A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Burghclere (All Saints)
BURGHCLERE (All Saints), a parish, in the union, and partly in the hundred, of Kingsclere, but chiefly in the hundred of Evingar, Kingsclere and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 9 miles (S.) from Newbury; containing with Earlstone tything, 845 inhabitants. This parish abounds with limestone of superior quality, which is wrought to a considerable extent: the surface is diversified with hills, on the highest of which was formerly a beacon, and there are still some traces of a camp. A court of petty-session is held at Whitway, in the parish, on the second Friday in every month. The living is a rectory, with the living of Newtown annexed, valued in the king's books at £30, and in the patronage of the Earl of Carnarvon: the tithes have been commuted for £1073: and the glebe comprises 118½ acres. The old church is disused, and a new one has been erected in the centre of the parish, at an expense of £2700; it is a handsome cruciform structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and was consecrated on the 24th October, 1838.
Burghfield (St. Mary)
BURGHFIELD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bradfield, hundred of Theale, county of Berks, 5 miles (S. W.) from Reading; containing 1115 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by the navigable river Kennet, and comprises 3478a. 1r. 20p.: there are about 300 acres of common or waste land. Coal was supposed to form part of the substratum, and in an unsuccessful attempt some years since to explore it, a bed of cockle-shells, firmly concreted with sand, was discovered about 12 feet beneath the surface. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 19. 2.; net income, £810; patron, the Earl of Shrewsbury. The church, a very ancient structure, was rebuilt in 1843, at a cost of £2500, and is now a handsome edifice of cruciform design, in the Anglo-Norman style; the interior is embellished with a finely-painted window in the chancel representing the Virgin Mary, and contains a pulpit and reading-desk of stone, each of appropriate character. There are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
Burghill (St. Mary)
BURGHILL (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Grimsworth, union and county of Hereford, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Hereford; containing, with the township of Tillington, 863 inhabitants. The parish comprises by admeasurement 3674 acres, of which 1800 are arable and garden-ground, 1400 meadow and pasture, and nearly 400 woodland; the surface is undulated, and the soil consists of clay, loam, and gravel. The road from Hereford to Weobley and Pembridge passes through. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 18. 2.; net income, £94; patron, B. Biddulph, Esq., to whom, with others, the impropriation belongs: the glebe consists of 27 acres, exclusive of augmentation lands. The church, which contains 350 sittings, was thoroughly restored about twenty years ago, at a cost of £2000: among the antiquities in the interior are a curious font of metal, a rood-loft, and the altar-tomb of Sir John Milbourne and his lady. There is a barrow adjoining the churchyard.
Burghsted, county of Essex.—See Burstead.
Burham (St. Mary)
BURHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Malling, hundred of Larkfield, Upper South division of the lathe of Aylesford, and W. division of Kent, 1¾ mile (N. N. W.) from Aylesford; containing 380 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the river Medway, and on the east by a range of chalk hills, near which are the Burham Downs, which intersect the parish. The area is 1718 acres, whereof 179 are common or waste, and 151 woodland; about 20 acres are planted with hops. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £191; patrons and impropriators, Edward Kingsley, Esq., and others. The church is situated near the river. A spring, called Holy Garden, anciently attracted numerous pilgrims by the supposed miraculous efficacy of its waters.
