A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, an inland county, bounded on the south and south-west by Berkshire, on the west by the county of Oxford, on the north-west and north by that of Northampton, on the north-east by that of Bedford, on the east by those of Bedford and Hertford, and on the south-east by Middlesex. It extends from 51° 26' to 52° 12' (N. Lat.), and. from 28' to 1° 8' (W. Lon.); and comprises an area of about 740 square miles, or 473,600 statute acres. The county contains 31,087 inhabited houses, 1159 uninhabited, and 206 in course of erection; and the population amounts to 155,983, of whom 76,482 are males, and 79,501 females.
The territory composing the present county of Buckingham is thought by Camden to have been anciently inhabited by the Cassii or Cattieuchlani. Mr. Whitaker, the learned historian of Manchester, was of opinion, that only that part of the county bordering on Bedfordshire was originally occupied by the Cassii, and that they afterwards seized upon the territories of the Dobuni, who had previously obtained possession of the rest by conquest from the Ancalites. Under the Roman dominion it was included in the great division called Flavia Cæsariensis; and on the complete establishment of the heptarchy, it became part of the powerful kingdom of Mercia. Buckinghamshire is in the diocese of Oxford and province of Canterbury, and, with the exception of a few parishes, constitutes an archdeaconry, in which are the deaneries of Buckingham, Burnham, Mursley, Newport, Wadsden, Wendover, and Wycombe; the number of parishes is 202. For civil purposes it is divided into the hundreds of Ashendon, Aylesbury, Buckingham, Burnham, Cottesloe, Desborough, Newport, and Stoke. It contains the borough and markettowns of Aylesbury, Buckingham, Great Marlow, and High Wycombe; and the market-towns of Amersham, Beaconsfield, Chesham, Ivinghoe, Newport-Pagnell, Olney, Prince's-Risborough, Fenny-Stratford, StonyStratford, Wendover, and Winslow. Three knights are returned to parliament for the shire, two burgesses for each of the boroughs of Aylesbury, Buckingham, and High Wycombe, and one for that of Great Marlow. The county members are elected at Aylesbury; and Aylesbury, Beaconsfield, Buckingham, and Newport-Pagnell are polling-places. It is included in the Norfolk circuit; the summer assizes are held at Buckingham, and the Lent assizes and general quarter-sessions at Aylesbury, where is situated the common gaol and house of correction for the county.
The most striking natural feature in the surface is the range of heights called the Chiltern Hills, which stretches across it from the southern extremity of Bedfordshire to the southern part of Oxfordshire, being part of the great chain of chalk hills extending from Norfolk south-westward into Dorsetshire. On the western side of the county is a range of hills of calcareous stone, parallel with the Chiltern Hills, at the distance only of a few miles; and between these two lies the rich vale of Aylesbury, the natural fertility of which is almost unrivalled. The predominant soils are rich loam, strong clay, chalky mould, and loam upon gravel, all of which, however, admit of considerable variety, and are much intermingled. The county has long been famous for its produce of corn and cattle, "Buckinghamshire bread and beef" having been formerly a common expression. One-half of it consists of arable farms, containing not more than one-fifth of grass land, which occupy the whole of the Chiltern Hills and the county southward of them to the Thames, together with the sandy lands in the neighbourhood of the Brickhills, Soulbury, and Lindslade, and some parts of the Vale of Aylesbury. The greater part of the vale is devoted to grazing and the dairy; most of this central part of the county, from the Chiltern Hills to the Watling-street, consisting of dairy and grazing farms, the former preponderating. The number of cows kept on these extensive pastures is computed at about 27,000, of which upwards of 21,000 are always productive to the dairy; and between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000 lb. of butter are annually made in the county, of which by far the greater part is sent by contract to London: no cheese is made, except a few cream cheeses in summer for the markets of Buckingham, Aylesbury, and Wycombe. Hogs form an important part of the stock of the dairy-farms. At Aylesbury and in its vicinity, great numbers of ducks are bred and fattened, and many thousands are sent annually to London by the carriers, some of them very early in the spring.
The principal Rivers are the Thames, the Ouse, the Ouzel, the Thame, and the Colne: the first is the boundary and chief ornament of the southern part of the county, which it separates from Berkshire during a navigable course of about 28 miles; and, by affording a direct communication with the metropolis, is of great importance. The Grand Junction canal, on entering from Northamptonshire, is carried by means of an aqueduct, about three-quarters of a mile long, across the stream and valley of the Ouse. In 1794, an act was obtained for making navigable cuts to communicate with this canal from Aylesbury, Buckingham, and Wendover: the Aylesbury branch joins the main canal near Marsworth; the Buckingham branch proceeds down the north side of the valley of the Ouse to the main line at Cosgrove, on the Northamptonshire border; and the Wendover navigation joins it at Bulborne, on the confines of Hertfordshire. The Great Western railway enters the county at Iver, in its progress from Middlesex, and quits it at Taplow, where it enters the county of Berks. The London and Birmingham railway enters the county at Ivinghoe, and, after a course of 25 miles, quits it at Hanslope, for Northamptonshire. The Aylesbury railway proceeds from that town through a portion of the county of Herts, near Tring, and joins the London and Birmingham line, of which it is a branch; the line is seven miles in length. A small part of the Bedford branch of the London and Birmingham railway, is also within the county.
Buckinghamshire contained the Roman station Magiovintum, the remains of which are visible on a small elevation in the "Auld Fields," about a quarter of a mile from Fenny-Stratford, where an abundance of coins and foundations of buildings have been dug up. It was crossed by the Ikeneld-street, Watling-street, and Akeman-street, and by several vicinal ways, of which there are traces in different parts. Camden is of opinion that there was a Roman town at Burg-hill, now contracted into Brill, in the western part of the county: numerous relics of Roman occupation, such as coins, pavements, &c., have been found at Wycombe and in its vicinity; and coins have also been found near Prince's-Risborough and Ellesborough. Above the village of Medmenham are the remains of a large camp, nearly square, formed by a single ditch and vallum, and inclosing an area of about seven acres; and in a wood near Burnham is an oblong intrenchment of the same kind, vulgarly called "Harlequin's Moat." Near Ellesborough are some strong earthworks on the side of the Chiltern Hills, at one corner of which is a high mount styled the Castle Hill, or Kimble Castle, and commonly supposed to have been the site of the residence of the British king Cunobeline. On the top of the hill at West Wycombe are the remains of a circular encampment; and those of another are discernible near High Wycombe, at a place named Old, or All, Hollands. At Danesfield, on the banks of the Thames, is a nearly circular intrenchment, designated Danes' Ditch; at Cholsbury is a nearly circular camp, formed by a double ditch; and the manorhouse of the adjacent village of Hawridge is built within an ancient circular intrenchment. There are also some large intrenchments at Hedgerby-Dean, and a remarkable ditch runs thence to East Burnham. Near the lower Ikeneld way, in the parish of Ellesborough, is a moated area of an irregular form, in most places about fifty paces in breadth. A considerable rampart of earth, under the common name of Grimesdike, runs nearly east and west through a part of the county, upon the Chiltern Hills, where it may be traced for some miles; and on the side of the chalk hills near Risborough is cut a great cross called White Leaf Cross, of unknown antiquity, which has been considered the memorial of some victory gained by the Anglo-Saxons over the Danes.
Prior to the Reformation there were twenty-one Religious Houses; including four alien priories, one commandery of the Knights Hospitallers, and a college of the society of Bonhommes at Ashridge, near the confines of Hertfordshire, the only house of that order in England, excepting that at Edingdon in Wiltshire. The county contained, besides, ten hospitals, one of which, at Newport-Pagnell, refounded by Queen Anne, consort of James I., still exists; also the well-known royal college of Eton, founded by Henry VI. There are very considerable remains of Nutley Abbey, converted into a farmhouse and offices; and some vestiges of those of Burnham, Medmenham, and Great Missenden, and of the college of Bonhommes: part of St. Margaret's nunnery, in the parish of Ivinghoe, is yet standing, and is occupied as a dwelling-house. No mural remains exist of any fortress, but some earthworks point out the sites of those which stood at Castlethorpe, Lavendon, and Whitchurch, the first was called Hanslope Castle. The most remarkable ancient mansions are, Gayhurst, built in the reign of Elizabeth, and Liscombe House; and among the seats of the landed proprietors, those most distinguished for their architectural beauties are, the magnificent mansion of Stowe, Wycombe Abbey, Ashridge Park (partly in Herts), and the modern mansion at Tyrringham. Buckinghamshire gives the title of Earl to the family of Hobart-Hampden.
Buckland, cum Carswell (St. Mary)
BUCKLAND, cum Carswell (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Farringdon, hundred of Ganfield, county of Berks, 3¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Farringdon; containing 946 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Oxford to Bath, and bounded on the north by the navigable river Isis, on the banks of which a wharf has been constructed. Some quarries of good buildingstone are extensively wrought; and a pleasure-fair is held in August. Buckland House, the seat of Sir J. Throckmorton, Bart., was erected in 1757, and is pleasantly situated. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 4. 7.; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol: the great tithes have been commuted for £863. 10., and the vicarial for £275. 8.; the glebe comprises 30 acres. The church, a neat edifice, contains a monument to a Duke of Somerset, who was interred here. There is a place of worship for Baptists, and a Roman Catholic chapel is attached to Buckland House.
Buckland (All Saints)
BUCKLAND (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Aylesbury, county of Buckingham, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Tring; containing 537 inhabitants, and comprising 1497 acres. An act was passed in 1842 for inclosing lands in the parish. The living is annexed, with the livings of Quarrendon and StokeMandeville, to the vicarage of Bierton. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Buckland (St. Michael)
BUCKLAND (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Winchcomb, Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Chipping-Campden; containing, with the hamlet of Laverton, 377 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £29. 6. 8.; net income, £222; patron, Sir T. Phillips, Bart.: the tithes were commuted in 1779, for land and a money payment. The church is a fine structure, in the later English style; some of the windows contain specimens of ancient stained glass. James Thynne, by deed in 1707, gave land now producing upwards of £100 per annum, for teaching poor children, and other charitable purposes.
Buckland (St. Andrew)
BUCKLAND (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Edwinstree, county of Hertford, 3 miles (N.) from Buntingford; containing 435 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 2000 acres, of which 500 are woodland, 50 pasture, and the remainder good arable land; the soil is fertile, and the surface varied. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20, and in the patronage of King's College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £330, and the glebe comprises 38 acres. The church is in the later English style.
Buckland (St. Nicholas)
BUCKLAND (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union and hundred of Faversham, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Faversham; containing 19 inhabitants. It consists of 978 acres, of which 35 are in wood. The living is a discharged sinecure rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.; net income, £167; patron, Sir John Tyssen Tyrrell, Bart. The church has long been in ruins.
Buckland (St. Mary)
BUCKLAND (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chard, partly in the S. division of the hundred of Petherton, and partly in the hundred of Martock, but chiefly in that of Abdick and Bulstone, W. division of Somerset, 6 miles (W. by S.) from Ilminster; containing 696 inhabitants. This parish was the scene of some sanguinary conflicts between the Saxons and the Danes, and various relics of warlike implements have been found in the neighbourhood. It comprises 3494 acres, of which 210 are common or waste. A fair for cattle and toys is held on the Wednesday and Thursday next after September 20th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 19. 9½., and in the patronage of Lieut.-Gen. Popham: the tithes have been commuted for £350, and the glebe consists of 37½ acres. The churchyard contains a mutilated stone cross. On the edge of Blackdown Hill are the remains of a Roman fortification, called Neroche Castle; and on the summit of the same ridge, a little further on, by the side of the road leading to Chard, is a huge collection of flint stones, lying in heaps upwards of 60 yards in circumference, styled Robin Hood's Butts, and supposed to be the rude sepulchral memorials of warriors who fell in battle.
Buckland (St. Peter)
BUCKLAND (St. Peter), a parish, in the union, and First division of the hundred, of Reigate, E. division of Surrey, 2¼ miles (W.) from Reigate; containing 364 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road from Dorking to Reigate, and bounded on the south by the river Mole, comprises by computation 1800 acres. The soil is partly chalk, forming a portion of the great ridge extending through Surrey, and partly a blue clay, alternated with sand; the surface is hilly, and the surrounding scenery very pleasing. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 12. 11., and in the patronage of All Souls' College, Oxford; net income, £337. The church consists of a nave and chancel; in some of the windows are the remains of stained glass.
Buckland-Brewer (St. Mary and St. Benedict)
BUCKLAND-BREWER (St. Mary and St. Benedict), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Bideford, hundred of Shebbear, Great Torrington and N. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Bideford; containing 1103 inhabitants, of whom 312 are in the village. This place derives its distinguishing appellation from its ancient proprietor, Lord Brewer, whose seat, Orleigh Court, is still remaining: he gave a portion of the manor to the abbot of Dunkeswell, who obtained the privilege of a weekly market and an annual fair. The parish comprises 5017 acres, of which 866 are common or waste: there are some quarries of stone, which is raised chiefly for the roads. Fairs are held on Tuesday in Whitsun-week, and the 16th of November. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of East Putford annexed, valued in the king's books at £25. 17. 3½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the great tithes of Buckland-Brewer, payable to the Ven. Archdeacon More, have been commuted for £240, and the vicarial for £235. 10.; the glebe comprises about 9 acres, with a house. The church, anciently in the Norman and early English styles, was rebuilt in 1790, and is now a spacious edifice in the Grecian style; some of the former details have been preserved, and among them an enriched Norman arched doorway. In the old church was a small college dedicated to St. Michael, of which, at the Dissolution, the revenue was £8. 7. 6. There is a chapel of ease at Bulkworthy; and the parish contains places of worship for Arminians and Wesleyans.
Buckland-Denham (St. Mary)
BUCKLAND-DENHAM (St. Mary), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Frome, hundred of Kilmersdon, E. division of Somerset, 2½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Frome; containing 516 inhabitants. This was once a place of greater importance, having been distinguished for the manufacture of woollen-cloth. The parish comprises by computation 1400 acres; the soil is generally light and sandy, the surface hilly, and the lower lands are watered by a small branch of the river Frome. There are quarries of blue lias, which is raised for burning into lime. A market to be held on Tuesday, and a fair on the eve, day, and morrow of St. Michael, were granted in the 24th of Henry III., to Geoffrey Dinant, lord of the manor; and the assizes were frequently held in a town-hall here. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 9. 7., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Bath and Wells. The impropriate tithes, formerly belonging to the prebendary of Buckland-Denham in the Cathedral of Wells, but now to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, that prebend having been suppressed, have been commuted for £162. 10., and the vicarial tithes for £147; there are 68 acres of impropriate glebe, and nearly 9 of vicarial. The church, anciently connected with an Augustine nunnery founded in 1120, has some details of Norman and early English architecture; of the former, is a very fine arch. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A Roman pavement was discovered at Whitby in 1838.
Buckland, East (St. Michael)
BUCKLAND, EAST (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of South Molton, hundred of Braunton, South Molton and N. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (N. W. by N.) from South Molton; containing 167 inhabitants. It is the property of Earl Fortescue, and contains by computation 1384 acres. The living is a rectory, with that of Filleigh consolidated, valued in the king's books at £9. 1. 8., and in the patronage of the Earl: the tithes of the parish have been commuted for £140, and the glebe comprises 28 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
BUCKLAND-EGG, a parish, in the union of Plympton St. Mary, hundred of Roborough, Midland-Roborough and S. divisions of Devon, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Plymouth; containing 1296 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Plym, and comprises 3197a. 2r. 17p., of which 1454 acres are usually in tillage, 832 in pasture, 401 in wood, and 52 acres are common or waste. The soil is various; in some parts rich pasture land, in others arable of very indifferent quality, and in a great portion barren waste. The substratum abounds with slate of good quality, of which some extensive quarries are worked; and with dunstone, which also is procured. Copper-ore has been found, and a mine opened with success. The Plymouth and Dartmoor railway passes through the parish, and affords a facility for conveying the produce. A fair for live-stock is held on the second Wednesday in June. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 4. 4½., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriator, Mrs. S. A. Julian. The great tithes have been commuted for £200, and the vicarial for £506; the glebe consists of 32 acres. The church contains an ancient bell brought from Buckland Abbey. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Buckland-Filleigh (St. Mary)
BUCKLAND-FILLEIGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Torrington, hundred of Shebbear, Black Torrington and Shebbear, and N. divisions of Devon, 6½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Hatherleigh; containing 275 inhabitants. It comprises by computation about 1000 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 16. 0½., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter; net income, £218: the glebe comprises 59 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the decorated and later English styles, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains some elegant marble monuments to the memory of the Fortescue family, for several centuries proprietors of the parish.
Buckland-in-Dovor (St. Andrew)
BUCKLAND-in-Dovor (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Dovor, hundred of Bewsborough, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 1¾ mile (N. W.) from Dovor; containing 1472 inhabitants. It comprises 978 acres, of which 35 are in wood: the soil is partly clay and partly loam, much interspersed with flints; the surface is diversified with hills of comparative sterility, and with valleys producing abundant crops of grain. The lower grounds are intersected by the small river Dour, over which a neat bridge of brick has been built at the village. The manufacture of paper is carried on in two large mills; and a fair is held on the 4th of September. The living is a discharged perpetual curacy, endowed with the vicarial tithes, and with £12 per annum payable out of the great tithes; net income, £139; patron, the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In 1141, an hospital for lepers was founded, and dedicated to St. Bartholomew, but there are no vestiges of it: on digging near its site in 1765, a leaden vessel filled with silver coins struck in the reigns of Edward II. and Edward III., was discovered.
BUCKLAND-in-the-Moor, a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbot, hundred of Haytor, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 3 miles (N. W.) from Ashburton; containing 114 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1450 acres, of which 800 are in woods and plantations, 560 arable, and 85 pasture. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Ashburton: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £109. 10., and the glebe consists of 10 acres. The church contains a fine wooden screen.
Buckland-Monachorum (Holy Trinity)
BUCKLAND-MONACHORUM (Holy Trinity), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Tavistock, hundred of Roborough, Midland-Roborough and S. divisions of Devon, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Tavistock; containing 1411 inhabitants. This place acquired the adjunct to its name from an abbey founded in 1278, by Amicia, Countess Dowager of Devonshire, in honour of the Virgin Mary and St. Benedict; to which she removed a society of Cistercian monks from the Isle of Wight. In 1337, the abbot obtained permission to castellate his monastery; and during the parliamentary war it was garrisoned by Sir Richard Grenville. The revenue of the society, in the 26th of Henry VIII., was estimated at £241. 17. 9. The estate came by purchase into the possession of the renowned Sir Francis Drake; and a modern mansion, beautifully situated on the banks of the Tavy, has been erected, called Buckland Abbey, now the property of Sir T. T. F. E. Drake, Bart.; but there are still some interesting remains of the abbey. The parish comprises 6386 acres, of which 1889 are common or waste. The village, which contains some curious old houses, a mutilated stone cross, and a few ancient inscriptions, is mean in appearance, but picturesquely situated. A fair is held on Trinity-Monday. The Plymouth and Dartmoor railway crosses the parish on the east. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £19. 8. 9., and in the gift of the family of Nichols: the great tithes, belonging to Sir T. Drake, have been commuted for £175. 8.; and those of the incumbent for £291. 10., with a glebe of 52 acres. The church consists of a nave, two aisles, and two small transepts, with a fine tower supporting four octagonal turrets, embattled, and surmounted by pinnacles; it contains, among several others, a finely executed monument by Bacon, to the memory of Baron Heathfield, the brave defender of Gibraltar.
Buckland-Newton (Holy Rood)
BUCKLAND-NEWTON (Holy Rood), a parish, in the union of Cerne, hundred of Buckland-Newton, Cerne division of the county of Dorset, 4 miles (N. E. by N.) from Cerne; comprising the tythings of Brockhampton, Buckland, Duntish, Knowle, Mintern Parva, and Plush; and containing 914 inhabitants, of whom 310 are in the tything of Buckland. The parish is on the great road from Weymouth to Bath, and comprises by measurement 6018 acres, of which about 1241 are arable, 4085 meadow and pasture, 237 woodland, and 308 common. The substratum is chalk, in which are imbedded some few flints; and a little sandstone is found on the western confines. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16. 19. 9½.; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Wells; impropriators, the representatives of Leonard Pount, Esq., who have commuted their tithes for £745: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £550; 104 acres of glebe belong to the impropriators, and 19½ to the vicar. The church is in the early and later English styles; the chancel has lancet windows: a gallery, containing 120 sittings, was built in 1821. At Plush is a chapel of ease, more ancient than the church. The Independents have a place of worship. There are some remains of a Roman camp.
BUCKLAND-RIPERS, a parish, in the union of Weymouth, hundred of Culliford-Tree, Dorchester division of Dorset, 3½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Melcombe-Regis; containing 118 inhabitants. It comprises 1205 acres by computation: the soil is a strong clay, producing good crops of grain; the surface is hilly, and the surrounding scenery pleasing. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 9. 2., and in the patronage of Q. H. Stroud, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £200, and the glebe comprises nine acres.
BUCKLAND-TOUTSAINTS, a chapelry, in the parish of Loddiswell, union of Kingsbridge, hundred of Coleridge, Stanborough and Coleridge, and S. divisions of Devon, 2½ miles (N. E.) from Kingsbridge; containing 56 inhabitants.
Buckland, West (St. Peter)
BUCKLAND, WEST (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of South Molton, hundred of Braunton, South Molton and N. divisions of Devon, 6 miles (N. W.) from South Molton; containing 275 inhabitants. It comprises 1339 acres, of which 259 are common or waste: stone for the roads is quarried in several parts. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Baroness Bassett: the tithes have been commuted for £190; there is a good glebe-house, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. The church has a carved wooden screen, highly enriched, separating the nave from the chancel. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Buckland, West (St. Mary)
BUCKLAND, WEST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wellington, W. division of the hundred of Kingsbury, locally in that of Taunton and TauntonDean, W. division of Somerset, 2¾ miles (E.) from Wellington; containing 887 inhabitants. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Wellington: the church is partly in the Norman style, with later additions. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Bucklebury, anciently Burghulbury (St. Mary)
BUCKLEBURY, anciently Burghulbury (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bradfield, partly in the hundred of Reading, and partly in that of Faircross, county of Berks, 7 miles (E. N. E.) from Newbury; containing, with the tythings of Bucklebury, Hawkridge, and Marlston, 1277 inhabitants, of whom 1065 are in Bucklebury tything. The parish comprises 6025a. 7p., of which 3443 acres are arable, 1000 copse-wood, 726 meadow, and 854 common land. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17; patron and impropriator, W. H. H. Hartley, Esq., lord of the manor: the great tithes have been commuted for £75. 10., and the vicarial for £340; the glebe consists of nearly 31 acres, with a glebe-house. The church contains a monument to the memory of Viscountess Bolingbroke, and others to the ancient family of Winchcombe; a good organ was presented by the late incumbent, the Rev. W. Hartley. Not far from the church stood the old manor-house, which, from decay, was taken down in 1833, when some very ancient arches of carved oak, with several pieces of coin and tessellated pavement, were discovered: there are still some remains of a subterraneous passage, through which the celebrated Lord Bolingbroke is reported to have escaped.
Bucklesham (St. Mary)
BUCKLESHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Colneis, E. division of Suffolk, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Ipswich, containing 255 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1799 acres, of which 41 are common or waste. The soil is of a mixed quality, the greater portion light; and till within the last few years, a considerable portion was uninclosed heath: the surface is boldly undulated, and the lower grounds are watered by a stream which flows through the parish into the river Deben. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 1. 8., and in the patronage of the Rev. W. Walford: the tithes have been commuted for about £500, making the net value of the living, with glebe, £460; the rectoryhouse is a commodious residence. The church is a neat ancient structure. The crag-pits in the parish contain a great quantity of shells, generally considered to be antediluvian remains; bones of fishes, in a state of petrifaction, have also been found.
Buckley, or Bulkeley
BUCKLEY, or Bulkeley, a township, in the parish of Malpas, union of Nantwich, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 8 miles (W. by N.) from Nantwich; containing 190 inhabitants. It comprises 802 acres; the soil is sandy clay.
Buckminster (St. John the Baptist)
BUCKMINSTER (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of Framland, N. division of the county of Leicester, 9¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing, with the chapelry of Sewstern, 697 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 2900 acres. The soil in the eastern and northern parts is a good red loam, and in the southern and western portions a tenacious clay; the surface is very elevated, and the lands are watered by numerous springs which descend from the higher grounds. Buckminster Park, the seat of the Earl of Dysart, is a noble mansion of modern erection, situated in a park well stocked with deer and embellished with timber. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 7. 3½.; net income, £161; patron, the Earl: the glebe comprises 81 acres. The great tithes have been commuted for £671. The church has a massive tower and spire, with portions in various styles. There is a chapel of ease at Sewstern. A close, called the Grange, was the site of a religious house subordinate to the monastery of Kirkby-Belew.