A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BROOMHILL, in the union of Rye, partly in the hundred of Goldspur, liberty of Winchelsea, rape of Hastings, county of Sussex, but chiefly in the hundred of Langport, liberty of Romney-Marsh, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 3½ miles (E. by S.) from Rye; containing 123 inhabitants. This place, which was anciently a parish, is a member of the port, and forms part of the town, of Romney. The church, which stood within the limits of Kent, was destroyed, with the village, in the reign of Edward I., by an inundation of the sea.
Broomhope, with Buteland.—See Buteland.
BROOMLEY, a township, in the parish of Bywell St. Peter, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 7¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Hexham; containing 314 inhabitants. This place is situated on the Hexham road, to the south of the river Tyne, about one mile south-by-west from Bywell. Old Ridley lies a short distance to the south-east, and a little further in the same direction is New Ridley, a small village surrounded by several farms.
BROOM-PARK, a township, in the parish of Edlingham, union of Alnwick, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 5½ miles (W.) from Alnwick; containing 63 inhabitants. The township is finely situated between the Aln river and the Lemmington burn: it contains a noble mansion, the seat of the Burrell family, the pleasure-grounds around which are well laid out; and the neighbouring country affords a variety of pleasing views. Many tumuli, supposed to be places of sepulture of the ancient Britons, are found here, and in the vicinity. A tithe rent-charge of £34 is paid to the Dean and Chapter of Durham.
BROOMRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Ford, union of Glendale, W. division of Glendale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 5¾ miles (N. by W.) from Wooler. Camden considers this to have been the place, called Brunanburh, where King Athelstan defeated Constantine, King of Scotland, Anlaf the Dane, and Eugenius, a petty prince of Cumberland. About half a mile to the south is Haltwell Sweire, the scene of an encounter, in 1558, between the English under Sir Henry Percy and the Scots under Earl Bothwell, the former of whom sustained a defeat.
BROOMSTHORPE, a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 5½ miles (N. N. E.) from Rougham; containing 10 inhabitants. It comprises 430 acres, forming one farm, belonging to Lord Henry Cholmondeley. The church was destroyed before the reign of Elizabeth, and the benefice abolished. Here was a guild, in honour of St. John, to whom it is supposed the church was dedicated.
Broseley (St. Leonard)
BROSELEY (St. Leonard), a market-town and parish, in the union of Madeley, franchise of Wenlock, S. division of Salop, 2 miles (S.) from Iron-bridge, 14 (S. E.) from Shrewsbury, and 144 (N. W.) from London, on the road from Worcester to Shrewsbury; containing 4829 inhabitants. This place, in ancient records called Burwardesley, derived its importance from the numerous mines of coal and ironstone in the neighbourhood, which made it the resort of miners; and in proportion as the works proceeded, it increased in population and magnitude. The town is irregularly built, on an eminence rising abruptly from the western bank of the river Severn, to which its eastern extremity extends, and from which its western extremity is nearly two miles distant. It consists principally of one long street, from which a few smaller streets branch towards the different collieries and other works: the houses, in general of brick and of mean appearance, are occasionally intermixed with some of more respectable character; and in detached situations are several handsome and spacious edifices. The trade consists partly in ironstonemining operations; but, from the exhausted state of the mines, this branch of trade, as well as that in coal, has declined. There are still, however, numerous coal-pits, iron-foundries, and furnaces; and fine earthenware, tobacco-pipes, bricks, and tiles, are made to a great extent: the fire-bricks for building furnaces are in high repute, and, by means of the Severn, are sent to various parts of the kingdom. A considerable portion of the population are employed in the china manufacture, at Coal-port, in the adjoining parish of Madeley. The market is on Wednesday; the fairs are on the last Tuesday in April, and Oct. 28th, and are chiefly for pleasure, though a considerable number of pigs are sold. The town is within the jurisdiction of the borough of Wenlock; courts leet for the manor are held in the town-hall in April and October, and at the latter four constables are appointed. The town-hall is a handsome brick building, in the centre of the town, supported on pillars and arches, the basement forming a spacious marketplace: the first story contains a room where the pettysessions and public meetings are held (used also as an assembly-room), and two smaller apartments. There is a small prison attached to the building, for the confinement of debtors, and for criminals previous to their committal by the borough magistrates.
The parish comprises 1912a. 2r. 14p.; the soil is fertile. The living is a rectory, with that of Linley united, valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 6½., and in the gift of Lord Forester: the tithes have been commuted for £453, and the glebe comprises 11½ acres. The church, with the exception of the ancient tower, which is of stone, has been rebuilt of brick; but something of its original character is preserved in the interior, in the octangular pillars and pointed arches that support the roof. A chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, was built in 1759, by Mr. Francis Turner Blythe, in a part of the parish called Jackfield, at a considerable distance from the church; it is a neat brick building, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Francis Blythe Harris, Esq. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, and Independents; and national schools are supported by subscription. In 1750, John Barret, Esq., a native of the place, bequeathed £110, which sum, augmented with a legacy of £100 by Mr. Richard Edwards, and several smaller sums, amounting in the whole to £380, was invested in the purchase of land, upon which the town-hall and other houses have been erected: the rents are distributed among the poor.
Brotherton (St. Edward the Confessor)
BROTHERTON (St. Edward the Confessor), a parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York; containing 1744 inhabitants, of whom 1613 are in the township of Brotherton, 1 mile (N. N. W.) from Ferry-Bridge. The village of Brotherton, anciently called Broyerton, is memorable as the birthplace of Prince Thomas (Thomas de Brotherton), of whom Margaret, second wife of Edward I., was suddenly delivered in June 1300, after taking the amusement of hunting in the neighbourhood. The young prince was created earl of Norfolk, and earl marshal of England; and from him, in the female line, descended the Mowbrays, dukes of Norfolk. The parish is bounded on the south and west by the river Aire, and comprises by computation rather more than 2000 acres, of which 607 are in the township of Brotherton, 850 in that of Byrome with Pool, and 750 in the township of Sutton. The soil is generally fertile, and the surface pleasingly undulated, in some parts rising to considerable elevations; limestone of very superior quality is quarried for the supply of the neighbouring district, and there are many kilns for burning it into lime. Extensive works were established in 1840, by James Kelsall and Company, for the manufacture of glass-bottles of every description. Facility of conveyance is afforded by the river Aire, which is navigable here, and by the York and North-Midland railway, which passes through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.; net income, £192; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of York. The church, erected in 1300, was almost entirely rebuilt in 1843, at a cost of £3250, of which £2000 were given by the Ramsden family, to whose ancestors there are some good monuments. In the chancel is a monument to Stephen Owen, vicar, who was deprived of his benefice by the usurper Cromwell; also one to the Rev. Charles Daubuz, a French refugee, and author of a Commentary on the Revelations, who was vicar of the parish, and died in 1717. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
BROTTON, a parochial chapelry, in the union of Guisborough, E. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York; containing 468 inhabitants, of whom 319 are in the township, 6 miles (N. E. by E.) from Guisborough. This place is styled in the Domesday survey Broctune. The chapelry includes the townships of Brotton, Skinningrove, and Kilton; is situated on the shore of the North Sea, and on the road between Guisborough and Whitby; and comprises by measurement 3742 acres, of which a great portion is arable land. The surface is mountainous on the seacoast, and in other parts generally diversified with hills: the soil is a hard clay, occasionally of a good quality, and the scenery in many places interspersed with wood and plantations. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Skelton: the tithes of the township belong to the Archbishop of York, and have been commuted for £340. The church, erected in 1777, at the expense of the parishioners, is a plain edifice, standing on the summit of an elevated ridge which is washed by the sea. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Fossils, agates, snake-stones, and other petrifactions have been found.
BROTHERWICK, a township, in the parish of Warkworth, union of Alnwick, E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 2 miles (W.) from Warkworth; containing 10 inhabitants. It is situated on the west side of the river Coquet, which is navigable to within a quarter of a mile of Warkworth. The tithes have been commuted for £24. 12. payable to the Bishop of Carlisle, and £4. 18. to the vicar of the parish.
Brough, with Shatton
BROUGH, with Shatton, a hamlet, in the parish of Hope, union of Chapel-en-le-Frith, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Tideswell; containing 80 inhabitants. A place called the Castle, near the junction of two small streams, the Noe and the Bradwell Water, was evidently the site of a Roman station, probably Crococolana; and numerous Roman relics have been discovered, also coins (among which is a gold one of Vespasian), and rude busts, one being of Apollo. The Dean and Chapter of Lichfield receive a tithe rent-charge of £68.
Brough, or Burg, under Stainmoor (St. Michael)
BROUGH, or BURG, under Stainmoor (St. Michael), a parish, in East ward and union, county of Westmorland; comprising the townships of Brough, Brough-Sowerby, and Hilbeck, and the chapelry of Stainmoor or Stainmore; and containing 1694 inhabitants, of whom 899 are in the market-town of Brough, 8 miles (S. E. by E.) from Appleby, and 262 (N. N. W.) from London, on the high road to Glasgow. This town occupies the site of the ancient Verterœ or Veteris, where, towards the decline of the Roman empire in Britain, a prefect, with a band of directores, was stationed. It was partly built with the ruins of that fort, from which circumstance it probably derived its appellation; and is distinguished from other places of the same name by the affix of Stainmoor, from its vicinity to an extensive ridge of rocky mountains that separates this county from Yorkshire. It flourished as a place of considerable importance prior to the Conquest, soon after which a conspiracy was formed here, by the northern English, against the government of William. At what time the castle was erected is not precisely known; but in 1174 it was nearly demolished by William, King of Scotland, who laid waste the town: the building was subsequently restored, and, in 1521, was nearly destroyed by a fire that broke out after the celebration of a Christmas festival by Lord Clifford; it remained in a ruinous state till 1660, when it was repaired by Lady Ann Clifford, Countess Dowager of Pembroke. The fortress was situated upon an eminence, abruptly steep towards the north and west; and on the south and east, where the acclivity is more gentle, was defended by a ditch and a strong rampart. The remains consist of some massive towers, of which the keep, a large square tower with turrets at the angles, called Cæsar's Tower, was almost perfect in 1792, when the lower portion of one of the angles fell down, leaving the upper adhering by the cement only to the main building. Great part of it has within the last few years been removed, and the remainder is in a state of progressive dilapidation.
The town, divided into Market-Brough and ChurchBrough, is pleasantly situated, and crossed by the Swindale beck, a tributary of the river Eden: it consists principally of one long street, the houses in which are rather commodious than handsome; the inhabitants are well supplied with water. Several of the females are employed in knitting white-yarn stockings. The market, granted in 1331, by Edward III., to Robert, Lord Clifford, is on Thursday, but is of little note; corn is admitted toll-free. Fairs are held on the Thursday before Whit-Sunday and September 30th, the latter of which, called Brough-Hill fair, is held on a common, two miles from the town, and is celebrated for the sale of linen and woollen cloth, wearing-apparel, articles of hardware, and live-stock; cattle-fairs are also held in the town, on the second Thursday in March and April. The Parish comprises by computation 20,000 acres, of which about one-half is inclosed and cultivated, and the remainder waste; the soil of the higher parts of the inclosed land, with the exception of a few portions of extremely fine quality, is sterile, and that of the lower portions rich and fertile, and equally adapted either for arable or pasture. The surface is varied with hills, and the lower grounds are watered by two small rivulets, of which one divides this parish from that of KirkbyStephen, and the other flows through the town, as already observed, into the river Eden. Coal is abundant; several mines are in operation for the supply of the neighbouring district, and there are quarries of freestone, limestone, and slate.
The parish was formerly a chapelry in KirkbyStephen. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 8. 9.; net income, £492; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of Queen's College, Oxford, to whom the rectory and advowson were given at the request of Robert Egglesfield, founder of that college, and for several years rector of Brough. The church is a large handsome structure of great antiquity, to which a square embattled tower was added in 1513: the windows are ornamented with richly stained glass, which, from an inscription on one of them appears to be of the time of Henry VIII.; the pulpit is formed of one entire stone, and within the church are several interesting monuments. There is a chapel at Stainmoor, forming a separate incumbency. The Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans have places of worship. The free school is endowed with £6. 18. 11., a portion of the revenue of a dissolved chantry and hospital founded in 1506 by John Brunskill, the former for two chaplains, one of whom was to instruct the children of the parish in grammar; the present building was erected by Lord Thanet. Many Roman coins and other antiquities have been found at various times near the castle, and, within the last thirty years, an earthen vessel full of silver quinarii, many of which are in good preservation. Cuthbert Buckle, lord mayor of London in 1593, was born at Brough.
