A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Leach, with Marlston.—See Marlston.
LEACROFT, a township, in the parish of Cannock, union of Penkridge, E. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 1 mile (E. by S.) from the village of Cannock; containing 228 inhabitants, and comprising 1466a. 1r. of land. It has a considerable manufactory for edge-tools; and coal is raised. On Reaumore hills here, was once a noted mineral spring.
Leadenham (St. Swithin)
LEADENHAM (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Loveden, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 12 miles (N.) from Grantham; containing 598 inhabitants. This parish, which is on the road from Grantham to Lincoln, comprises by measurement 3470 acres. The village is pleasantly situated amidst scenery of a picturesque character, and the air is highly salubrious. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £29. 12. 8½., and in the gift of Mrs. Bernard Smith, with a net income of £700: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1778. The church is partly in the decorated and partly in the later English style, with a tower and spire of graceful proportions; a portion of the ancient rood-loft is remaining, and there are three piscinæ in a very perfect state: the building has been repaired and beautified, and embellished with an east window of painted glass, at the expense of the Rev. T. Brown. Here is an endowed school; and a field called the "Church grass," containing 52 acres, has been allotted for the repair of the church, and the relief of the poor. In the centre of the village is Nun's Close, supposed to have been the site of a convent.
Leaden-Roothing.—See Roothing, Leaden.
LEAD-HALL, a township, in the parish of Ryther, Upper division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Tadcaster; containing 54 inhabitants. It comprises about 700 acres. In the village is an ancient chapel of ease, in which divine service is performed twice in the year.
LEADON, HIGH, a hamlet, in the parish of Rudford, union of Newent, Lower division of the hundred of Dudstone and King's-Barton, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Newent; containing 105 inhabitants.
LEAFIELD, a chapelry, in the parish of Shiptonunder-Whichwood, union of Chipping-Norton, hundred of Chadlington, county of Oxford, 4½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Witney; containing 737 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron, the Vicar of Shipton. The chapel was founded in the reign of Elizabeth by Sir Henry Upton, and dedicated to St. Michael; it has been enlarged. There are two barrows, one of which was opened in 1828; and ancient coins have been dug up. Lord Churchill appropriates several acres of land for the encouragement of spade husbandry, at a nominal rent,
Leagram, with Bowland.—See Bowland.
Leake (St. Mary)
LEAKE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Boston, wapentake of Skirbeck, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 7¼ miles (N. E.) from Boston; containing 1859 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 7044 acres. The soil is various, in some parts richly fertile, and in others marsh and fen; the lands have been materially improved by draining, and considerable portions of marsh have been brought into profitable cultivation. A spacious canal, or drain, for carrying off the water from the fens, is made available for the purpose of navigation to Boston. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Governors of Oakingham and Uppingham grammar schools, who are also impropriators. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1810; the income of the benefice, which was augmented in 1841, with £52 per annum, by a grant of £1200 from the patrons and £400 Royal Bounty, is now £210, with a glebe-house. The church is an ancient structure, built at different periods. There are two proprietary episcopal chapels, for the accommodation of the fenny districts; also places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans; and in the adjoining parish of Wrangle is a school, endowed for the instruction of children of both parishes, by the Rev. Thomas Allenson. The Rev. Jacob Conington, vicar, in 1718 left 40 acres of land, producing £98 per annum, to his successors, for morning service every Wednesday and Friday in the week, and on all holydays throughout the year. £140 per annum, arising from numerous other benefactions, are distributed among the poor; and £10, the produce of land bequeathed by Simon Clarke in the 44th of Elizabeth, are paid to a widow. There are some remains of two religious houses.
Leake (St. Mary)
LEAKE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thirsk, chiefly in the wapentake of Allertonshire, but partly in the wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York; comprising the chapelry of Nether Silton, and the townships of Borrowby, Crosby, Knayton with Brawith, Landmoth with Catto, Leake, and Gueldable; and containing 1235 inhabitants, of whom 7 are in Leake township, 6 miles (N.) from Thirsk. This was anciently a town of considerable importance, but was destroyed about the time of the Conquest, and the only remains of its former buildings are, the church, and the mansion of the Danby family, now a farmhouse, in which are some interesting and valuable paintings on the panels in one of the rooms. The parish comprises about 2830 acres. The living is a vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Nether Silton annexed, valued in the king's books at £16; net income, £320; patron, the Bishop of Ripon. The church is an ancient structure, partly Norman and partly in the early English style, with a tower, on the front of which is a sun-dial rudely carved: in the churchyard several stone coffins have been dug up at different times, supposed to have contained the remains of Saxon or Danish warriors.