BURIAN, ST., a parish, in the union of Penzance, W. division of the hundred of Penwith and of the county of Cornwall, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Penzance; containing 1911 inhabitants. This place, which is of very great antiquity, derives its name from a collegiate church founded by King Athelstan, in honour of St. Buriena or Bæriena, who had an oratory and was interred here. Athelstan bestowed on the church the privilege of sanctuary, and other immunities. The college was in existence at the Conquest, and the establishment consisted of a dean and three prebendaries till the Reformation, when the lands with which it was endowed were seized to the king, and there was no longer any support for the prebendaries; but the rectories of Burian, St. Levan, and Sennan, remained to the dean, forming his sole estate. In 1663, Seth Ward, Bishop of Exeter, possessed the deanery in commendam, and it was so held by his successors till the year 1709: the dean is independent of all bishops, and has no superior but the king. Of the collegiate buildings the church only remains. The parish comprises 5468 acres, of which 1570 are common or waste: the soil is of light quality, resting on a substratum of granite; the surface is undulated, and the scenery in many parts picturesque. The village is neatly built, containing many good houses, and there are several small hamlets scattered over the parish. The living is a rectory, with the rectories of St. Levan and Sennan united, and a royal peculiar, valued in the king's books at £48. 12. 1., and in the patronage of the Crown: the consolidated tithes have been commuted for £1050. The church, which is situated on an eminence nearly 400 yards above the level of the sea, is a spacious structure, with a lofty tower 88 feet high, forming a conspicuous landmark to mariners; it was repaired in 1812, when a handsome carved screen and other relics of antiquity were removed. Near the south porch is an ancient cross, and there is another close to the churchyard. On the estate of Boslevan are some vestiges of a chapel, called the Sanctuary. At Boscawen, Rosemoddrep, Chyangwanga, and other places in the parish, are Druidical remains.
Buriton (St. Mary)
BURITON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Petersfield, hundred of Finch-Dean, Petersfield and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2¼ miles (S. by W.) from Petersfield; containing, with the tythings of Nursted and Weston, 993 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from London to Portsmouth, and comprises by measurement 6151 acres, of which 2305 are arable, 1594 meadow and pasture, 786 woodland, and 1405 uninclosed common. The manufacture of parchment is carried on to a small extent. The living is a rectory, with the living of Petersfield annexed, valued in the king's books at £32. 16. 10½.; net income, £1194; patron, the Bishop of Winchester. The tithes of Buriton have been commuted for £1084. 7., and there is a glebe of 62 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the Norman style, with a square tower, which was rebuilt, after having been destroyed by fire about the year 1721; the interior is neatly arranged, and contains a monument to the Rev. William Lowth, rector of the parish; and father of Bishop Lowth. Gibbon, the Roman historian, spent his early years on his patrimonial estate in the parish.
BURLAND, a township, in the parish of Acton, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 2½ miles (W.) from Nantwich; containing 639 inhabitants, and comprising 1520 acres, of which 400 are common or waste. The soil is clay and sand. The Whitchurch branch of the Chester canal crosses the township. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £58. 10., and the vicarial for £35. 13.
Burlescombe (St. Mary)
BURLESCOMBE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wellington, partly in the hundred of Bampton, but chiefly in that of Halberton, Cullompton and N. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from Wellington; containing 958 inhabitants. This parish comprises 3768a. 16p. of land, of which about 200 acres are wood, and the rest arable and pasture in nearly equal portions; the soil is various, and in general of inferior quality. The Exeter and Bristol railway, and the small river Lyner, run through. The road from Wellington to Exeter, also, passes for four miles through the parish, which it enters near the Red Ball Inn, on Maiden Down: skirting Uffculm Down, it follows the track of the Roman portway from the city Uxella (Taunton) in its progress to Isca Danmoniorum (Exeter). Maiden Down was inclosed in 1803, and Lyner Moor in 1810. There are considerable mountains of primitive limestone, of which great quantities are burnt, and sent away by the Grand Western canal, whose summit level is in the parish. Small pieces of pure silver have been found; manganese is supposed to abound, and there are indications of the existence of coal. The woollen manufacture was formerly carried on, but the only trade at present is the making of chairs.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 15. 10.; patron and impropriator, E. Ayshford Sandford, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £235, and the small for £330; the vicar's glebe consists of 3¼ acres. The demesnes here of the ancient abbey of Canonsleigh, comprising more than 800 acres, are tithe-free. The church is a venerable structure in the later style of English architecture, with a tower of four stages, embattled, and crowned with a turret; it consists of a nave, chancel, and north and south aisles. The stone steps to the ancient rood-loft, and the screen separating the chancel from the nave, are still remaining; the latter is richly ornamented with crockets, finials, and roses. Within the rails of the communion is an altar-tomb, with monks bearing shields under enriched canopies, erected by Nicholas Ayshford, in 1500; and in the north aisle are four more ancient monuments to the Ayshford family, who had a chantry chapel at the east end of the aisle. Attached to the villa of Ayshford is a chapel, for which an endowment has been charged upon the estate. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
A priory for Augustine canons was founded at Leigh, thence called Canonsleigh, in the parish, in the reign of Henry II., by William de Claville. It was originally dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. John the Evangelist; and there is now at Exeter a deed dated prior to 1247, to which is appended the seal of the convent, representing the Virgin Mary and St. John. In 1284, the establishment was surrendered to Maud, Countess of Gloucester and Hereford, who converted it into a nunnery dedicated to St. Etheldreda; and in 1286 the abbess obtained the grant of a weekly market. It continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenues were estimated at £202. 15. 3.: the remains consist principally of the porter's lodge, which is entire, and the gateway, in which is a fine Norman arch. Attached to the establishment were the chapels of St. Thomas and All Saints. At Westleigh was a chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity, now converted into two cottages; there was also a church in the parish in honour of St. Theobald, long since razed to the ground; and the remains of an ancient chapel are discernible on the farm of Fenacre, near the site of the abbey. The water of a spring at Ayshford possesses properties similar to those of the sulphureous waters of Harrogate, in the county of York.
BURLESTON, a parish, in the union of Dorchester, hundred of Piddletown, Dorchester division of Dorset, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Dorchester; containing 65 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 364 acres, and is situated on the river Piddle, which skirts the southern side of the village. The living is a rectory, united to that of Admiston, and valued in the king's books at £3. 17. 1.: the tithes of Burleston have been commuted for £115.
Burley (Holy Cross)
BURLEY (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Oakham, hundred of Alstoe, county of Rutland, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Oakham; containing 252 inhabitants. The manor came, by purchase, into the possession of Villiers, first duke of Buckingham, who greatly enlarged and embellished the mansion here, in which he successively entertained James I. and Charles I., with their respective courts. This stately edifice, on the breaking out of the civil war, was garrisoned by a small body of parliamentarian troops, who, unable to sustain an attack of the royalists, set fire to the house, which was burnt to the ground; the site is now occupied by an elegant modern mansion. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 1½.; net income, £350; patron and impropriator, G. Finch, Esq.
BURLEY, a tything, in the parish and union of Ringwood, N. division of the hundred of New Forest, Ringwood and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 5 miles (E.) from Ringwood; containing, with the ville of Bistern-Closes, and the extra-parochial place of Burley-Lodge, &c., 571 inhabitants. A species of concrete stone, called Burley rock, is found in great abundance, and is quarried for the foundations of houses. A church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, has been built at an expense of £2400, including £1000 for endowment; patron, the Bishop of Winchester; net income, £100 per annum. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Burley, with Headingley.—See Headingley.
BURLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of Otley, Upper division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 2½ miles (W. by N.) from Otley; containing 1736 inhabitants. This chapelry comprises 3190 acres, of which about one-half is uninclosed and uncultivated; the surface is boldly varied by hill and dale, and the scenery in many parts is highly picturesque, and beautifully diversified with wood and water. The village is situated in the vale of the Wharfe (the river flowing on the east), under the lofty acclivity of Rombald's moor. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the cotton manufacture, for which there are two extensive mills; the worsted manufacture is carried on upon a limited scale, and there are a scribbling-mill and a corn-mill. The chapel, a small structure erected about the year 1630, being inadequate to the wants of the increasing population, was rebuilt in 1842, at a cost of about £1700, raised by subscription, aided by grants from the Incorporated and Diocesan Societies. It is in the early English style, with a handsome spire, and is lighted on the north and south sides by lancet windows of ground glass, and on the east by a beautifully painted window. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £80. The impropriate tithes of the chapelry have been commuted for £126. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
BURLEY-DAM, a chapelry, in the parish of Acton, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Audlem. In the civil war in the reign of Charles I., a skirmish between a party of Lord Capel's forces from Whitchurch, and about 1000 of the parliamentary garrison at Nantwich, took place in this vicinity, on April 11th, 1643. Burley-Dam chapel was built originally by the Cotton family, not long after the dissolution of Combermere Abbey, for the accommodation of their tenants. The present chapel, built not far from the site of the old one, was consecrated in 1769. The living is a perpetual curacy; income, £100; patron, Viscount Combermere.
Burlingham (St. Andrew)
BURLINGHAM (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blofield, E. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (W. by S.) from Acle; containing 214 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Norwich to Yarmouth, and comprises by measurement 743 acres, of which 528 are arable, and 214 pasture and plantation. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Burlingham St. Edmund annexed, valued in the king's books at £12, and in the patronage of Mrs. C. Burroughes: the tithes of the parish have been commuted for £296. 15., and there is a good glebe-house, with about 11 acres of land. The church has an embattled tower, and in it are the remains of a carved screen with representations of the Apostles.
Burlingham (St. Edmund)
BURLINGHAM (St. Edmund), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blofield, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (S. W.) from Acle; containing 98 inhabitants. It comprises about 645 acres, of which 623 are arable, and 22 wood and pasture. The living is a discharged rectory, annexed to that of Burlingham St. Andrew, and valued in the king's books at £12: the tithes have been commuted for £207. 11., and the glebe consists of about 11 acres. The church, which is chiefly in the early English style, has an embattled tower; the nave is separated from the chancel by the remains of a beautiful carved screen; the southern entrance is through a decorated Norman doorway.
Burlingham (St. Peter)
BURLINGHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blofield, E. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (W. by S.) from Acle; containing 91 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Norwich to Yarmouth, and comprises 399 acres, of which 275 are arable, and 124 pasture and plantation. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5, and in the gift of H. N. Burroughes, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £148. 13., with a glebe of 10 acres. The church is chiefly in the decorated style, and has a circular tower the upper part of which is octagonal: there are neat monuments to members of the Burroughes family, who reside at the Hall, a handsome building situated in a tastefully laid out park.
Burlington, York.—See Bridlington.
Burmarsh (All Saints)
BURMARSH (All Saints), a parish, in the union and liberty of Romney-Marsh, though locally in the hundred of Worth, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Hythe; containing 130 inhabitants. It comprises 1760 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 10. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £220. The church is a neat edifice of stone, with a square embattled tower.
Burmington (St. Nicholas)
BURMINGTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Shipston-upon-Stour, Brails division of the hundred of Kington, S. division of the county of Warwick, 1½ mile (S.) from Shipston; containing 188 inhabitants. The parish comprises 801 acres, of which 216 are common or waste. It is situated on the borders of Gloucestershire and a detached portion of the county of Worcester, and is intersected by the road from Birmingham to Oxford; the river Stour flows along its western boundary. The living is a rectory; net income, £197; patrons, the Warden and Fellows of Merton College, Oxford; incumbent, the Rev. E. Griffith. The church, having fallen into ruins, was rebuilt on a smaller scale, in 1693.
BURN, a township, in the parish of Brayton, union of Selby, Lower division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 2¾ miles (S. by W.) from Selby; containing 281 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 2370 acres: the new line of road from Doncaster to Selby passes through the village, near which is the Selby canal.
BURNAGE, a township, in the parish of Manchester, union of Chorlton, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Manchester; containing 489 inhabitants. It lies equidistant between the roads from Manchester to Congleton and to Stockport; and comprises by measurement 610 acres.
BURNASTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Etwall, union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 5½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Derby; containing 143 inhabitants. In 1672 the Bonningtons sold the manor to Sir Samuel Sleigh; it was inherited by his grandson, Samuel Chetham, Esq., and afterwards devolved to the Cottons. The township comprises 888 acres, of a strong soil, and lies a little to the south of the Derby and Uttoxeter road. It pays a tithe-rent of £59. 18. 6. A small chapel or lectureroom was built in 1839. The old hall is an ancient half-timbered house, with pointed gables.
Burnby (St. Giles)
BURNBY (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Pocklington, Wilton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 2¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Pocklington; containing 110 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1700 acres, of which equal portions are arable and meadow, and about 300 acres wold land, with a small quantity of wood: the soil is generally a rich clay, the surface undulated, and the scenery in many situations very picturesque. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 15.; net income, £318; patron, the Duke of Devonshire. The church is a small ancient fabric, with a Norman bell-gable and door at the west end.
BURNESIDE, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Kendal; comprising the townships of Strickland-Ketel and Strickland-Roger, and containing 878 inhabitants. The manor, sometimes written Burnshead, belonged to an ancient family of that name, with whose heiress it passed to the Bellinghams, by whom it was long held; it afterwards came to the Braithwaites, Shepherds, and Lowthers. The chapelry is pleasantly situated on the river Kent, which flows through the village, separating it into two parts connected by a bridge. The area is 5427a. 2r. 19p., whereof 3133 acres are arable, 600 meadow and pasture, 65 woodland and plantations, and the remainder land newly inclosed; the scenery is picturesque, and the soil a light sand. The Kendal and Windermere railway passes through the chapelry, at a distance of 200 yards from Burneside. In the village is a paper manufactory, commenced in 1832, and employing between thirty and forty hands. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £109; patrons, the Landowners; impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge: the college tithes have been commuted for £216. 10., and those of the vicar of Kendal for £36. 1. The chapel was rebuilt between 1823 and 1826, and consecrated in the latter year; of the expense, £1300, about £900 were raised by subscription, and the remainder by a rate. The school here was enlarged pursuant to the will of Mr. Alan Fisher, of Hundhow, dated Oct. 1781, whereby he endowed it with £600; this was augmented by a bequest of Mr. Joseph Harling, in 1802, and the sums having been invested in the funds, produce an income of £27. 12., out of which £8. 3. 6. are reserved for charitable and other purposes. In a field is an obelisk, erected by the late J. Bateman, Esq.
Burneston (St. Lambert)
BURNESTON (St. Lambert), a parish, in the union of Bedale, wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York; containing 1494 inhabitants, of whom 351 are in the township of Burneston, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Bedale. The parish is situated between the river Swale and the Ure, in the rich and fruitful vale of Mowbray, and comprises the five townships of Burneston, Carthorp, Gatenby, Theakstone, and Exelby with Leeming and Newton; the whole forming an area of 7351a. 2r. 37p., of which there are in Burneston township 726 acres of arable, and 400 of meadow and pasture. The soil for the most part is of good quality, and favourable for the growth of wheat, barley, and turnips; the surface is level, having itself no picturesque beauty, but commanding a view of the Wensleydale and Masham hills on the west, and of the Hambleton hills on the east. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £37. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Duke of Cleveland, to whom, and W. R. L. Sergeantson and E. J. Carter, Esqrs., the impropriation belongs: the great tithes have been commuted for £772. 2. 6., and the vicarial for £600; and there are 3½ acres of glebe. A church was built in the time, and partly by the bounty, of Ribald and Hugh Fitzhugh; but the rude structure of the Norman founders gave place, probably about the close of Edward III.'s reign, to the present spacious structure, the choir of which is both tasteful and beautiful. The ancient chapel of ease at Leeming has been rebuilt. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.