A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BUNGAY, a market-town, in the union and hundred of Wangford, E. division of Suffolk, 40 miles (N. N. E.) from Ipswich, 40 (N. E. by E.) from Bury St. Edmund's, and 109 (N. E. by N.) from London, on the road to Yarmouth; containing 4109 inhabitants. This place is said to have derived its name from the term le-bon-eye, signifying "the good island," in consequence of its being nearly surrounded by the river Waveney, which was once a broad stream. Soon after the Norman Conquest, a castle was built, which, from its situation and the strength of its fortifications, was deemed impregnable by its possessor, Hugh Bigot, Earl of Norfolk, in the reign of Stephen; but that monarch, in the 6th of his reign, in the year 1140, came with his army and took it. In 1154 also, the 1st year of Henry II., the fortress was yielded by the same earl; but it was restored in 1163, and in the following year he again took up arms against the king, and fortified himself in the castle, which he was compelled to deliver up, and permit to be demolished: on its site a mansion was erected, which, in the 22nd year of Edward I., 1293, Roger Bigot embattled, by royal permission. The form of the castle, the remains of which belong to the Duke of Norfolk, appears to have been octangular. Portions of the west and south-west angles are still standing, as are also three sides of the main keep, situated nearly at the back of the two portal towers; the walls are from 7 to 11 feet thick, and from 15 to 17 feet high: in the midst is a well of strongly impregnated mineral water, long since disused. Near Saint Mary's church are the ruins of a Benedictine nunnery founded about the year 1160, in the reign of Henry II., by Roger de Glanville and the Countess de Gundreda, his lady: at the Dissolution the revenue was estimated at £62. 2. 1½.; there were then a prioress and 11 nuns. In March 1688, a fire broke out, and the flames spread with such rapidity that the whole town, with the exception of one small street, was reduced to ashes, and property, to the amount of nearly £30,000, together with most of the ancient records of the castle, as is supposed, was destroyed. One house, which escaped the conflagration, is still standing near the nunnery, to which it is supposed to have been attached, as the hospital for travellers and strangers.
The town is pleasantly situated on the river Waveney, which here forms the line of boundary between the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and over which are two neat bridges. The streets diverging from the marketplace in the centre of the town towards the principal roads are spacious, well paved, and lighted with gas: the houses are in general modern, having been built since the fire; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water from springs. The theatre, a neat edifice erected in 1827, is opened occasionally; and there is an assembly-room; also a book-club, established in 1770. On the northern side of the town is an extensive common, nearly surrounded by the Waveney, along the edge of which, on the Norfolk side, is a pleasant promenade, one mile and a half in length, leading to a cold bath, where a bath-house has been built, and requisite accommodation provided. The trade is principally in corn, malt, flour, and coal; and a new corn-hall has lately been opened: there are several flour-mills, and malting-houses, on a large scale; also a paper-mill, a large silk-manufactory, and an extensive printing-office. The Waveney is navigable from Yarmouth, whence the town is supplied with coal, timber, and other articles of consumption. The market is on Thursday; and fairs are held on May 14th and September 25th. In the market-place is an octagonal cross, surmounted by a dome, on the top of which is a fine figure of Justice: so late as the year 1810, the ancient cross, called the Corn Cross, was standing. The town is within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, who hold petty-sessions every Thursday; and a town-reeve is appointed annually, who, and the feoffees, are trustees of the estates and rent-charges devised for the benefit of the town: courts leet and baron for the three manors of Bungay Soke, Priory, and Burgh, are usually held twice a year.
