A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Bucknall (St. Margaret)
BUCKNALL (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, S. division of the wapentake of Gartree, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6¾ miles (W. by S.) from Horncastle; containing 303 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Witham, and comprises 2471 acres, of which 108 are common or waste: the village is scattered. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 11. 10½., and in the patronage of Lord Monson: the tithes have been commuted for £330, and the glebe consists of 40 acres. There are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
Bucknall, with Bagnall (St. Mary)
BUCKNALL, with Bagnall (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Stoke-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 1½ mile (E.) from Hanley; containing, with the townships of Bagnall, Bucknall, Eaves, and Ubberley, 1609 inhabitants, of whom 638 are in Bucknall township. These places lie from four to seven miles north-east of Stoke: both villages are agricultural. The road from Hanley to Cheadle passes through the parish. Bucknall was formerly a chapelry in the parish of Stoke, but was separated from it by an act passed in 1807, and, with the chapelry of Bagnall, constituted a distinct rectory. The living is not in charge; net income, £200; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Edward Powys. The church, a small edifice in an elevated situation, was rebuilt in 1718: the chapel of ease at Bagnall was rebuilt in 1834.
Bucknell (St. Mary)
BUCKNELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Knighton, partly in the hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, but chiefly in the hundred of Purslow, S. division of Salop, 12 miles (W.) from Ludlow; containing 532 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 2818 acres, of which 1236 form the township of Buckton with Coxall, in Herefordshire: the surface is varied by hill and dale, and the river Teme partly bounds the parish on the south. The living is a vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.; patrons, the Grocers' Company, London; appropriator of the remainder of the great tithes, the Bishop of Hereford. The appropriate tithes have been commuted for £95, and the vicarial for £304; there is a good glebe-house, with a glebe of nearly 58 acres.
Bucknell (St. Peter)
BUCKNELL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Bicester, hundred of Ploughley, county of Oxford, 2½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Bicester; containing 287 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1789 acres, of which 1254 are arable, 500 pasture, and 35 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 16. 0½., and in the patronage of New College, Oxford. The church is an ancient structure, partly Norman, and partly in the early English style, with a central tower between the nave and chancel, which latter contains several memorials to former rectors; in the nave are monuments to the Trotman family, lords of the manor: the south entrance has an enriched doorway, in the early English style. At a short distance from the church, near the verge of a coppice, are the foundations of numerous houses that constituted the village of Saxenton, the greater part of which was destroyed by the Danes, about the year 912.
Buckton, with Coxall.—See Coxall.
BUCKTON, a township, in the parish and union of Bridlington, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 4¼ miles (N. by E.) from Bridlington; containing 182 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Flamborough to Speeton, and comprises by computation 1840 acres, extending northward to the sea.
Buckworth (All Saints)
BUCKWORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Leightonstone, union and county of Huntingdon, 7 miles (N. W. by W.) from Huntingdon; containing 160 inhabitants, and comprising 843 acres, of which 47 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 5. 2½., and in the patronage of R. E. D. Shafto, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £337. 13.; and there is a good glebe-house, with nearly 43 acres of land.
Budbrook (St. Michael)
BUDBROOK (St. Michael), a parish, in the Snitterfield division of the hundred of Barlichway, union, and S. division of the county, of Warwick, 1½ mile (W. N. W.) from Warwick; containing 508 inhabitants. This parish, which is near the road from Warwick to Birmingham, comprises by measurement 3150 acres; the surrounding scenery is richly varied, and there are some views, from the higher grounds, of the town and castle of Warwick. Grove Park, in the parish, was presented by Queen Elizabeth to her favourite, Dudley, Earl of Leicester. The Birmingham and Warwick and the Napton canals meet in the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the patronage of the Rev. H. White: the tithes have been commuted for £427. 5. The church, a neat edifice in good repair, has been beautified, and several of the windows embellished with stained glass. There is a Roman Catholic chapel at Hampton Hill, the seat of Lord Dormer. A parochial school is endowed with £22. 11. per annum, a portion of the rental of land bequeathed in 1701 by Job Marston.