Leake, East (St. Mary)
LEAKE, EAST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Loughborough, S. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe and of the county of Nottingham, 4¾ miles (E.) from Kegworth; containing 1057 inhabitants, and consisting of 2400 acres. Nearly one-half of the population are employed in the manufacture of cotton stockings. Limestone of good quality is quarried for manure, and there are some pits of gravel and sand. Statute-fairs are held at Candlemas and Martinmas. The living is a rectory, with that of West Leake united; net income, £719; patron, the Rev. J. Bateman. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 1798; the land comprises 460 acres. The church is a handsome structure, in the later English style. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. A free school was founded, and endowed with land, about 1731, by John Blay: the income is £48 per annum.
Leake, West (St. Helen)
LEAKE, WEST (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Loughborough, S. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe and of the county of Nottingham, 2¾ miles (E.) from Kegworth; containing 208 inhabitants, and consisting of 1400 acres. The living is a rectory, united to that of East Leake, and valued in the king's books at £25. 4. 7.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £130, and the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church is a very ancient structure, with an open campanile turret.
Leamington, or Leamington-Priors (All Saints)
LEAMINGTON, or Leamington-Priors (All Saints), a parish, and fashionable watering-place, in the union of Warwick, Kenilworth division of the hundred of Knightlow, S. division of the county of Warwick, 2½ miles (E.) from Warwick, and 90 (N. W.) from London; containing 12,864 inhabitants. This place derives its second name from the river Leam, on which it stands, and from its having belonged to the priory of Kenilworth. It is beautifully situated in a fine open vale, surrounded by gentle acclivities richly clothed with wood; and the river Leam, over which is a handsome stone bridge connecting the old with the new town, and the river Avon, both wind through the adjoining meadows. From an inconsiderable hamlet consisting only of a few cottages, it has, on account of the celebrity of its mineral springs, risen with unprecedented rapidity, within the present century, into a large and populous town; and the peculiar mildness of the temperature, and the salubrity of the air, contribute greatly to augment the number of its permanent residents. The mineral springs are of three kinds, viz., sulphureous, saline, and chalybeate: the water of the sulphureous spring, according to the analysis of Dr. Loudon, contains sulphuric acid, magnesia, chlorine, soda, and lime, and the gases are oxygen, azote, carbonic acid, and sulphuretted hydrogen. The saline water contains chlorine, lime, sulphuric acid, magnesia, silica, peroxyde of iron, and soda, and the gases are oxygen, azote, and carbonic acid: the chalybeate water differs from the saline chiefly in the proportions of its several ingredients.
The spring first discovered, now called the Old Well, is described by Camden, Speed, and Dugdale. Its water was analyzed in 1688, and it was lately inclosed by the Earl of Aylesford, who erected a neat pump-room over it, containing a marble fount, from which a pipe is conducted on the outside of the building, for the use of the poor. The second spring, where Smith's baths now stand, was discovered in 1784, by Mr. Abbots, who erected six warm baths, a cold bath, and shower baths. The Imperial Fount and Marble Baths, in Clemensstreet, contain a complete arrangement of hot, cold, sulphureous, vapour, fumigating, and shower baths, with jets d'eau for topical application, and a pump of sulphureous, saline, and chalybeate water. Wise's Baths, at the corner of Bath-street; Robbins' Baths, near the bridge; and various similar establishments, are arranged with due care; and there is also a bathing establishment for the gratuitous use of the poor. The principal baths, however, are at the Royal Spa, a handsome stone edifice, with a colonnade of the Doric order extending the whole length of the front, and having, at each end, entrances leading respectively to the gentlemen's and ladies' baths; the pump-room, which forms the centre of the building, contains an orchestra, in which a band performs during the hours of attendance. This structure forms one of the chief ornaments of the town, and is situated on the bank of the Leam. In proportion to the number and rank of the visiters are the hotels provided for their accommodation, and there are numerous private boarding and lodging houses.
