A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Norham, or Norhamshire (St. Cuthbert)
NORHAM, or Norhamshire (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, N. division of Northumberland; containing 2934 inhabitants, of whom 902 are in the township of Norham, 7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Berwick. The doctrines of Christianity are stated to have been first preached to the Northumbrians, by the Scottish missionaries, at Norham; and on the establishment of a see for Northumbria, this place was given to Aidan, the first bishop. It continued in the possession of his successors until the time of Bishop Barnes, who alienated his rights to the crown: the bishops exercised a special jurisdiction throughout the district, having their sheriff, coroner, justices, and other civil officers, their court of exchequer, gallows, &c. Being situated on a pass or ford on the river Tweed, called Ubbanford, upon the borders of England and Scotland, Norham was frequently the scene of rapine and bloodshed, and the place of meeting between the principal officers of the two kingdoms for settling affairs relative to the border. Bishop Flambard, in 1121, probably erected the first regular fortress. Having been enlarged and strengthened by succeeding prelates, the castle, when well garrisoned, was deemed almost impregnable. David I., King of Scotland, however, in 1138 took and destroyed the town and fortress after a spirited resistance; but they were rebuilt in 1154, by Bishop Pudsey, who erected the present great tower of the castle, and conferred extensive privileges by charter on the inhabitants.
Various treaties between the Scots and King John were arranged here; and in 1215, that monarch, in consequence of the defection of the Northumbrian barons, and their having sworn homage to the Scottish king (Alexander II.), laid siege to the castle, which held out successfully for forty days, when he was obliged to withdraw his forces. In 1318, it was unsuccessfully besieged by the Scots, who, however, were more fortunate in an attack in 1322; they then obtained possession of it, but were soon afterwards compelled to abandon the prize, after having for ten days resisted an assault of Edward II. Upon the accession of Edward III., they stormed the castle with success, and retained it a short time. The town was plundered and burnt in 1355, by a party of Scottish troops, under the command of Sir William Ramsay; in 1498 the castle was besieged by the Scottish monarch himself, but the Earl of Surrey advancing to the relief of the garrison, the assailants were compelled to retire. Just before the battle of Flodden-Field the Scots again invested the fortress, which fell into their hands through information given by a deserter from the garrison. The remains of this strong edifice occupy the summit of a steep rocky eminence impending over the river, and so near that portions have been washed away by the stream; the keep or main tower, with its vaults and prisons entire, is the principal part, and is constructed of a soft red freestone.
The parish consists of the townships of Duddo, Felkington, Grindon, Horncliffe, Loan-End, Longridge, Norham, Norham-Mains, Shoreswood, Thornton, and Twizel. It comprises by computation 14,000 acres: the soil is various; the substratum abounds with coal, of which several mines are in operation, and there are some quarries of stone, raised for ordinary building purposes. Here is a considerable salmon-fishery; and fairs take place on the second Thursday in May, and the third Thursday in October. A market was formerly held, but it has been long discontinued. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Durham, who are likewise appropriators: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £460, and the glebe comprises 24 acres. The church, built about 1180, comprises only part of the original edifice, the tower and aisles having been rebuilt in 1837, and a north and south transept in 1838; it had anciently three chantries in honour of St. Cuthbert, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and St. Nicholas, and possessed the privilege of sanctuary for thirty-seven days. The remains of Ceolwulph, a lineal descendant of Ida, and King of Northumbria, were brought from Lindisfarne and buried at Norham, where also Gospatric, Earl of Northumberland, was interred. There is a place of worship in connexion with the United Secession Synod of Scotland; also a free school, originally founded in 1762, and rebuilt in 1809, and which is endowed with about twenty acres of land, producing an annual income of £36. About two miles below Norham, on the banks of the river Tweed, two urns containing human bones have been found in a gravel-pit called the Crooks, near which are the pedestals of two ancient crosses, also an artificial eminence, probably a barrow, surrounded by stone steps. There are some Druidical remains, and vestiges of a Roman camp. The learned Dr. George Carleton, successively Bishop of Llandaff and of Chichester, who died in 1628, was born here.
NORHAM-MAINS, a township, in the parish of Norham, union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, N. division of Northumberland, 6½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Berwick; containing 98 inhabitants. It is on the borders of Scotland, close to the Tweed, which runs on the north-west; and comprises about 950 acres. The tithes have been commuted for £287. 11. 8., payable to the Dean and Chapter of Durham.