BROUGH, a township, in the parish of Catterick, union of Richmond, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 1½ mile (W.) from Catterick; containing 88 inhabitants. It comprises about 1050 acres of fertile land, the property of Sir W. Lawson, Bart., lord of the manor, who resides at Brough Hall, a handsome mansion, much improved by Sir John Lawson in the seventeenth century. An elegant Roman Catholic chapel was commenced in 1834, and finished in 1837, at a cost of £12,000, defrayed by Sir W. Lawson; it is a splendid structure in the early English style, with an east window of beautifully stained glass, executed by Willemont.
Brough, with Dringhoe and Upton
BROUGH, with Dringhoe and Upton, a township, in the parish of Skipsea, union of Bridlington, N. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 9 miles (S. by W.) from Bridlington; containing 190 inhabitants, of whom 90 are in Brough. The hamlet derives its name from a castle erected here by Drogo de Bevere, who came over with the Conqueror, and was lord of the seigniory of Holderness. The only remains now existing of this fortress, are the outworks, and the high artificial mound on which stood the keep: the outer rampart of the outworks is at least half a mile in circumference; and the outer bank of the keep, which commands a very extensive prospect, is 500 yards round. A market and two fairs were granted to the inhabitants of the place by Edward III., the former to be held weekly, and the latter annually.
BROUGH-FERRY, a hamlet, in the parish of Elloughton, union of Beverley, Hunsley-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 3¼ miles (S. S. E.) from South Cave; containing 170 inhabitants. The ancient village of Brough is supposed to be the Petuasia of Ptolemy, being situated on the great Roman road called Ermin-street, which ran from Lincoln to York, and crossed the Humber by Brough-Ferry. This passage is still much used for transit to and from Winteringham and Ferriby Sluice, on the Lincolnshire side of the river. The Hull and Selby railway passes near the village, over an embankment and viaduct seventeen feet high, and has one of its stations here.
Brougham (St. Ninian)
BROUGHAM (St. Ninian), a parish, in West ward and union, county of Westmorland, 1¾ mile (S. E.) from Penrith; containing 249 inhabitants. This was the Roman station Brovoniacum, which appears to have comprised an area 140 paces in length, and 120 in breadth: the vallum and some vestiges of the outworks are visible; and coins, votive altars, and other relics have been found on the southern side of the station, where it is said a city stood named by the Saxons Burgham, the Castle Town. A castle was built soon after the Conquest, principally, as appears from an inscription over the inner gateway, by the first Roger, Lord Clifford: it was demolished by the Scots, in 1412; and having been rebuilt, was honoured by the presence of James I., who was entertained by its noble owner, Francis, Earl of Cumberland, in August 1617. The castle sustained much damage during the parliamentary war, but was restored by the celebrated Countess of Pembroke, in 1651. The venerable and extensive ruins are pleasingly situated on a woody eminence, at the confluence of two streams; and near them is a handsome pillar, embellished with heraldic bearings, and surmounted by a small obelisk, erected in 1656, by the countess, as a memorial of her last parting with her mother, the Countess Dowager of Cumberland, on the spot, April 2nd, 1616. The parish is bounded on every side, except the south, by the rivers Eden, Eamont, and Lowther, which unite here, and comprises by computation 5000 acres; the soil, with the exception of about 1000 acres of red gravelly loam, which is very productive, is in general light, sandy, and sterile. The Lancaster and Carlisle railway passes in the immediate vicinity. Brougham Hall, the property and residence of Lord Brougham and Vaux, late lord high chancellor, is a plain, lofty, and ancient structure, with an embrasured parapet, erected at different periods, and occupying an elevated site, which, from a similarity in the richness and diversity of the prospect it commands, has acquired for the seat the characteristic title of the "Windsor of the North." The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 10. 7½.; net income, £290; patron, the Earl of Thanet: the tithes have been commuted for £91. 5. The church stands pleasantly within a curve on the southern bank of the Eamont. In the western part of the parish is a chapel of ease, supposed to be dedicated to St. Wilfrid, which, together with the church, was rebuilt in 1659, by the Countess of Pembroke.