BUDBY, a township, in the parish of Edwinstow, union of Southwell, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Ollerton; containing 127 inhabitants, and comprising 1312 acres. In Domesday book it is called "Buteby," and described as soc of the king's great manor of Mansfield, of which it is now held in fee by Earl Manvers. The village consists of Gothic cottages, and is seated at the south-west corner of Thoresby Park, under a thickly-wooded acclivity, and on the south side of the Medin, which is here crossed by a neat bridge. North and South Budby forests are uninclosed, but form excellent sheep-walks. A school for girls, established in 1791, is under the patronage of the Countess Manvers.
BUDE, a village and small sea-port, on the coast of the Bristol Channel, in the parish, union, and hundred of Stratton, E. division of Cornwall, 2 miles (N. W.) from Stratton; containing 189 inhabitants. This village has of late years become a place of resort for bathing, and the trade has received a stimulus from the construction of the Bude canal: the imports are coal and limestone from Wales, and grocery, &c., from Bristol; and timber, bark, and grain, are sent away. The harbour is inaccessible to ships of large burthen, on account of the sands; those connected with it do not average more than 50 tons each, though vessels of 120 tons' burthen have often entered. Lime is burnt in considerable quantities, and a great deal of sand conveyed inland for manuring the soil. A chapel has been erected at the expense of Sir T. D. Acland, Bart., in whom the patronage is vested; and there is a place of worship for Wesleyans. On Chapel rock, near the breakwater, formerly stood a chapel.
Budeaux, or Budock, St.
BUDEAUX, or BUDOCK, ST., a parish, in the union of Plympton St. Mary, hundred of Roborough, Roborough and S. divisions of Devon, 4½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Plymouth; containing 790 inhabitants. This place, which is beautifully situated on an eminence rising from the river Tamar, from which it is distant about three-quarters of a mile, was, during the parliamentary war, the scene of a conflict between the royalists under Sir Richard Grenville, and the forces of the garrison of Plymouth, then in the possession of the parliamentarians. The royalists, who had strongly fortified the church of St. Budock, as their chief station while besieging the garrison, were driven into it by a sally of the besieged, under Colonel Martin, the governor; and Major Stuckley, with several officers and about 100 men were made prisoners. The parish comprises by computation 2500 acres, of which 120 are in the county of Cornwall: there are some quarries of slate, and of stone of inferior quality. The river is navigable for vessels of small burthen from Saltash-ferry, about a mile distant, to the Weirhead, at certain times of the tide. A fair is held on the 29th of May. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of St. Andrew's, Plymouth: the tithes have been commuted for £350; the income of the curacy is about £113. The church, which was rebuilt in 1563, is a neat structure in the later English style. There are places of worship for Wesleyans; and a school has an endowment of about £86 per annum, arising from land.
BUDLE, a township, in the parish of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Bambrough ward and of Northumberland, 3¾ miles (E. by N.) from Belford; containing 102 inhabitants. The township is on the coast, and comprises 600 acres, of which 450 are arable, and 150 pasture including about 20 acres of plantation; the views embrace a large extent of the seashore, with Bambrough Castle and Holy Island. Whinstone is quarried, and very extensive flour-mills are in operation. The village lies on the southern shore of a fine bay, and on the east side of the Warn rivulet; the adjacent coast abounds with cockles of a superior flavour. Vessels of ten feet draught come up to the harbour one mile from the mills. The tithes have been commuted for £24. 5. payable to the impropriator, and 14s. to the perpetual curate of Bambrough.
Budleigh, East (All Saints)
BUDLEIGH, EAST (All Saints), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of East Budleigh, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Sidmouth; containing 2319 inhabitants. The antiquity of this place is evinced by its having given name to the hundred. It is pleasantly situated on the shore of the English Channel, to which it is open on the south; and is sheltered on other sides by hills of moderate elevation. From the excellent accommodations which have been provided for sea-bathing at Budleigh-Salterton, within the parish, where hot and cold baths have been constructed, and preparations made for the reception of visiters, that hamlet is rising into repute as a watering-place. The market was anciently held on Sunday, and afterwards on Monday; a pleasure-fair is still held on Easter-Tuesday. The parish comprises 2622 acres, of which 338 are waste; the surface is hilly, and the lower lands are watered by the river Otter. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of WithycombeRawleigh annexed, valued in the king's books at £30; net income, £318; patrons, the family of Rolle; impropriators, the landowners. In addition to the parochial church, there is a chapel of ease in the later English style, erected in 1813 at the expense of Lord Rolle. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. At Poer Hayes is an ancient mansion, celebrated as the birthplace of Sir Walter Raleigh; and some remains exist of an old chapel dedicated to St. James.