Bungay comprises the parishes of St. Mary and the Holy Trinity; the former containing 2248, and the latter 1861, inhabitants. The living of St. Mary's is a perpetual curacy; net income, £115, with a house; patron, the Duke of Norfolk. The church is a handsome and spacious structure, with a fine tower, having been chiefly rebuilt between 1689 and 1701, of flint and freestone: the original steeple was struck by lightning on the 4th Aug. 1577, at which time two men were killed in the belfry. The living of the parish of the Holy Trinity is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 0. 5., and endowed with the rectorial tithes; net income, £256; patron, the Bishop of Ely: there is a good glebe-house, with 10 acres of land. The church is a small ancient edifice, with a round tower. There was formerly a church dedicated to St. Thomas, which was used later than 1500; but it has been destroyed. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Independents, and Roman Catholics. The free grammar school was instituted in 1592 by the Rev. Thomas Popeson, who also founded ten scholarships in Emmanuel College, Cambridge, now reduced to four; and subsequently it was endowed by Henry Williams with the vicarage of St. Andrew, Ilketshall; also with 33 acres of land by Mr. Scales, of Earsham: the income of the master, who is appointed by the college, is from £180 to £200. The town lands comprise 155 acres, and yield an income of from £300 to £400. The remains of a Roman encampment are still to be seen upon the common: numerous antiquities have been found on its eastern side, including several hundred very small brass Roman coins, called minimi; and a tournament spur, a leaden bulla of Celestine III., and a fine silver Saxon penny of Offa, King of Mercia, have been found during the present century near the castle.
Bunny (St. Mary)
BUNNY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Basford, N. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 7½ miles (S.) from Nottingham; containing 360 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from London to Nottingham, through Loughborough; and comprises by computation 2000 acres. Bunny Park, the seat of Lord Rancliffe, to the east of the village, is an ancient mansion of brick ornamented with stone, with a massive gateway entrance. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Bradmore, valued in the king's books at £6. 14.; net income, £425; patron, the Rev. J. R. W. Boyer. The tithes were partly commuted for land in 1797; the glebe now contains about 227 acres. The church is a spacious and well-built edifice, partly in the decorated and partly in the later English style, with a tower surmounted by a crocketed spire; and contains several monuments to the family of Parkyns, who became proprietors of the united parishes, by purchase, in the reign of Elizabeth. A school, erected in 1700, has an endowment in land producing £60 per annum, the gift of Lady Parkyns, who also founded an almshouse for four widows, and endowed it with £16 per annum, augmented with £5 annually by her husband, Sir Thomas Parkyns. The same lady assigned an annuity of £30 for apprenticing poor boys.
BUNTINGFORD, a chapelry, and formerly a markettown, in the parishes of Aspeden, Layston, Throcking, and Wyddiall, union of Royston and Buntingford, hundred of Edwinstree, county of Hertford, 12 miles (N. N. E.) from Hertford; containing 581 inhabitants. This place takes its name from a ford on the river Rib, near which a blacksmith, named Bunt or Bunting, had a forge. It is pleasantly situated on a gentle ascent between two hills, and consists of one street, half a mile in length: the houses are in general well built, and of respectable appearance; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. The trade is principally in leather and malt: the fairs, formerly on June 29th and November 30th, and each for four days, are now irregularly held. The county magistrates hold petty-sessions here for the division, and a septennial court leet is held for the hundred. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Layston. The chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, is a commodious brick building, erected by subscription, in 1626, through the exertions of the Rev. Alexander Strange, vicar of Layston, who lies interred in it: from its convenient situation, it is appropriated to the general use of the parishioners of Layston, the parish church, half a mile distant, being resorted to only for marriages. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends and Independents. The free grammar school was endowed in 1630, by Eliz. Freeman, with lands producing £10. 10. per annum; which endowment was augmented with a moiety of the produce of land left by Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury, to Christ's College, Cambridge, the other being applied to the endowment in that college of four scholarships, of £12 per annum each, for boys on this foundation. Eight almshouses, for four aged men and four women, were founded in 1668, and endowed with land by Bishop Ward; and the bishop also gave £600 to purchase land, the rental of which is applied to the apprenticing of children: he was a native of the town, and received the rudiments of his education in the grammar school.
Bunwell (St. Michael)
BUNWELL (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Depwade, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from New Buckenbam; containing 1001 inhabitants. It is intersected by the road from New Buckenham to Norwich. The manufacture of bombasines is carried on to a limited extent. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17, and in the patronage of the family of Buxton: the tithes have been commuted for £744. 8., and the glebe comprises 52 acres. The church is chiefly in the later English style, and consists of a nave and chancel, with an embattled tower. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. The proceeds of a town estate, about £30 per annum, are applied to the repairing of the church, and the relief of the poor.
Buraston, with Whetmore
BURASTON, with Whetmore, a chapelry, in the parish of Burford, union of Tenbury, hundred of Overs, S. division of Salop, 1¾ mile (N. E.) from Tenbury; containing 223 inhabitants. The tithes of this place and Whetmore have been commuted for £241. 10. The Kington canal passes south of the village.
BURBAGE, a chapelry, in the parish of AstonFlamville, union of Hinckley, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 1 mile (S. E.) from Hinckley; containing, with the hamlet of Sketchley, 1827 inhabitants. This place is situated on the road from Lutterworth to Hinckley and MarketBosworth, and the Roman Watling-street bounds the chapelry on the south-west; it comprises 3057 acres, of which 1200 are arable, 79 woodland, and the rest pasture, common, &c. The manufacture of stockings is carried on to a considerable extent, about 800 persons being employed in it. The chapel, dedicated to St. Catharine, was recently built. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Independents. Mr. Canning resided for some time here.
Burbage (All Saints)
BURBAGE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Pewsey, hundred of Kinwardstone, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 4¾ miles (E. by N.) from Pewsey; containing 1455 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 3. 1½.; net income, £257; patron, the Prebendary of Hurstborne and Burbage in the Cathedral of Salisbury.
BURCOMBE, SOUTH, a parish, in the union of Wilton, hundred of Cawden and Cadworth, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 2 miles (W. by S.) from Wilton; containing, with the tything of North Burcombe and part of the hamlet of Ditchampton, 402 inhabitants. The parish is on the road from Salisbury to Shaftesbury, and comprises by computation 1500 acres, the soil of which is partly chalk, and partly clay, alternated with sandy loam; the surface is hilly, and the lower grounds are watered by the river Nadder. The living is a perpetual curacy, with the chapel of St. John, in Wilton, and has a net income of £52; the Earl of Pembroke is impropriator, and the Master of St. John's hospital, Wilton, patron. The tithes have been commuted for £170, and the glebe consists of 15 poles of land. On the downs are several large barrows.
BURCOTT, a hamlet, in the parish and hundred of Dorchester, union of Abingdon, county of Oxford, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Abingdon; containing 183 inhabitants. The village is situated on the river Thames.
BURDON, a township, in the parish of BishopWearmouth, union and N. division of Easington ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 3¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Sunderland; containing 114 inhabitants. The ancient family of Burdon, of knightly dignity, derived their name from this place; which also gave name to a local family, who, however, never passed the rank of yeomanry. The township lies on the south verge of the parish, near the road from Sunderland to Stockton, and comprises 1109a. 3r. 22p. The village is pleasantly situated on an eminence. The tithes have been commuted for £140. 17.
BURDON, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Haughton-le-Skerne, union, and S. E. division of the ward, of Darlington, S. division of the county of Durham, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Darlington; containing 117 inhabitants. It comprises 589 acres, of which 312 are arable, 264 grass-land, and 14 acres roads and waste. The whole of the township is leased under the Dean and Chapter of Durham: the tithes were commuted in 1838 for £131. 6. The Stockton and Darlington railway passes on the south.
Bures (St. Mary)
BURES (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Babergh, W. division of Suffolk, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Sudbury; containing 1596 inhabitants. This parish, including a hamlet of the same name, containing 612 persons, and locally in the county of Essex, comprises by measurement 4127 acres, of which 2542 are in that part of the parish separated from Essex by the navigable river Stour. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 16. 0½.; patron and impropriator, O. Hanbury, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £574, and the vicarial for £246: the impropriate tithes of the hamlet of Bures have been commuted for £387, and the vicarial for £81; the vicar's glebe comprises 13 acres.
Bures, Mount (St. John)
BURES, MOUNT (St. John), a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, N. division of Essex, 6 miles (S. S. E.) from Sudbury; containing 282 inhabitants. This place takes its distinguishing affix from an artificial mount near the church, one acre in extent at the base, and planted on its summit with stately oak-trees and other timber. The parish is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Stour, and comprises by measurement 1420 acres, of which 1193 are arable, 130 pasture, and 13 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Rev. John Brett: the tithes have been commuted for £445, and the glebe comprises 22 acres. The church is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a tower between them, surmounted by a wooden spire. There was formerly a chantry, to which belonged a small chapel in the churchyard, now converted into two tenements.
Burford (St. John the Baptist)
BURFORD (St. John the Baptist), a markettown and parish, in the union of Witney, hundred of Bampton, county of Oxford, 18½ miles (W. N. W.) from Oxford, and 73 (W. N. W.) from London, on the road from Oxford to Cheltenham; containing, with the hamlet of Upton with Signett, 1862 inhabitants, of whom 1644 are in the town. This place is of considerable antiquity, and was by the Saxons called Beorford, of which its present name is a variation. In 685, an ecclesiastical synod was held here by the kings Ethelred and Berthwald, at which Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, was ordered to write against the error of the British Church respecting Easter. In 752, a battle was fought at Battle-edge, a little westward from the town, between Ethelbald, King of Mercia, and Cuthred, King of the West Saxons, who had revolted against his authority: Ethelbald was defeated, and the royal standard, bearing the device of a golden dragon, captured; which event was commemorated for several ages by an annual festival, on Midsummer-eve, when the inhabitants paraded the streets, bearing the figures of a dragon and a giant. Soon after the Conquest, the town was bestowed on Robert, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I. In 1649, an encounter took place here between Fairfax and the royalists, the former of whom was victorious.
The town is pleasantly situated on the banks of the small river Windrush: the houses are indifferently built; the inhabitants are well supplied with water. Races were formerly held, but they have been discontinued for many years. The making of saddles, that formerly flourished, and a considerable trade in malt and wool, have much declined; and this, added to the diversion of the line of road, which now avoids the town, has reduced it from a thriving condition to a state of comparative poverty. The market is on Saturday; and fairs are held on the last Saturday in April, for cattle, sheep, and cheese; July 5th, for horses; and Sept. 25th, for horses, sheep, and cheese. A charter was granted by Henry II., conferring on the inhabitants "all customs enjoyed by the free burgesses of the city of Oxford," of many of which they were deprived by Justice Tanfield, in the reign of Elizabeth. They are entitled to elect an alderman, a steward, two bailiffs, and twelve burgesses, at Easter; but of late years these officers have not been appointed: the town is within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, who hold petty-sessions for the division; and a court leet and a court baron are also held. The parish comprises 2606a. 2r. 14p., of which 2319 acres are arable, 227 pasture, and about 60 woodland.
The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Fulbrook annexed, valued in the king's books at £31. 13.; net income, £294; patron, the Bishop of Oxford; appropriators, the bishop, and the provost of Eton College. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1794. The church is a spacious structure, chiefly Norman, but displaying beautiful specimens in every style of English architecture: the tower, which is surmounted by a spire, is Norman; and the interior of the belfry, still in its original state, is a good specimen of the early period of that style. At the west entrance is a fine Norman arch; and the south porch, which is in the later English style, is exquisitely rich. In a chapel on the north side of the chancel, is a monument to Sir Lawrence Tanfield, Knt., a judge of the court of king's bench: within the Sylvester chapel, or aisle, is a stone coffin of unusual size and form, which was dug up on the estate of William Lenthall, Esq., and was found to contain a skull. In the nave is an ancient font of cylindrical form, ornamented with a rude sculpture of the Crucifixion. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, and Wesleyans. The free school was founded in 1571, by Simon Wisdom, alderman, who assigned property for its endowment, which, with subsequent benefactions, produces £84 per annum. An apartment over the schoolroom is the town-hall, where the assizes for the county were held in 1636. John Wilmot, the celebrated Earl of Rochester, and the late Earl of Liverpool, received the rudiments of their education in the school. The Great Almshouse was founded in 1457, by the Earl and Countess of Warwick, for eight poor widows; Wisdom's almshouse was founded before 1628, for four widows. Four messuages were assigned for almshouses in 1726, by the will of Dr. John Castle, for four aged widows, with a small endowment; and there are various other charitable endowments, the principal of which are, the church estate, which yields £56 per annum, and Pool's estate, producing £62 annually. Adjoining the town was a priory dedicated to St. John, the revenue of which was valued at £13. 6. 6. at the Dissolution, after which it was granted to Edward Harman, who erected a mansion on its foundation. Having reverted to the crown, the estate was disposed of in the reign of Elizabeth, to Sir John Fortesque, who sold it to Sir Lawrence Tanfield, by whom the Priory and manor were left to his grandson, Lord Falkland, who was born here, and was killed in the battle of Newbury. The property was afterwards purchased by Mr. Speaker Lenthall, who enlarged the Priory, and built a beautiful chapel adjoining it: Lenthall died here, in 1661, and was interred in the family vault. The eminent cosmographer, Dr. Peter Heylin, was born at Burford in 1600. The town gives the inferior title of Earl to the Duke of St. Alban's.
Burford (St. Mary)
BURFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Tenbury, hundred of Overs, S. division of Salop, 1½ mile (W. by S.) from Tenbury; containing, with the townships of Buraston, Greet, Nash, Stoke, Tilsop, Weston, Whatmore, and Whitton, 1031 inhabitants, of whom 297 are in the township of Burford. Licence for a weekly market and an annual fair was granted by Henry III. The Leominster canal crosses the parish, on the northern side of the village. The living is a rectory, divided into three portions: the first is valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 4., and has annexed to it the chapels of Buraston and Nash; the second portion, to which Whitton chapel is annexed, is valued at £8, and the third, containing the mother church, at £8. 13. 4. They are all in the patronage of Capt. George Rushout, 1st Life Guards. The tithes of Burford township have been commuted for £261, and the glebe consists of 65 acres. The church is interesting from its antiquity, and its monuments to the Cornewall family. In the townships of Nash and Burford are daily and Sunday schools; and at Whitton is a Sunday school.
Burgate (St. Mary)
BURGATE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of Suffolk, 2½ miles (E.) from Botesdale; containing 369 inhabitants, and comprising 2076 acres, of which 61 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 10. 10., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely: the tithes have been commuted for £550, and the glebe, to which a good house is attached, comprises 74 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains a finely sculptured font, and in the chancel a monument to William de Burgate and his lady, whose effigies are engraved in brasses.
Burgate, Middle, North, and South
BURGATE, MIDDLE, NORTH, and SOUTH, three tythings, in the parish and union of Fordingbridge, Ringwood and S. divisions of the county of Southampton; containing, respectively, 657, 129, and 609 inhabitants.
Burgh (St. Mary)
BURGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of South Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (S. E. by E.) from Aylsham; containing 314 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Bure, which is navigable from Aylsham to Yarmouth, and on the banks of which is an extensive flourmill: it comprises 788a. 1r. 37p., whereof 616 acres are arable, 135 pasture and meadow, and 19 woodland and plantations. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 17. 1., and in the patronage of Mr. Holley: the tithes have been commuted for £255. 19., and the glebe comprises 13 acres. The church contains portions of the early and decorated styles, and has a square embattled tower; the font, which is very handsome, is elaborately sculptured with representations of scriptural subjects. Numerous urns, coins, and other antiquities, have been found in the neighbourhood.
BURGH, a district comprising the consolidated parishes of St. Margaret and St. Mary, in the East and West Flegg incorporation, hundred of West Flegg, E. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Acle; containing 506 inhabitants. The village is situated on the old road from Norwich to Yarmouth, and the district is bounded on the south-west by the navigable river Bure. The whole consists of 1606a. 2r. 6p., of which about 789 acres are arable, upwards of 100 water, 23 wood, and the rest pasture. Henry III. granted permission to hold a free market on Monday, and a fair on the eve and festival of St. Margaret, and six following days; both of which have long been discontinued. The living of St. Margaret's is a discharged rectory, with that of St. Mary's annexed, the former valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 4., and the latter at £4; patron, the Rev. W. Lucas: the tithes have been commuted for £458. 3., and the glebe comprises 22½ acres. The church of St. Mary has long been in ruins. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Thomas Wymer, in 1505, bequeathed land for the poor, of which the rental is £22; and other lands for the same purpose are let for about £60 per annum.
Burgh (St. Peter), or Wheatacre-Burgh
BURGH (St. Peter), or Wheatacre-Burgh, a parish, in the union of Loddon and Clavering, hundred of Clavering, E. division of Norfolk, 6¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Beccles; containing 312 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the north, south, and east by the river Waveney, which separates it from the county of Suffolk; and comprises by measurement 860 acres, whereof 583 are low marshy grazing-land, about 15 wood, and the remainder arable. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 6. 8.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. W. Boycatt: the tithes have been commuted for £370, and the glebe comprises 15½ acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a tower of brick. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Thirteen acres of land were allotted to the poor at the inclosure of the parish, in 1811. In a field adjoining the churchyard are some remains of what is supposed to have been a religious house.
Burgh (St. Botolph)
BURGH (St. Botolph), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Carlford, E. division of Suffolk, 3¾ miles (N. W.) from Woodbridge; containing 266 inhabitants. This place is by most antiquaries identified with the Combretonium of Antoninus, as the distances in the Itinerary correspond with it exactly, and not with Brettenham, as some have supposed. The parish comprises by measurement 1225 acres: the soil is partly of a mixed quality, and partly a heavy clay; and the surface is level. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 3. 4., and in the patronage of Frederick Barne, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £348. 15. 6., and the glebe comprises 11 acres. The church, a neat ancient structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower, is built within a Roman encampment, of which part of the vallum still remains visible. There was anciently a commandery of the order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
Burgh-Apton, in the hundred of Clavering, county of Norfolk.—See Bergh-Apton.
Burgh, Castle (St. Peter)
BURGH, CASTLE (St. Peter), a parish, in the hundred of Mutford and Lothingland, E. division of Suffolk, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Yarmouth; containing 327 inhabitants. This place, anciently Cnobheresburg, is supposed to be the Roman Garianonum, (which some writers have placed at Caistor, on the opposite side of the river,) a station founded by Publius Ostorius Scapula, and garrisoned, under the command of a præpositus, by a troop of cavalry called the Stablesian horse. The ramparts form three sides of an area of upwards of five acres and a half; and various coins, urns, fibulæ, domestic utensils, and military weapons, have been found in the adjoining fields. The walls of the station are among the most perfect remains of Roman architecture in the kingdom; two sides are very perfect, one end has partly fallen, and the side next the river appears not to have been fortified. Bede relates that in the reign of Sigebert, Furseus founded a monastery within the walls of the encampment; but the incursions of the Saxons, and consequent danger to monasteries, caused him, and his brother, to whom he had intrusted the institution, and the monks, to abandon it almost as soon as formed; and no trace of it remains. The parish comprises by measurement 1498 acres, of which 834 are arable, 649 pasture and marsh, and 15 acres roads; much of the grass-land is level, ascending gradually towards the south, and being escarped towards the west. The soil is very various, affording specimens of almost every quality: the scenery, though naked, has been rather improved by recent planting; there is a fine view over Norfolk, and more than sixty churches may be seen from one point. The navigable river Waveney flows on the western side, and, opposite the village, unites with the Yare, forming Breydon Water, which runs on the northern side, and is navigable. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £400. The church, an ancient structure in the Norman style, has, with the exception of the tower, which is circular, been rebuilt in the later English style.
Burgh-in-the-Marsh (St. Peter)
BURGH-IN-THE-MARSH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Marsh division of the wapentake of Candleshoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Spilsby; containing 1095 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Spilsby to Skegness, and comprises 4237a. 2r. 12p., about 3000 acres of which are meadow and pasture, 166 common or waste, and the rest arable. The village is large; and fairs are held in it on the second Thursday in May, and the 26th September. The living is a discharged vicarage, to which that of Winthorpe was united in 1729, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8.; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Lincoln; net income, £126. The appropriate tithes have been commuted for £304; the appropriate glebe consists of 76 acres, and the vicarial glebe comprises 14½ in this parish, and 17¾ in the adjoining parishes of Croft and Winthorpe. The church is a commodious edifice, with a lofty tower at the west end, and has a handsome nave with good clerestory windows. The united parishes, before the Reformation, belonged to the monastery of Bolington; and there was a second church called St. Mary's, of which there is no vestige remaining. The Baptists and Wesleyans have each a place of worship. There is an endowed school, founded by Mrs. Jane Palmer in 1727, the funds of which, amounting to £65 per annum, arise from twentyseven acres of land.
Burgh, Little.—See Melton-Constable.
Burgh, Mattishall, in the hundred of Mitford, county of Norfolk.—See Mattishall-Burgh.
Burgh, South, or Hingham-Burgh (St. Andrew)
BURGH, SOUTH, or Hingham-Burgh (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Mitford, W. division of Norfolk, 2½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Hingham; containing 307 inhabitants. It comprises 1216a. 1r. 13p., of which 785 acres are arable, and 214 meadow and pasture: the surface is pleasingly undulated, and the lower grounds are watered by a stream tributary to the river Yare. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 13. 6½., and in the patronage of T. T. Gurdon, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £304. 5., and the glebe comprises about 2½ acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early and decorated English styles, and the tower is now in ruins: on the south side of the chancel are two sedilia of stone and a double piscina; there are several neat monuments to the Tavell family.
Burgh-Upon-Baine (St. Helen)
BURGH-UPON-BAINE (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Louth, E. division of the wapentake of Wraggoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (W.) from Louth; containing, with the hamlet of Girsby, 155 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 10.; patron and impropriator, George Lister, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £379, and the vicarial for £92; there is a vicarial glebe of 3 acres.
Burgh-Upon-The-Sands (St. Michael)
BURGH-UPON-THE-SANDS (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Carlisle, Cumberland ward, E. division of the county of Cumberland; comprising the townships of Boustead-Hill, Burgh, Longburgh, and Moorhouse; and containing 1003 inhabitants, of whom 512 are in the township of Burgh, 5½ miles (W. N. W.) from Carlisle. Close to the village, on the northern side, and on the site now called the Old Castle, stood the Roman station Axelodunum, the sixteenth on the line of Severus' Wall, and the spot where Adrian's vallum terminated: the lines of the ramparts, which are still visible, include an area about 136 yards square, in which, and in the vicinity, urns, altars, and inscribed stones have been dug up. A castle, built after the Conquest, but of which there are no remains, is stated to have been seized in 1174, by William, King of Scotland; and several encounters between the English and the Scots occurred in the parish, of which the most sanguinary were those in 1216 and 1520. Edward I. died here, on the 7th of July, 1307, whilst on an expedition against Scotland: this event was commemorated in 1685, by Henry, Duke of Norfolk, by the erection of an obelisk, which fell down on the 4th of March, 1795, and was rebuilt by the Earl of Lonsdale, in 1803. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 1. 10½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £120; impropriators of the corn tithes, the landowners. The church exhibits evident marks of having been constructed, like some others on the border, as a place of occasional retreat and defence.
Burgh-Wallis (St. Helen)
BURGH-WALLIS (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Doncaster, Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 7¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Doncaster; containing, with the township of Burgh-Wallis, and part of that of Sutton, 245 inhabitants. The latter part of the name of this place was added in consequence of the family of Wallis settling here, probably about the time of Henry III. The parish is situated a mile to the east of the great north road, and comprises about 1400 acres of land, chiefly arable, but including a considerable portion of wood and pasture; the scenery is very picturesque. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 6. 10½.; net income, about £280; patron, M. A. Tasburgh, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land and a corn-rent, under an inclosure act, in 1813; the glebe comprises between 80 and 90 acres. The church is a neat and very ancient structure, of a mixed style, from that of the 12th to that of the 16th century.
BURGHAM, a tything, in the parish of Worplesdon, union of Guildford, First division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of Surrey; containing 314 inhabitants. This place is mentioned in Domesday book under the name of Borham. It passed in the 13th century to the family of Wintreshull, who continued to possess it until the 16th century, when it was sold to Sir John Wolley, who filled the office of Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth.