is partly sand and partly clay. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £69, and the impropriate for £36. 12
Twickenham (St. Mary)
TWICKENHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Brentford, hundred of Isleworth, county of Middlesex, 9 miles (W. S. W.) from London, on the road through Isleworth to Hampton Court; containing 5208 inhabitants. The name of this place, formerly written Twicknam, is said to refer to its position on two brooks that flow into the river Thames, one at each end of the village. Twickenham is deservedly admired for the beauty of its scenery, enlivened by the windings of the Thames, and embellished with handsome seats and tasteful villas; and has been the favourite retreat of the statesman and the poet. At the southern extremity of the village, fronted by a lawn sloping to the stream, was Pope's villa; and towards the north, in a delightful situation on the river, is the mansion that was occupied by Louis Philippe, late King of the French, when Duke of Orleans. Strawberry Hill, formerly the residence of Horace Walpole, is also an interesting object as seen from the river, in the middle of which, nearly opposite to the church, is an island called Twickenham Ait. This island comprises about eight acres, chiefly pleasure-grounds, and in the centre is the Eel-Pie House, noted for the last two centuries as a favourite resort for refreshment and recreation to water parties, and persons repairing hither for the amusement of fishing; the old building was taken down in 1830, and a commodious edifice, comprising a good assembly-room measuring 50 feet by 15, erected on the site. There are powder and oil mills in the parish. Fairs are held annually on Holy-Thursday and August 9th and 10th.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11; net income, £717; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Windsor; impropriator, H. Pownall, Esq. The church, mostly rebuilt in 1714, is a plain structure of brick ornamented with stone, of the Doric order, with an ancient embattled tower of the 11th century: in the interior is a monument to the memory of Pope, erected by Bishop Warburton; and another to Mrs. Clive, the actress. Midway between Twickenham and Richmond is Montpelier chapel, erected about 1721, and in the gift of the Rev. Dr. Parish. A district church on the common, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and in the patronage of the Bishop of London, of which the first stone was laid August 31st, 1840, was consecrated in July, 1841; it was built and endowed by subscription, and is in the early English style, an interesting specimen of a village church. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; also a national school formed in 1809, by the union of three schools, and the appropriation of some endowments belonging to them, amounting to £133 per annum. Six boys and one girl of this parish are eligible for instruction and apprenticeship, or to be put to service, on the foundation of John and Frances West, who conveyed estates in trust to the Governors of Christ's Hospital for that purpose; £20 being paid with each boy, and £5 with each girl.
TWIGMOOR, a hamlet, in the parish of Manton, union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5½ miles (W.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing 45 inhabitants.
TWIGWORTH, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Catherine, Gloucester, Upper division of the hundred of Dudstone and King's-Barton, union, and E. division of the county, of Gloucester, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Gloucester; containing 136 inhabitants, and comprising 400 acres.
Twineham (St. Peter)
TWINEHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Cuckfield, hundred of Buttinghill, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 5 miles (S. W.) from Cuckfield; containing 358 inhabitants. The road from London to Brighton, by way of Hickstead, runs through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 15. 5., and in the gift of Sir C. F. Goring, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £400; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 3 acres.
Twining, or Twyning (St. Mary Magdalene)
TWINING, or Twyning (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Tewkesbury, Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, though locally in the Lower division of that of Tewkesbury, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2 miles (N. by E.) from Tewkesbury; containing 970 inhabitants. The parish is situated between the rivers Severn and Avon, by the latter of which it is separated from Worcestershire. It comprises 3061 acres, whereof 750 are arable, 1888 pasture, 53 wood, and 390 common or waste; the surface is hilly, the soil generally of excellent quality, and the beauty of the scenery is increased by the luxuriance of numerous trees, and the rich appearance of the meadow land. The Worcester and Gloucester road runs through the parish, near the northern boundary; and over the Avon is a ferry. At one period, large quantities of stockings were woven by the inhabitants; but only a few looms are now employed. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 9. 7.; net income, £127; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £945. There is neither glebe-house nor glebe-land; a former vicarial residence, and about half an acre of land, are now let out to cottagers; but the patrons have assigned four acres near the church as glebe, upon the termination of the present tenant's lease. The church exhibits portions in the Norman style, including the porch and doors, which are much admired; the tower also is very fine, and there are some handsome monuments, chiefly of the Handcock family, who were lords of the manor: the extreme length of the edifice, however, detracts much from its beauty. A national school is supported by subscription. Adjoining the churchyard is part of a building that belonged to the priory at Winchcomb, but the ruins are very inconsiderable. Towbury Hill is said to be the site of a Roman camp; and it is conjectured by Leland that the house of King Offa, or of Ranulphus, stood upon it. Numerous Roman coins have been found in the neighbourhood.
TWINSTEAD, a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Halstead; containing 196 inhabitants. It comprises 1038a. 3r. 14p., of which 824 acres are arable, and the remainder chiefly pasture; the surface is pleasingly diversified, and the soil fertile. Twinstead Hall, the ancient manor-house, retains much of its original character; and part of the moat by which it was surrounded, and the old bridge forming the approach, are still remaining. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £250. The church has been rebuilt.
TWISTON, a township, in the chapelry of Downham, parish of Whalley, union of Clitheroe, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Clitheroe; containing 199 inhabitants. This place was called Twysilton in the reign of John, at which time the family of Twysilton occur as owners here. In the 1st of Edward III., when the Hall existed, the property was possessed by Richard de Greenacres; a successor of whom, Sir Richard Greenacres, left a daughter that married into the Worsley family, through whom the estate passed to the family of Starkie. The township is situated on the borders of Yorkshire. At the northeastern termination of Pendle Hill is an ancient burialplace for the Society of Friends.
Twitchen (St. Peter)
TWITCHEN (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of South Molton, South Molton and N. divisions of Devon, 6 miles (N. E. by E.) from South Molton; containing 194 inhabitants. It is situated on the border of the county, adjacent to Exmoor Forest, in Somerset; and comprises 2823 acres, of which 310 are common or waste. There are several quarries of stone used for ordinary buildings. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of North Molton: the tithes have been commuted for £210. 17. 6. The church is ancient.
Twiverton (St. Michael)
TWIVERTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Bath, hundred of Wellow, E. division of Somerset, 1¾ mile (W. S. W.) from Bath; containing 3342 inhabitants. The Avon runs past the parish, turning several mills; and the Great Western railway proceeds in a nearly parallel direction. The river is crossed here by a suspension-bridge of novel construction, erected in 1837, at a cost, exclusive of the embankments and approaches, of £2500. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £5. 18. 1½.; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of Oriel College, Oxford; impropriators of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, the Langton family. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £82. 10., and the vicarial for £251. 6.; the glebe contains 51¼ acres. The church has been enlarged. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
TWIZELL, a township, in the parish of Norham, union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, N. division of Northumberland, 10 miles (S. W.) from Berwick; containing 336 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Till, which is here crossed by a stone bridge of one arch, 91 feet in the span. Twizell Castle, a fine though unfinished castellated mansion of the Blakes, is seated on a rocky precipice, surrounded by extremely picturesque scenery; and near it is Tillmouth House, the present residence of the family. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £63. 18. 3.; and the appropriate for £400. 9. 4., payable to the Dean and Chapter of Durham. In the neighbourhood are the remains of an ancient chapel dedicated to St. Cuthbert.
TWIZELL, a township, in the parish of Morpeth, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 6¼ miles (S. W. by S.) from Morpeth; containing 45 inhabitants. The township is situated on the east bank of the Blyth, where that river begins to run southward towards Kirkley; and on the boundary between Morpeth and Ponteland parishes. Twizell formed part of the ancient barony of Ogle.
TWO-MILE-HILL, an ecclesiastical district or parish, in the parish of St. George, union of Clifton, hundred of Barton Regis, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 2½ miles (E.) from Bristol. The district was constituted in August 1845, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37. It is situated on the river Avon, and lies along both sides of the high roads from Bristol to Bath and Marshfield, its circumference being about three miles. The land is chiefly set out in freeholds of an acre or more, and appropriated to market gardening; a portion is in small grazing-farms. Coalmines are wrought; and there is a pin-factory. The church, an edifice in the early English style, with a tower, has just been erected, at a cost of £2200: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Bristol and Gloucester, alternately; net income, £150. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans, and another for Primitive Methodists.
Twycross (St. James)
TWYCROSS (St. James), a parish, in the union of Market-Bosworth, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 6 miles (N. E. by N.) from Atherstone; containing 336 inhabitants. It is situated on the road between Ashby-de-la-Zouch and Atherstone, and comprises 1514a. 3r. 16p., of which the subsoil is sand. The living was separated from the vicarage of Orton-on-the-Hill in 1839, and is now a distinct perpetual curacy, in the gift of Earl Howe, who is lessee of the great tithes under the Bishop of Oxford. The net income of the benefice is £130, and there are 3½ acres of glebe. The church was erected in the 14th century, and consists of a nave, chancel, and north aisle, with a square embattled tower. The east window is ornamented with stained glass of the 13th century, lately presented by Sir Wathen Waller, Bart.: the great south window contains the arms of several members of the Curzon family, with those of the Bishop of Oxford, and of the present incumbent, executed by Willement, who presented to the church the arms of William IV. impaled with those of Queen Adelaide. A fine-toned organ has also been erected, at the cost of Earl Howe, who lately expended a considerable sum in repairing the church. A schoolmistress receives £16. 13. yearly, as a share of the interest of £1000 left in 1765 for instruction. There are some remains of a moated house in the Hall-field, north-west of the church.