The Town is well paved, and lighted with gas, under the direction of commissioners appointed by an act obtained for local purposes; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. The streets are spacious, and intersect each other at right angles; the houses are fronted with Roman cement, and many of them display elegant specimens of Grecian and other styles of architecture. A town-hall was lately erected. The public library and reading-rooms, in Bath-street, form a well-built edifice, with a colonnade of six Ionic pillars, supporting an entablature, and resting upon a piazza: above the readingrooms and library is a spacious assembly-room; the card and refreshment rooms are equally splendid, and the whole suite is admirably adapted either for public or private meetings. The Upper Assembly-Rooms, in the Union Parade, consist of a ball-room, at the end of which is a fine organ; attached are card and refreshment rooms, and the range is completed by a library and reading-room. The Warwick races, which are held in March and September, attract numerous visiters; and the Warwickshire hunt has become equally celebrated. Some public gardens were opened in May, 1846, having been purchased with funds raised to the amount of several thousand pounds, for a testimonial of gratitude to Dr. Jephson for the services rendered by him to the town. The market, which is on Wednesday, is abundantly supplied with provisions. The Warwick and Napton canal passes through the town; and the Grand Junction and Oxford canals afford facilities of conveyance to all parts of the kingdom. A railway was opened in 1845 from Coventry to a point between Warwick and Leamington; and in 1846 an act was passed for extending the line, at Leamington, three-quarters of a mile. In the latter year, also, an act was obtained for a railway to Rugby, 14½ miles in length. The parish consists of 1072 acres of productive land.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 10.; net income, £255; patron, the Rev. Henry Wise; impropriator, the Earl of Aylesford. The church, an ancient structure in the decorated English style, with a tower, was lately considerably enlarged, and a spire added; but it still retains externally much of its original character. The episcopal chapel in the upper part of the town, erected at the expense of the late vicar, is professedly after the Norman model, and in many respects the details of that style have been imitated. St. Mary's chapel, erected in 1839, is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles; it is adapted for a congregation of 900 persons, and the patronage is exercised by Trustees. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics; the last having a full-length figure of St. Peter in a niche over the entrance. Leamington College, of which the Bishop of Worcester is visiter, and Dr. Jephson president, is under a proprietary; and has an exhibition called the Jephson exhibition, of the value of £50 per annum, and tenable for three years, either at Oxford or Cambridge. The hospital here, occupying a site given by the Earl of Aylesford, who is lord of the manor, was erected by the munificent donations of the Rev. Dr. Warneford, aided by subscriptions. There are various bequests for the poor.
Leamington-Hastings (All Saints)
LEAMINGTON-HASTINGS (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Rugby, Southam division of the hundred of Knightlow, S. division of the county of Warwick, 4½ miles (S. W.) from Dunchurch; containing, with the hamlets of Broadwell, Hill, and Kytes-Hardwick, 509 inhabitants. This parish comprises by computation 3220 acres of fertile land, of which 1600 are grass, and the remainder arable; the surface is in some parts undulated. Limestone is abundant, and the blue lias kind crops up to the very surface. The river Leam and the Warwick and Napton canal pass by the parish. The living is an endowed vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20; net income, £695; patron, E. D. Sitwell, Esq. The church is an ancient structure with a very fine tower and two Saxon doorways; the windows contain the armorial bearings of the Trevor and Wheler families. A parochial school at Hill, rebuilt in 1842, is supported by the produce of land granted at the inclosure of the parish. Eight almshouses are endowed with estates left by Humphrey Davis, and two with lands purchased with a bequest by Dame Wheler. There was anciently a chapel at Broadwell.
LEAMONSLEY, a hamlet, within the county of the city of Lichfield, and in the parish of St. Michael, union, and S. division of the county, of Stafford, 1 mile (S. W.) from Lichfield. In this hamlet, which is of small extent, is a large worsted-factory. A district church, called Christ Church, was erected in 1844, chiefly by a contribution of £3500 from Mr. and Mrs. Hinckley, and grants from church-building societies. A parsonage-house has been built; and there is a day and Sunday school.
LEAP, a tything, in the chapelry of Exbury, parish of Fawley, union of New-Forest, hundred of Bishop'sWaltham, Southampton and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 11¼ miles (E. by N.) from Lymington. The village is nearly opposite to the town of Cowes, in the Isle of Wight.
LEARCHILD, a township, in the parish of Edlingham, union of Alnwick, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 6½ miles (W. S. W.) from Alnwick; containing 35 inhabitants. It lies one mile west from Edlingham, and the road between Morpeth and Wooler runs at a little distance on the west.
LEARMOUTH, a district, in the parish of Carham, union of Glendale, W. division of Glendale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 2½ miles (S.) from Coldstream. It includes East and West Learmouth, Tithe-Hill, and Hagg, and comprises 2200 acres, of which the whole is arable, with interspersions of woodland; the surface is undulated, and the soil a good loam, with some light turnip ground: there is a whinstone quarry, overlaid with freestone. The river Tweed bounds the district on the north for a quarter of a mile. The hamlet of West Learmouth is situated near the bourne to which it gives name, and though now very small, was once a thriving village; it became almost depopulated by the system of throwing a number of small farms into one of great extent. East Learmouth lies at the junction of four roads. The great tithes have been commuted for £229, and those of the incumbent of Carham for £129. There is an old burial-ground now neglected. In a marl-pit were found, some years since, several large stag-horns, and a curious oaken paddle, such as the South Sea Islanders use. A spring here is impregnated with iron.
Leasingham, North (St. John the Baptist)
LEASINGHAM, NORTH (St. John The Baptist), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Flaxwell, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2¾ miles (N. by W.) from Sleaford; containing, with the hamlet of Roxholme, 472 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, united, in 1726, to the rectory of South Leasingham, and valued in the king's books at £10. 15. 5. The church has been demolished.
Leasingham, South (St. Andrew)
LEASINGHAM, SOUTH (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Flaxwell, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Sleaford; containing 397 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, with that of North Leasingham united, valued in the king's books at £13. 2. 8½.; net income, £924; patron, Sir J. Thorold, Bart. The tithes of South Leasingham have been commuted for £640, and the glebe comprises 40 acres. A small school is supported partly by charity.
Leatherhead (St. Mary and St. Nicholas)
LEATHERHEAD (St. Mary and St. Nicholas), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Epsom, Second division of the hundred of Copthorne and Effingham, W. division of Surrey, 12 miles (E. N. E.) from Guildford, and 18 (S. W. by S.) from London; containing 1740 inhabitants. This parish, anciently; called Leddrede, comprises 3507 acres, of which 416 are common or waste; it is pleasantly situated on the river Mole, over which is a bridge of fourteen arches, built of brick. The vale through which the stream flows, in its course to Reigate, is bounded on each side by a range of steep eminences, on the declivities of which are numerous elegant seats, with fine parks and plantations; and the scenery in the neighbourhood generally is highly beautiful. The trade of the town is inconsiderable: there are a tanyard and a brewery; and a fair is held on Oct. 11th, in a field to the north, chiefly for the sale of horses and pigs. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 6. 0½.; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Rochester: the great tithes have been commuted for £582, and the small for £269. The church is a cruciform structure, said to have been founded by Edward I.; the nave and aisles are in the early, the chancel in the decorated, and the tower and north transept in the later, English style: the east window is ornamented with stained glass, and there is a fine screen. Col. Drinkwater Bethune, author of the History of the Siege of Gibraltar, was buried here in 1844. The Independents have a place of worship. A free school, endowed with £30 per annum, principally from bequests by John Lucas and David White, has merged into a national school, for which a school-house was erected in 1839. Several benefactions have been made for distribution among the poor. Judge Jeffreys resided in a house in the town, now the property of Mr. Bland.
LEATHLEY, a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York; containing, with the township of Castley, 382 inhabitants, of whom 272 are in the township of Leathley, 2½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Otley. This parish, which is situated on the north side of the vale of the river Wharfe, comprises by admeasurement 1839 acres; the surface is varied, and the village neatly built. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 2. 8½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £302. The church, which appears to have been erected about 400 years, is from its peculiar situation, when viewed at a distance, a pleasing object in the scenery. There is a place of worship for dissenters. A free school, and almshouses for four persons, were founded in 1769, by Mrs. Anne Hitch, who endowed them with £30 per annum; the school and master's house form the centre, and the apartments for the almspeople the wings, of a handsome range of building.
Leaton, with Woolascott
LEATON, with Woolascott, a township, in the parish of St. Mary, Shrewsbury, hundred of Pimhill, N. division of Salop, 4½ miles (N. N. W.) from Shrewsbury; containing 277 inhabitants, of whom 254 are in Leaton. The tithes have been commuted for £157, payable to Shrewsbury grammar school.
Leaveland (St. Lawrence)
LEAVELAND (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union and hundred of Faversham, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Faversham; containing 100 inhabitants. It contains 345 acres, of which about 15 are in hop plantations, and 35 in wood. A fair is held in Whitsun-week. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Badlesmere, and valued in the king's books at £4.
LEAVENING, a township, in the parish of Acklam, union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 6¼ miles (S.) from Malton; containing 434 inhabitants. It comprises about 1180 acres of land, broken into abrupt and occasionally picturesque undulations: the village, which is considerable, is situated upon a pleasant acclivity at the western foot of the Wolds. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1804. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
Leavesden, Hertford.—See Cashio.
LEAVINGTON, CASTLE, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Leavington, union of Stockton, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 2¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Yarm; containing 46 inhabitants. The manor and estate, which, at the time when the Domesday survey was taken, were demesne of the crown, continued in the possession of the successive sovereigns till the reign of Edward I., when they were granted to the Meinells, who held the lands till the time of Edward III., since which the property has passed through various families. The township is on the western side of the river Leven, and comprises 1006a. 17p., of which 532 acres are arable, 389 meadow and pasture, 77 wood, and 6 road and waste. On a large and steep eminence, of conical form, rising from the river side, and now called Castle Hill, was anciently a castle, the residence of the Meinell family. The hill, on the west, south, and south-west, is guarded from the adjoining fields by a deep trench; the sides on the east, south-east, and north, are almost perpendicular, and rise about 200 yards above the river: the crown of the hill is a plain, measuring 40 paces in diameter, and defended by a breastwork of earth of considerable height, with an opening or entrance on the south. The tithes, which belong to the Archbishop of York, have been commuted for a rent-charge of £54. Here are the Druidical remains of Ravenscarr.
Leavington, Kirk (St. Martin)
LEAVINGTON, KIRK (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Stockton, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Castle-Leavington, Pickton, and Low Worsall, 483 inhabitants, of whom 233 are in the township of Kirk-Leavington, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Yarm. This place, formerly called Leventon, and in Domesday book Lentune, or "the town upon the river Leven," was once the inheritance of the crown, and was bestowed by the Conqueror upon the Bruces, who held under the king. They continued proprietors until about the time of Richard I., or John, when the estate passed to the Percys, with whom it remained up to the reign of Henry VIII., since which time the lands have been owned by different families. The place suffered greatly in the incursion made by the Scots under the command of Sir James Douglas and the Earl of Murray, in the 12th of Edward II., and on this account the inhabitants were exempted in the following year by that monarch from paying his taxes. The parish is on the road from Yarm to Thirsk, and is bounded on the west by the river Tees, and on the east by the Leven, which flows through a picturesque dale: the township comprises 2133a. 1r. 35p., of which 1170 acres are arable, 782 meadow and pasture, 20 woodland, and 160 road and waste. The soil is chiefly a strong fertile clay, more favourable for corn than grass. The level grounds near the Tees at Worsall, and on the border of the Leven at Castle-Leavington, consist of a deep rich loam; about Pickton the soil is rather inferior. From various situations are fine views of the Cleveland hills. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron and appropriator, the Archbishop of York, whose tithes in the township of Kirk-Leavington have been commuted for £428. The church is a small ancient edifice.
Lechlade (St. Lawrence)
LECHLADE (St. Lawrence), a market-town and parish, in the union of Farringdon, hundred of Brightwells-Barrow, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 28 miles (S. E.) from Gloucester, and 75 (W. by N.) from London; containing 1300 inhabitants. The name is derived from the little river Leche, and the Saxon word ladean, to empty; that stream, which rises near Northleach, falling into the Thames below St. John's bridge, in the parish. The town is situated on the margin of the Thames, and on the road from Cirencester to London; it is neatly built, and consists principally of two long and wide streets: the inhabitants are supplied with water from wells. Its chief business was formerly in the transport of commodities, particularly Wiltshire and Gloucester cheese, brought hither for conveyance to the metropolis by the Thames, which becomes navigable at this place, where also the canal terminates which unites this river and the Severn; but the traffic has within the last few years been diverted into another channel. The market, for which a grant was obtained by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry III., is held on Friday, but is almost disused: a fair for cattle and for toys on September 9th, is much frequented. A constable and a tythingman are appointed at a triennial court leet held by the lord of the manor. The parish comprises 3542a. 1r. 7p.; the pastures are rich, and the farms under good management; the surface is pleasingly varied.
The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £12. 13. 4.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. C. Hebert, whose tithes have been commuted for £710. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, built about the middle of the fifteenth century, at the joint expense of the vicar, the inmates of Lechlade Priory, and the inhabitants of the parish; the spire is remarkable for its symmetrical beauty: the interior of the edifice was newpewed and beautified in 1829. There is a place of worship for Baptists. Benefactions amounting to about £80 per annum, have been made to the poor. In a meadow near St. John's bridge stood a priory of Black canons, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, which was founded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in the reign of Henry III., and the revenue of which, on its suppression in 1473, was applied to the foundation of a chantry in the parochial church. There was also an hospital on or near the bridge, founded by Peter Fitz-Herbert, about the same time as the priory. Towards the end of the last century, a subterraneous structure was discovered in a meadow in the vicinity, with brick pillars and mosaic pavement, supposed to have been a Roman bath; and it has been conjectured that this was a Roman town, to which a vicinal road extended from Cirencester. There is a mineral spring. Thomas Coxeter, an eminent antiquary, was born here in 1689.