Budock (St. Budoke)
BUDOCK (St. Budoke), a parish, in the union of Falmouth, E. division of the hundred of Kerrier, W. division of Cornwall, 1½ mile (W. by S.) from Falmouth; containing 1979 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the east by Falmouth bay and the English Channel, and crossed in one part by the road from Falmouth to Penryn, was distinguished for a collegiate church erected on Glaseney Moor in 1720, in honour of the Blessed Virgin and St. Thomas of Canterbury, by Walter Bronescombe, Bishop of Exeter. It continued till the Dissolution, at which time its revenue amounted to £205. 10. 6.; the buildings are said to have occupied a site of three acres, to have been inclosed with an embattled wall, and to have had a subterraneous communication with the church of Gluvias. Within the parish are Pendennis Castle, and Dunstanville and Green-Bank terraces, forming the principal part of the Barton of Penwarris, and adjoining the town of Falmouth. The parish comprises 3899 acres, of which 236 are common or waste; the surface is diversified with hill and dale, and generally well cultivated; and the views from the higher parts, both of sea and land, are extensive and commanding. Granite is largely quarried for exportation to London, at a place called the Budock Rocks, and near Swan Pool, a lake about a quarter of a mile in circumference, and separated from the sea by a bar of sand: there is also a copper-mine. The living is a vicarage, united to that of St. Gluvias: the tithes of Budock have been commuted for £800, of which £420 are payable to the vicar. The church is pleasantly situated on a hill; and contains portions in the later English style, and some interesting monuments to the family of Killegrew, of whom Sir John Killegrew was governor of Pendennis Castle in the reign of Henry VIII. Penwarris chapel was built in 1828, at a cost of about £1800, on Dunstanville-terrace; it contains 594 sittings, 307 of which are free, and is in the gift of the Vicar. There are two places of worship for Wesleyans.
Budville, Langford, county of Somerset.—See Langford-Budville.
Budworth, Great (St. Mary and All Saints)
BUDWORTH, GREAT (St. Mary and All Saints), a parish, in the unions of Runcorn, Altrincham, and Northwich, county of Chester; containing 17,103 inhabitants, of whom 677 are in the township of Great Budworth, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Northwich. The manor was possessed, in the beginning of Henry III.'s reign, by Geoffrey de Dutton, who from his residence at this place was sometimes called de Budworth; Peter, his grandson, removed to Warburton, assumed that name, and was the immediate ancestor of the Warburton family, in whom the property became vested. Geoffrey gave a third part of Budworth to the prior and convent of Norton, whose estate here, after the Dissolution, was granted by Henry VIII. to the Grimsditchs; it was afterwards divided and sold in severalties. This is the largest parish in Cheshire, next to Prestbury, being fifteen miles in length and ten in breadth, and comprising 26,676 acres, whereof 789 are in Budworth township. It contains the townships of Anderton, Antrobus, Appleton, Aston by Budworth, Barnton, Bartington, Budworth, Cogshall, Comberbach, Crowley, Dutton, Little Leigh, Marbury, Marston, Peover-Inferior, Pickmere, Plumbley, Seven-Oaks, Stretton, Tabley-Inferior, Whitley Inferior and Superior, and Wincham, in the hundred of Bucklow; the chapelry of Hartford, and the townships of Castle-Northwich and Winnington, in the hundred of Eddisbury; and the townships of Allostock, Birches, Hulse, Lack-Dennis, Lostock-Gralam, Northwich, and Nether Peover, part of Rudheath lordship, and the parochial chapelry of Witton, in the hundred of Northwich. The village of Budworth is pleasantly situated on a gentle acclivity, near two sheets of water called Budworth-mere, or Marbury, and Pickmere; and in the vicinity are several handsome seats, among which are Tabley House, that of Lord de Tabley, Belmont House, and Marbury Hall. The principal landed proprietors are his lordship, and the Warburton and Leigh families. The population is employed to a considerable extent in the manufacture of salt, which prevails throughout the entire neighbourhood. The river Weaver and the Duke of Bridgewater's canal pass through the parish. Two fairs are annually held.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 10.; net income, £171; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The church consists of a nave, chancel, aisles, and transepts, with a fine tower containing eight bells; the tower appears to have been built or restored about 1520: there are several monuments to the Leycester and Warburton families. The edifice sustained considerable damage from the parliamentarian troops in 1647. There are churches or chapels, forming separate incumbencies, at Appleton, Barnton, Hartford, Little Leigh, Lostock, Nether Peover, Northwich, Stockton, Stretton, Tabley, Whitley, Wilderspool, and Witton. In the north-eastern angle of the churchyard is a school, supposed to have been built by the Rev. John Dean, about 1600; it is endowed with the interest of £200, given by Mr. Pickering and Mrs. Glover.
Budworth, Little, (St. Peter)
BUDWORTH, LITTLE, (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Northwich, First division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 3¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Tarporley; containing 599 inhabitants. This place is also called Budworth in the Frith, and Little Budworth cum Oulton. The manor of Little Budworth was anciently vested in the Grosvenors, from whom it passed by female heirs to the families of Mere and Twyford; about the year 1431 it was purchased of the latter family by the Troutbecks, from whom it descended to the Earl of Shrewsbury, the present owner. The manor of Oulton was successively in the families of Kingsley, Oulton, and Done; a daughter of the last named brought it by marriage, about 1500, to the Egertons. Oulton Hall, the seat of Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart., stands in an extensive park, and is a magnificent structure, said to have been from the designs of Sir John Vanbrugh, and erected about the commencement of the last century, when the former mansion, built in the reign of Henry VIII., was taken down. The parish comprises 2763 acres, whereof about 600 are common or waste land: the soil is sand and clay.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £85; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Chester. The tithes have been commuted for £163. 14., and the glebe consists of 5½ acres. The church belonged previously to the Dissolution to St. Mary's nunnery, Chester, and was called a free chapel within the parish of Over, the church of which was appropriated to the same convent: the nave and chancel were rebuilt with stone, in 1798, pursuant to the will of Mr. Ralph Kirkham, a native of the parish, who gave £1000 for that purpose. A school, erected in 1706, by Catherine, Lady Egerton, near the park wall at Oulton, is supported by Sir Philip and Lady Egerton. Lady Isabella Dod, by will dated in 1720, bequeathed £2500 for the erection and endowment of almshouses for the support of twelve poor persons of Little Budworth, and eight of a town in Buckinghamshire: the income from the property is now about £130. Horse-races were formerly held on a four-mile course in the parish.
BUERTON, a township, in the parish of Aldford, union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Chester; containing 81 inhabitants. The manor was held of the Aldfords in the reign of Edward I. by the family of Pulford, by service either of repairing a certain portion of Aldford Castle, or of assisting in the ward of it. From the Pulfords the manor passed successively by female heirs to the Grosvenors, of Hulme, and the Stanleys, of Hooton. The township lies east of the river Dee, and comprises 600 acres of land, the soil of which is clay.
BUERTON, a township, in the parish of Audlem, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 2 miles (E.) from Audlem; containing 512 inhabitants. This manor was anciently in a family of the same name, and afterwards, for several generations, in the Pooles, of Poole, in Wirrall: it was sold in 1725 by Francis Poole to the Dicken family of Woollerton, in Shropshire, of whom it was purchased by Sir Thomas Broughton, Bart. Another estate here, was, as early as the reign of Edward IV., the property of the Gamuls, of whom the brave and loyal Sir Francis Gamul was created a baronet by Charles I.: on his death in 1654, the estate devolved to his two daughters, one of whom married into the Brerewood family, who sold it to the Warburtons. The township comprises 2602 acres, of which the prevailing soil is clay. The village lies near the southern border of the county, and on the road from Audlem to Eccleshall. In 1779, James Holbrook bequeathed £400 to trustees, to provide bread for the poor during the winter months.
Bugbrooke (St. Michael)
BUGBROOKE (St. Michael), a parish, in the hundred of Newbottle-Grove, union, and S. division of the county, of Northampton, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Northampton; containing 953 inhabitants. The London and Birmingham railway and the Grand Junction canal pass through the parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Nene, and on the west by the Roman Watling-street. It comprises by admeasurement 2188 acres, nearly equally divided between arable and pasture. The railway occupies 49 acres, and the rateable annual value of such property, in the parish, is returned at £3600: the Weedon station is distant four miles. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £34; net income, £800, with a good glebe-house; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. H. Harrison. The church exhibits various styles of English architecture; it has a square tower surmounted by a spire, and contains a fine wooden screen, and an octagonal font highly enriched: the interior was repaired in 1828; and the churchyard enlarged in 1845. There are places of worship for Particular Baptists and the Society of Friends.
BUGLAWTON, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Astbury, union of Congleton, hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 1 mile (N. E. by E.) from Congleton, on the road to Buxton; containing 1864 inhabitants. This was a seat of the Touchet family, from nearly the time of the Conquest. Sir John Touchet, who distinguished himself in the wars with France, and was slain in an engagement with the Spanish fleet before Rochelle, married the sister and coheir of Nicholas, Lord Audley, in consequence of which union his posterity enjoyed the title of Lord Audley. In 1565 the manor belonged to the Bagnall family, from whom it passed to the Mainwarings, and subsequently to the Staffords and Egertons. The township comprises 4048 acres, of which the surface is undulated, and the soil clay and loam, with rock: there is a good stone-quarry. The rivers Dane and Davenshaw propel five silk-mills, three cotton-mills, and a corn-mill, which afford employment to the population. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150, with a house; patron, the Rector of Astbury. The tithes have been commuted for £240. The church, dedicated to St. John, was erected in 1840, and is in the Norman style, with a tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and adjacent to the church is an excellent school. A mineral spring, the water of which contains sulphur, a small quantity of Epsom salts, and calcareous earth, has proved serviceable in scorbutic diseases.
Bugthorpe (St. Andrew),
BUGTHORPE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Pocklington, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 7 miles (N. N. W.) from Pocklington; containing 296 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1990 acres; the soil is a strong clay, and the surface level with rising ground to the north, east, and south. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20; net income, £111; patron, the Archbishop of York. Land was given under an inclosure act, in 1777, in lieu of the great tithes. The church is an ancient structure with a square tower.
Buildwas (Holy Trinity),
BUILDWAS (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Madeley, Wellington division of the hundred of South Braford, N. division of Salop, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Iron-Bridge; containing 273 inhabitants. This place is celebrated for the stately and venerable remains of its ancient Cistercian abbey, founded in honour of St. Mary and St. Chad, by Roger, Bishop of Chester, in 1135; the establishment continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was returned at £129. 6. 10. The ruins are romantically situated on the south bank of the river Severn, which here flows through a deep and secluded vale, and consist principally of the roofless nave, transept, and lower portions of the central tower of this once beautiful structure. The parish comprises by measurement 2034 acres of rich arable and pasture land; the substratum is chiefly limestone, which is quarried to a great extent, for agricultural and building purposes, and also for the works in the adjoining district of Coalbrook-Dale. The Severn affords every facility of conveyance, and near the abbey is a handsome cast-iron bridge constructed by Telford, in 1796, on the site of a former stone bridge, which had been destroyed by a flood in the preceding year; it consists of one arch, 130 feet in span, and 24 feet above the surface of the river. The road over it leads through a romantic dingle to the town of Much Wenlock; communication is also maintained by the road from the adjoining town of Iron-Bridge to Shrewsbury. The living is a donative, in the gift of Walter Moseley, Esq., proprietor of the parish: the church, rebuilt in 1720, is a neat edifice. On the 27th of May, 1773, a remarkable land-slip occurred here, when more than 18 acres were, by a sudden disruption, carried forward with such impetuous velocity as to stop the current of the Severn, and take possession of its ancient bed.