TWYFORD, a chapelry, in the parish of Hurst, union of Wokingham, hundreds of Charlton and Sonning, county of Berks, 8 miles (S. W.) from Maidenhead. A battle was fought near this place in 1688, between the partizans of James II. and those of the Prince of Orange, afterwards William III. The village, which is neatly built, and populously inhabited, is situated on the Bath and Bristol road; the river Thames flows at a short distance, and the Great Western railway has a station here. Silk-throwing is extensively carried on. A fair for horses and other cattle is held on the 15th of July, but it is very indifferently attended. The chapel, dedicated to St. Swithin, was erected, and endowed with £30 per annum, by Edward Polehampton, who died in 1721: the living is a donative, in the patronage of three Trustees. Here is a place of worship for Independents. Mr. Polehampton also bequeathed a rent-charge of £10 with a dwelling-house for the master, to teach ten boys; and there is an hospital founded in 1640, by Lady Frances Winchcombe, for eight single women.
Twyford (St. Mary)
TWYFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 6 miles (S. W. by S.) from Buckingham; containing, with the hamlets of Charndon and Poundon, 754 inhabitants, of whom 452 are in Twyford township. It is situated on a branch of the river Ouse, and comprises about 4500 acres by admeasurement; 200 acres are woodland, and of the remainder one-fifth arable, and four-fifths pasture and meadow. The soil is chiefly a heavy clay. The living is a rectory not in charge, annexed to the rectorship of Lincoln College, Oxford; net income, £725. The tithes were commuted for land in 1774. The church is in the later English style, and contains 400 sittings.
TWYFORD, a chapelry, in the parish of Barrow, union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Derby; containing, with the township of Stenson, 250 inhabitants. It is situated on the banks of the Trent, and comprises 1600 acres, divided into arable and pasture land: the surface is gently undulated. The Trent and Mersey canal passes in the vicinity, and there is a station on the Derby and Birmingham railway at Willington, two miles distant. Twyford Hall is the residence of the Bristowe family, who have been seated here from the early part of the 17th century. Sir John Harpur Crewe, Bart., is lord of the manor. The chapel, dedicated to St. Andrew, is a brick edifice, with the exception of the chancel, which is very ancient, and entered by a Norman arch. John Harpur and others, in 1696, gave a rent-charge of £15, for teaching and apprenticing children.
Twyford (St. Andrew)
TWYFORD (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of East Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 6¼ miles (S. by W.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing, with the chapelry of Thorpe-Satchville, 478 inhabitants, of whom 325 are in Twyford township. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to that of Hungerton in 1732, and valued in the king's books at £8. 8. 6.: the glebe consists of 70 acres, awarded at the inclosure in 1796, in lieu of tithes. The church is a neat fabric, with a tower containing three bells. A national school, and a place of worship for Wesleyan, Methodists, were built in 1845. The sum of £30 per annum, a portion of Woollaston's charity at Whitchurch, is distributed in clothing among the poor.
TWYFORD, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Kensington, Kensington division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from London; containing 27 inhabitants. Near this place, the London and Birmingham railway is carried over the valley of the Brent by a viaduct 30 feet wide, resting upon a river arch of 60 feet span, and 6 semicircular land arches of 16 feet span each. There is a private chapel at Twyford Abbey.
Twyford (St. Nicholas)
TWYFORD (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk, 1 mile (S. E.) from Guist; containing 94 inhabitants. It comprises 529a. 1r. 19p., of which 370 acres are arable, 131 meadow and pasture, 24 woodland, and 4 road and water. The river Wensum forms part of the western boundary. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 19. 9½., and in the gift of the Rev. John Spurgeon: the tithes have been commuted for £151, and the glebe comprises 11 acres. The church, which is beautifully situated in the grounds of Twyford Hall, is in the early English style, with a tower on the south side.
Twyford (St. Mary)
TWYFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Winchester, hundred of Fawley, Winchester and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S.) from Winchester; containing 1311 inhabitants. It comprises 4219a. 2r., of which 2208 acres are arable, 278 pasture, 291 coppice, 285 water-mead, and the remainder common, road, &c. The river Itchin and the Itchin navigation run through the parish, and the London and South-Western railway passes close to Twyford on the west. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 12. 8½., and in the patronage of Lady Mildmay, on the nomination of Emmanuel College, Cambridge; net income, £213; impropriators, the Governors of the Hospital of St. Cross. In the churchyard is an extraordinary yew-tree, and near the Itchin are two immense Druidical stones. Here was formerly a Roman Catholic seminary, in which Pope the poet received part of his education.
Twywell (St. Nicholas)
TWYWELL (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Thrapston, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Thrapston; containing 232 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Wellingborough to Thrapston and Oundle, and comprises 928a. 12p.: the river Nene passes at a small distance on the east. Machinemaking is carried on. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9, and in the gift of the Rev. W. Alington: the tithes were commuted for land in 1765; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 250 acres, valued at £350 per annum. Mrs. Chapone, authoress of Letters on the Improvement of the Mind, and other works, was a native of Twywell.