NORLAND, a township, in the chapelry of SowerbyBridge, parish and union of Halifax, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 2½ miles (S. W.) from Halifax; containing 1670 inhabitants, partly engaged in the woollen manufacture. The township comprises by computation 1140 acres of land. The substratum is principally millstone-grit, of which there is a large outcrop at Butterworth-End, beyond which, and nearer to North Dean, a quarry is extensively wrought; a belt of plate coal is also discernible within the group of middle millstone, in the cuttings for the line of the Manchester and Leeds railway. The township consists chiefly of detached houses and small hamlets, scattered over the southern acclivity of the vale of Calder. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
NORLEY, a township, in the lordship of Kingsley, parish of Frodsham, union of Runcorn, hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 5 miles (S. E.) from Frodsham, on the road to Northwich; containing 615 inhabitants. The township comprises 1304 acres, of a sandy soil. Norley Hall, with 1000 acres of land, is the property of Samuel Woodhouse, Esq.: Norley Bank, a modern mansion, is the seat of Egerton Warburton, Esq. A church was erected here in 1832; it is a neat stone building, with a tower. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the family of Woodhouse; net income, £100. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Normanby (St. Peter and St. Paul)
NORMANBY (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the E. division of the wapentake of Aslacoe, parts of Lindsey, union and county of Lincoln, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Market-Rasen; containing 471 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the river Ancholme, and comprises by computation 1600 acres; the substratum contains good limestone, which is burnt for manure, and also used for the roads. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; net income, £88; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln: the tithes were commuted for land in 1789. The church is an ancient structure, partly in the Norman and early English styles. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a school is endowed with about 16 acres of land, purchased with £200 bequeathed by Mrs. Dunn, and producing £25 per annum.
NORMANBY, a parish, in the union of Pickering, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York; containing, with Thornton-Risebrough township, 245 inhabitants, of whom 212 are in the township of Normanby, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Pickering. This parish, which is supposed to have derived its name from one of its ancient proprietors, comprises 2300 acres, whereof two-thirds are arable, and the remainder, including about 15 acres of woodland, meadow and pasture; the surface is undulated, and the scenery richly diversified. The small village is situated on the road from Malton to Kirkby-Moorside, and very near the river Seven, which falls into the Rye a little above Newsham bridge. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 12. 6.; patron, R. Hill, Esq.: the tithes of the parish have been commuted for £490, and the glebe consists of 10 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the Norman style, with a low tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In the parish is a sulphureous mineral spring, the water of which contains carbonic acid and a small portion of neutral salt.
NORMANBY-IN-CLEVELAND, a township, in the chapelry of Eston, parish of Ormesby, union of Guisborough, E. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 5¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Guisborough; containing 134 inhabitants. At the time of the Domesday survey, lands were held here by the king, the Earl of Morton, and the family of Mallet; amongst the proprietors since that date, occur the families of Brus, Thweng, Morley, and Pennyman. The township comprises 1640 acres: the river Tees runs at a short distance to the north. The village, which is small, is situated close to Eston, and on the road from Yarm to Kirk-Leatham. The tithes have been commuted for £179, payable to the Archbishop of York.
Normanby-on-the-Wold (St. Peter)
NORMANBY-on-the-Wold (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Caistor, N. division of the wapentake of Walshcroft, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Market-Rasen; containing 129 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1952 acres of land: the substratum abounds with stone of good quality for the roads and for rough building. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Claxby in 1740, and valued in the king's books at £9. 10. 10. The church is an ancient structure, and appears to have been formerly much larger than at present; it contains some richly-carved oak seats. In the churchyard are the remains of a beautiful cross.
NORMANDY, a tything, in the parish of Ash, First division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of Surrey, 5¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Guildford; containing 304 inhabitants. This tything belongs to the domain of Henley Park, and consists principally of a single farm, with an extensive right of common: the farm was tenanted by the late William Cobbett; and many of his Political Registers, and other papers of interest, were written here.
NORMANTON, a parish, in the union of Shardlow, hundred of Repton and Gresley, S. division of the county of Derby, 2 miles (S.) from Derby; containg 309 inhabitants. It comprises 1302 acres, of strong red marl land. The manor was granted in 1234 to the monks of Derby, and by Henry VIII. in 1544 to the Babingtons, from whom it passed to the Beaumonts, and the Dixies: the seat of these families was a ruin in 1712. The village is indifferently built. The Derby canal crosses the north-east part of the parish, and the Birmingham and Derby railway passes through it. The living is annexed to the vicarage of St. Peter in Derby. The church is very ancient, and though much defaced, contains some beautiful Norman details; it consists of a nave and chancel, with a low tower and short spire. The Independents and Primitive Methodists have places of worship.
NORMANTON, a hamlet, and formerly a chapelry, in the parish of Bottesford, union of Grantham, hundred of Framland, N. division of the county of Leicester, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from the town of Grantham; containing 103 inhabitants.
Normanton (St. Nicholas)
NORMANTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Grantham, wapentake of Loveden, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 7¼ miles (N. N. E.) from the town of Grantham; containing 200 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 2. 6.; net income, £104; patron, the Marquess of Bristol. The church is partly Norman, and partly in the early English style, with a curious tower, and a large stone font.
NORMANTON, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Southwell, Southwell division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 1 mile (N. E. by N.) from Southwell; containing 70 inhabitants. Here was formerly a chapel, the ruins of which are now used as a barn.
Normanton (St. Matthew)
NORMANTON (St. Matthew), a parish, in the union of Oakham, hundred of Martinsley, county of Rutland, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Oakham; containing 28 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the north-west by the small river Gwash, comprises 705a. 3r. 24p. The soil is partly clay, and partly light red sand; the surface is undulated, and the scenery pleasingly varied. Stone of good quality is quarried for the roads. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 4. 7.; net income, £156; patron, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart.: the glebe comprises 22 acres. The church has been mostly rebuilt. The parish formerly constituted a part of that of Hambleton, to the incumbent of which the rector pays a small sum annually, in lieu of the tithes of calves and chickens, and surplice fees. There is a chalybeate spring.
Normanton (All Saints)
NORMANTON (All Saints), a parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Altofts and Snydale, 1323 inhabitants, of whom 481 are in Normanton township, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Wakefield. The parish comprises about 4000 acres; the soil is rich, and in good cultivation. The Midland railway is joined at Normanton by the Manchester and Leeds line; and a little beyond this place, the York and North-Midland railway diverges towards York. An excavation through a rocky soil was made here, to the extent of 500,000 cubic yards; the greater portion of the earth was used in forming the embankment at Altofts, where the railway is carried over the Calder by a viaduct. The village, since the completion of the railway, which has a station here, has become of considerable importance; and a spacious hotel has been erected at a vast expense, for the accommodation of the numerous passengers who arrive by the York, Sheffield, Manchester, and Leeds trains. The station comprises a depôt for merchandise, with every requisite for facilitating the traffic on the line. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7; patrons and appropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge: the great tithes of the parish have been commuted for £676, and the small for £139; the appropriate glebe consists of 2 acres, and the vicarial of 75. The church is a neat structure with a tower.
NORMANTON-LE-HEATH, a chapelry, in the parish of Nailstone, union of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 3½ miles (S. S. E.) from Ashby; containing 235 inhabitants. The chapel is an ancient fabric, on an eminence. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
NORMANTON-ON-THE-WOLDS, a township, in the parish of Plumtree, union of Bingham, N. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 6 miles (S. E. by S.) from Nottingham; containing 230 inhabitants. The tithes have been commuted for £225. 15. 6.
Normanton, South (St. Mary)
NORMANTON, SOUTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Mansfield, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Alfreton; containing 1288 inhabitants. This parish, for many generations from the time of the Conquest, was the residence of the family of Revel, whose mansion was at Carnfield Hall. It lies on the Mansfield and Alfreton road, and comprises 1879a. 2r. 31p., nearly equally divided into arable and pasture, with a few plantations. The surface is undulated; the soil clay, cold, and unproductive; and the scenery pleasingly diversified: the substratum abounds with coal of good quality, of which some mines are in operation. The village is situated on an eminence; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the collieries, and in frame-work knitting, which is carried on to a considerable extent. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 15. 5., and in the gift of Thomas Radford, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £285, and the glebe comprises 60 acres, with a house. The church is an ancient structure, with two aisles, and a tower and pinnacles: the communion-plate, which is very handsome, was presented by the family of Revel. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have places of worship. There is a small day school; and a Church Sunday school, built in 1840, is supported by subscription. Fossil remains of plants, fish, and shells are sometimes found. Jedediah Strutt, Esq., the ingenious inventor of the machine for manufacturing ribbed stockings, was born here.
NORMANTON, TEMPLE, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Chesterfield, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 3¼ miles (S. E.) from the town of Chesterfield; containing 132 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Miss Lord; net income, £55. A school is supported by subscription, aided by a small endowment and a house for the master.
Normanton-Upon-Soar (St. John)
NORMANTON-UPON-SOAR (St. John), a parish, in the union of Loughborough, S. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe and of the county of Nottingham, 4½ miles (N. N. W.) from Loughborough; containing 428 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 1300 acres. The surface is varied, rising into hills of considerable elevation; the substratum abounds with limestone of excellent quality, which is extensively quarried for building, and for burning into lime. The river Soar bounds, and the Midland railway passes through, the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 0½., and in the gift of J. Buckley, Esq., and others: the tithes were commuted for land in 1776; the glebe altogether comprises 243 acres, valued at £400 per annum. The church is a very ancient cruciform structure, of which the north transept is entirely, and the south partly, a ruin. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Normanton-Upon-Trent (St. Matthew)
NORMANTON-UPON-TRENT (St. Matthew), a parish, in the union of East Retford, N. division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 3¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Tuxford; containing 362 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the east by the river Trent, comprises 1163a. 2r. 19p.: the village is pleasantly situated on an acclivity. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 5.; net income, £154; patron and incumbent, the Rev. W. Doncaster. On the inclosure of the open fields in 1804, 56½ acres were allotted to the vicar in lieu of tithes. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists.