A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Walden, with Burton.—See Burton.
Walden, Kings (St. Mary)
WALDEN, KINGS (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hitchin, hundred of Hitchin and Pirton, county of Hertford, 4¼ miles (S. S. W.) from Hitchin; containing 1034 inhabitants. The living is a donative curacy, in the patronage of W. Hale, Esq.; net income, £57. On the north side of the chancel of the church is a chapel, the burial-place of the Hale family, erected by William Hale, who died in 1648. About £12 per annum, arising from bequests by R. Hale in 1616, and W. Smith in 1771, are distributed among the poor of the parish.
Walden St. Paul's (All Saints)
WALDEN ST. PAUL'S (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Hitchin, hundred of Cashio, or liberty of St. Alban's, county of Hertford, 5¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Welwyn; containing 1113 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10; present net income, £142; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, London. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents. This parish is one of fourteen entitled to Henry Smith's charity, which consists of about 295 acres of land, producing £325 per annum, of which Walden receives £32, expended in the purchase of clothing for the poor.
Walden, Saffron (St. Mary)
WALDEN, SAFFRON (St. Mary), an incorporated market-town possessing separate jurisdiction, a parish, and the head of a union, locally in the hundred of Uttlesford, N. division of Essex, 27 miles (N. N. W.) from Chelmsford, and 40 (N. N. E.) from London; containing 5111 inhabitants. The name Walden is said to be deriyed from the Saxon words Weald and Den, signifying a woody valley. At a latter period the place was called Waldenburgh; and in the reign of Stephen, when Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, procured from the Empress Maud the grant of a market, previously held at Newport, the town took the appellation of Cheping-Walden. The present prefix owes its origin to the former culture of saffron in the neighbourhood: the device of the corporation seal is a rebus on the name, being three saffron flowers walled in. The Earl of Essex, above mentioned, who was grandson of Geoffrey de Mandeville, one of the most distinguished followers of William I., founded a Benedictine priory near the south-western extremity of the parish, which was richly endowed, and in 1190, converted into an abbey. Its revenue at the time of the Dissolution amounted, according to Speed, to £406. 5. 11.; and the abbey, with all its possessions, was granted by the king to Sir Thomas Audley, K.G., afterwards lord chancellor, and created Baron Audley, of Walden. Upon the site of the monastic buildings, and partly out of the ruins, Thomas, first Earl of Suffolk, in 1603 erected a stately fabric, which he called Audley-End in honour of his maternal grandfather, the chancellor. Of this magnificent house, which occupied thirteen years in completing, and was considered the largest mansion within the realm, one court only remains, but even this comparatively small portion of the original building forms a splendid residence. Lord Braybrooke, the present possessor, has greatly improved the estate.
The town is beautifully situated in a district abounding with interesting scenery. It contains several good streets, and a spacious market-place, in which is a neat town-hall. The old houses are principally built of lath and plaster, and some of them are very ancient; the more modern ones are of brick, and recent improvements have materially altered the general appearance of the place: a bridge has been built over the Slade, and some pleasant promenades have been opened for the inhabitants. In 1848, a company purchased some premises contiguous to the market-place, with a view to erect on the site a large com-exchangc,a post-office, savings'-bank, and public reading-room. The situation of the town is thus graphically described by Dr. Stukeley: "A narrow tongue of land shoots itself out like a promontory, encompassed with a valley in the form of a horse-shoe, inclosed by distant and delightful hills. On the bottom of the tongue, towards the east, stand the ruins of the castle, and on the top, or extremity, the church, the greater part of which is seen above the surrounding houses." A scientific and literary institution has been established, and there are horticultural and other societies. The railway from London to Cambridge passes on the east of the town and Audley-End. The trade in malt and barley is very considerable. The market is on Saturday; fairs are held on Mid-Lent Saturday and November 1st, and a fair for sheep and lambs on the 3rd and 4th of August, which is much frequented. By a charter granted in 1549, the control of the town was vested in twenty persons; the government was remodelled by William and Mary, and under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the corporation at present consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors. The number of magistrates is two, besides the mayor, late mayor, and recorder, who are justices ex officio. Sessions are held quarterly, under a grant from His late Majesty; and a court of record occurs every three weeks, for the recovery of debts and the determination of pleas to any amount, at which the recorder presides. The powers of the county debt-court of Saffron-Walden, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of Saffron-Walden and Linton. The courts leet and baron for the manors of Brook and Chipping-Walden, belonging to the owner of Audley-End, take place at stated times; and the magistrates for the division have their petty-sessions in the town, once a fortnight.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £33. 6. 8., and in the patronage of Lord Braybrooke, the impropriator. The tithes have been commuted for £710. 18. payable to the impropriator, £300 to the vicar, £30 to the trustees of Edward VI.'s almshouses in the town, and £20 to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge: there are 5 acres of vicarial glebe. The church, which was erected in the reigns of Henry VI. and VII., is a spacious structure in the later English style, with a lofty square embattled tower, strengthened by double buttresses of five stages, and surmounted by a lofty crocketed spire of recent erection. The western front is of imposing grandeur, having over the central doorway a handsome window of three, and at the extremities of the aisles windows of five, lights, of elegant design, and at the angles of the building enriched buttresses terminating in pinnacles. The interior is beautifully arranged; the nave is lighted by clerestory windows, and separated from the aisles by clustered columns that support the roof, which, like that of the chancel and aisles, is richly groined. The altar is embellished with a fine painting of the Holy Family, after Correggio. The middle and south chancels were erected by Chancellor Audley, and the north chancel by the inhabitants, aided by John Leche, who was vicar from 1489 to 1521, and whose tomb may still be seen near the north chancel door. There are places of worship for General Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyan Methodists, and Unitarians.
Walden school, in which the classics were formerly taught, owes its origin to John Leche, and his sister, Johane Bradbury: the learned Sir Thomas Smith, secretary to Edward VI., a native of Walden, is said to have received his early education here, and through his interest the school was advanced to a royal foundation. There is also a charity school, now on the national plan, established by subscription, and subsequently endowed with benefactions producing £100 per aunum. A range of almshouses was built in 1829, at the south-west end of the town, to replace some founded by Edward VI., for the reception of sixteen decayed housekeepers of each sex; the elevation of the buildings, which cost nearly £5000, is handsome and appropriate, and the income is above £900 a year. This was the first town in which the system of allotments for the poor was introduced; about forty acres are thus appropriated, much to the benefit of nearly 800 of the population. It is the head of a union comprising twenty-four parishes, with a population of 18,821. Between the town and Audley-End Park are the remains of an embankment called The Battle Ditches, respecting which there is no clear or satisfactory tradition: Dr. Stukeley found the south bank to be 730 feet long, 20 feet high, 50 broad at the base, and 8 at the top; the length of the western bank is 588 feet: both banks and ditches are well preserved. The ruins of the castle, erected soon after the Conquest, are only remarkable for the thickness of the walls and the rude character of the building; the remains, and the hill on which they stand, are held by trustees, under lease from Lord Braybrooke, for the benefit of the town. A museum was erected within the grounds in 1835, which contains many rare specimens of zoology and other departments of natural history; and a spacious hall has been added to the building by Lord Braybrooke, for an agricultural society. Lord Howard de Walden takes the title of Baron from the town.
WALDEN-STUBBS, a township, in the parish of Womersley, Lower division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 7½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Pontefract; containing 137 inhabitants. The township comprises about 1200 acres of fine arable and pasture land, in good cultivation; the surface is level, and the soil a rich loamy clay, sometimes flooded by the river Went, which passes on the south-east. The tithes were commuted for land in 1787.
Waldershare (All Saints)
WALDERSHARE (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Eastry, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 4½ miles (N. by W.) from Dovor; containing 92 inhabitants. It comprises 1242 acres. A fair for toys and pedlery is held on Whit-Tuesday. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 8.; net income, £133; patron and appropriator, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The church contains some handsome monuments. A national school for this and the adjoining parishes is supported by the Earl of Guilford, whose seat is in the parish.
Waldingfield, Great (St. Lawrence)
WALDINGFIELD, GREAT (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Babergh, W. division of Suffolk, 3¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Sudbury; containing 676 inhabitants, and comprising 2423a. 2r. 2p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 6. 8., and in the gift of Clare Hall, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £710, and the glebe comprises 20 acres. Roger Spencer, mayor of London in 1594, was a native of this parish.
Waldingfield, Little (St. Lawrence)
WALDINGFIELD, LITTLE (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Babergh, W. division of Suffolk, 4½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Sudbury; containing 420 inhabitants, and comprising 1574a. 3r. 14p. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 18. 11½., and in the gift of the Rev. B. B. Syer: the great tithes have been commuted for £245, and the vicarial for £164. 14.; the glebe contains one acre. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Holbrook Hall, in the parish, is the seat of a branch of the Hanmer family.
WALDINGHAM, a parish, in the union of Godstone, Second division of the hundred of Tandridge, county of Surrey, 5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Godstone; containing 47 inhabitants. This place appears to be mentioned in Domesday book under the appellation of Wallingham; it was held at the time of the survey under Richard de Clare, and lands here were possessed by the Clares for some time subsequently. The living is a donative curacy; net income, £45; patrons, the family of the late G. F. Jones, Esq. The church, seated on an eminence, is a small neat structure, built by Mr. Jones in 1830. Numerous relics of antiquity have been found in the grounds of Upper-Court Lodge, now a farm.
WALDRIDGE, a township, in the parish and union of Chester-le-Street, Middle division of Chester ward, county of Durham, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Chesterle-Street; containing 432 inhabitants. This place was long the estate of the Lumleys, of whom John, Lord Lumley, alienated it to the Smith family in 1607; it has since passed through various families. The township comprises 795 acres. A coal-pit has been opened; and on a common of between 200 and 300 acres, immediately above it, appears a vein of lead-ore. The tithes were commuted in 1841, for a rent-charge of £63, payable to the perpetual curate of the parish. There is a place of worship for dissenters, which is also used as a day school.
Waldringfield (All Saints)
WALDRINGFIELD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Carlford, E. division of Suffolk, 3½ miles (S. by E.) from Woodbridge; containing 174 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 17. 11., and in the gift of the Rev. William Edge: the tithes have been commuted for £160, and the glebe comprises 47 acres. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Waldron (All Saints)
WALDRON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Uckfield, hundred of Shiplake, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 6 miles (E. S. E.) from Uckfield; containing 1065 inhabitants. It comprises 6217a. 3r. 13p., of which about one-half are arable, one-sixth meadow and pasture, and one-third woodland and roads. The village is situated on elevated ground, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified. Here are some chalybeate springs, and iron-works were formerly carried on. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 4. 7., and in the patronage of Exeter College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £616, and there are 38 acres of glebe. The church is partly in the early and partly in the later English style, with an embattled tower: from the churchyard is an extensive view, embracing the town of Lewes and the South Downs. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. At Possingworth are some picturesque remains of a fine old mansion.
Wales (St. John)
WALES (St. John), a parish, in the union of Worksop, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 10 miles (E. by S.) from Sheffield; containing 351 inhabitants. This parish, in the Domesday survey called Walise, belonged to Morcar, Earl of Northumberland, in the reign of Edward the Confessor. It comprises by measurement 1255 acres, of which 711 are arable, 525 pasture, and 19 woodland. The village, which is of considerable antiquity, is situated on a gentle acclivity, near the Chesterfield and Trent canal. A small coal-mine is in operation. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Prebendary of Laughton-en-le-Morthen in York Cathedral: the tithes were commuted for money payments in 1766. The church is in the Norman style, and contains a mural monument to the Hewetts.
Walesby (All Saints)
WALESBY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Caistor, S. division of the wapentake of Walshcroft, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3¼ miles (N. E.) from Market-Rasen; containing, with the hamlets of Otby and Risby, 326 inhabitants. It is situated in a picturesque part of the Wolds, and comprises 2868 acres, of which 342 are common or waste land. The surface is of a bold and varied character; corn is grown to some extent, and the rearing of cattle is a chief occupation of the farmer. Risby, which consists of about 730 acres, is the property of Clare Hall, Cambridge. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23. 18. 1½.; net income, £441; patron, J. J. Angerstein, Esq., to whom the greater portion of the parish belongs: there is a glebe of about 99 acres, with a glebehouse, erected in 1632. The church, which stands on a commanding eminence, was repaired and new-roofed in 1822, at an expense of nearly £1000. Robert Burton, author of the Anatomy of Melancholy, was rector of the parish in the 17th century. Dr. Daniel Waterland, a celebrated controversialist, who vindicated the doctrine of the Trinity against Dr. Clarke, and published a History of the Athanasian Creed and other works, was born here.
Walesby (St. Edmund)
WALESBY (St. Edmund), a parish, in the union of Southwell, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 3 miles (N. E.) from Ollerton; containing 416 inhabitants. It comprises 1429a. 1r. 29p. The soil is partly clay and bog, but chiefly a fertile sand; the surface is generally flat, and watered by a small brook. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 1. 3.; net income, £158; patron, the Earl of Scarborough. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1821; the glebe comprises 152 acres. The church is in the Norman style, with a low tower surmounted by a pyramidical roof.
Walford (St. Leonard)
WALFORD (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Ross, hundred of Greytree, county of Hereford, 2¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Ross; containing 1227 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the left bank of the river Wye, and intersected by the road from Ross to Gloucester: it contains 3024 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 2. 1.; net income, £218; patron, the Precentor in the Cathedral Church of Hereford. At Bishopswood is a church dedicated to All Saints, recently built and endowed by John Partridge, Esq.
WALFORD, with Letton and Newton, a township, in the parish of Leintwardine, union of Knighton, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 13 miles (N. W. by N.) from Leominster; containing 213 inhabitants, and comprising 1345 acres. In the township is a national school.
WALGHERTON, a township, in the parish of Wybunbury, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 3¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Nantwich; containing 229 inhabitants. It comprises 843a. 2r. 7p. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £81, and the vicarial for £20.
Walgrave (St. Peter)
WALGRAVE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Brixworth, hundred of Orlingbury, N. division of the county of Northampton, 9 miles (N. N. E.) from Northampton; containing 593 inhabitants. It comprises 2251a. 36p., of which two-thirds are arable, and the remainder pasture. The village is pleasantly situated about a mile and a half west of the road to Kettering: in the centre of it are the remains of a cross. The population is partly employed in the manufacture of shoes, and in lace-making. The living is a rectory, with that of Hannington annexed, valued in the king's books at £22. 4. 7., and in the gift of the Bishop of Lincoln: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1776; the glebe comprises 436 acres. The church is a handsome structure, chiefly in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a lofty spire. There is a place of worship for Baptists. Montague Lane in 1670 bequeathed £200, of which the interest, £12, is applied to a national school. Of two other charities, one is called Kirkham's or Bottomfield, producing £50 per annum, and one the Town Firs charity, yielding £14 per annum;. both sums are distributed in coal to the poor. The celebrated Archbishop Williams, the contemporary of Laud, held the living of Walgrave.